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Electrodeposition Of Hydrogen Molybdenum Bronze Films And Electrochemical Reduction Of Carbon Dioxide At Low Over Potentials, Sami Alharbi 2019 East Tennessee State University

Electrodeposition Of Hydrogen Molybdenum Bronze Films And Electrochemical Reduction Of Carbon Dioxide At Low Over Potentials, Sami Alharbi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogen molybdenum oxide, known has molybdenum bronze, is a material of interest due to catalyzing electron transfer reactions. Specifically, molybdenum bronze is an electrocatalyst toward carbon dioxide reduction. Electrochemical deposition from a peroxymolybdic acid solution is a method for preparing molybdenum bronze films. This work demonstrates reproducible electrodeposition on indium tin oxide substrates and conductive carbon paper. Film thickness depends on concentration, time and pH. After characterization by film thickness, resistance, XRD and XPS, the as deposited films served as the working electrode for electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in 0.1 M NaHCO3. Ion chromatography determined formate resulting ...


First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex 2019 Stalende, LLC

First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex

Guiping Hu

Here we report on a static, algebraic, spreadsheet-implemented modeling approach to estimate the costs, energy inputs and outputs, and global warming potential of biomass feedstocks. Inputs to the model included literature sourced data for: environmental factors, crop physiological-parameters such as radiation use efficiency and water use efficiency, and crop cost components. Using an energy-input-output life-cycle-assessment approach, we calculated the energy associated with each cost component, allowing an estimate of the total energy required to produce the crop and fuel alongside the energy return on investment. We did this for crop scenarios in the upper Midwest US and Far West US ...


First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex 2019 Stalende, LLC

First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex

D. Raj Raman

Here we report on a static, algebraic, spreadsheet-implemented modeling approach to estimate the costs, energy inputs and outputs, and global warming potential of biomass feedstocks. Inputs to the model included literature sourced data for: environmental factors, crop physiological-parameters such as radiation use efficiency and water use efficiency, and crop cost components. Using an energy-input-output life-cycle-assessment approach, we calculated the energy associated with each cost component, allowing an estimate of the total energy required to produce the crop and fuel alongside the energy return on investment. We did this for crop scenarios in the upper Midwest US and Far West US ...


Renewable Energy Access And Resilience In Urban Developing Areas: Distributed Solar Networks And Peer-To-Peer Energy Trading In Puerto Rico, Pascale Bronder 2019 Yale University

Renewable Energy Access And Resilience In Urban Developing Areas: Distributed Solar Networks And Peer-To-Peer Energy Trading In Puerto Rico, Pascale Bronder

Harvey M. Applebaum ’59 Award

This senior essay under the Environmental Studies major at Yale University explores the environmental and social benefits of applying innovative technology to the energy sector. Three types of energy networks are analyzed, focusing on the use of distributed energy and peer to peer energy trading on a blockchain platform. The benefits of distributed renewable energy networks can most strongly be applied to locations in need of more reliable, resilient, and cost-effective electricity. Puerto Rico is a case study. Methods include analysis of U.S. Energy Information Administration and Census Bureau data as well as personal interviews with Puerto Rican energy ...


Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Jacek A. Koziel

Mushroom production in Poland is an important and dynamically developing element of diverse agriculture. Mushroom spent compost (MSC) is major waste generated during production, i.e., MSC: mushrooms is ~5:1. To date, the main use of MSC is soil application as organic fertilizer. To date, several methods of MSC treatment have been researched and developed including production of compost, bioethanol, biogas, enzyme lactase, xylo-saccharides, and hydrogen. Torrefaction may be considered a novel approach for biomass valorization. Thus, we are pioneering the potential use of MSC valorization via torrefaction. We explored valorizing the waste biomass of MSC via thermal treatment ...


Wavenumber-Dependent Complex Refractive Indices Of Synthetic Motor Oil By Aerosol Extinction Spectra, Daniel Olesak 2019 DePaul University

Wavenumber-Dependent Complex Refractive Indices Of Synthetic Motor Oil By Aerosol Extinction Spectra, Daniel Olesak

DePaul Discoveries

Wavenumber-dependent, complex refractive indices, or optical constants, in the mid-infrared for unused Pennzoil 0W-20 motor oil have been obtained from aerosol extinction spectroscopy at room temperature. The oil’s spectroscopy is dominated by carbon-hydrogen stretching modes similar to those observed in spectra for pure alkanes. These same characteristic features were observed in a previously reported motor oil study. The optical constants retrieved here are an addition to the small number of data sets in the scientific literature for organic compounds many of which are components of aerosols present in the lower troposphere, particularly in urban areas. Such data offer new ...


Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Mushroom production in Poland is an important and dynamically developing element of diverse agriculture. Mushroom spent compost (MSC) is major waste generated during production, i.e., MSC: mushrooms is ~5:1. To date, the main use of MSC is soil application as organic fertilizer. To date, several methods of MSC treatment have been researched and developed including production of compost, bioethanol, biogas, enzyme lactase, xylo-saccharides, and hydrogen. Torrefaction may be considered a novel approach for biomass valorization. Thus, we are pioneering the potential use of MSC valorization via torrefaction. We explored valorizing the waste biomass of MSC via thermal treatment ...


Shale Play: Poems And Photographs From The Fracking Fields By Julia Spicher Kasdorf And Steven Rubin, Kelly Shepherd 2019 Northern Alberta Institute of Technology

Shale Play: Poems And Photographs From The Fracking Fields By Julia Spicher Kasdorf And Steven Rubin, Kelly Shepherd

The Goose

Review of Julia Spicher Kasdorf and Steven Rubin's Shale Play: Poems and Photographs from the Fracking Fields


Notes On The Gridlab-D Household Equivalent Thermal Parameter Model, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula 2019 Iowa State University

Notes On The Gridlab-D Household Equivalent Thermal Parameter Model, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula

Economics Working Papers

GridLAB-D (GLD) is an agent-based platform, developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, that permits users to accurately simulate the state dynamics of power distribution systems at time scales ranging from sub-seconds to years. The purpose of this study is to present, in careful comprehensive form, a complete analytical state-space control representation for a version of the GLD Household Equivalent Thermal Parameter Model as support documentation for model users. This model is a physically-based implementation of a household with multiple price-responsive and conventional appliances whose thermal dynamics are determined over successive days by resident appliance usage and external weather ...


Enabling Electric Storage Participation In Wholesale Markets: An Analysis Of Ferc Order No. 841, Glenn A. Smith 2019 University of San Francisco

Enabling Electric Storage Participation In Wholesale Markets: An Analysis Of Ferc Order No. 841, Glenn A. Smith

Master of Science in Energy Systems Management

This study has been performed to understand the potential impact that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s (FERC) Order No. 841 will have on the adoption of energy storage resources (ESR). This analysis looked at: (1) the Order’s requirements, (2) FERC’s exercise of its authorized jurisdiction within the Order, and (3) actions taken by the Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO), Independent System Operators (ISO) and FERC to demonstrate compliance with the Order’s requirements:

Order No. 841 utilizes a participation model to ensure ESR’s are able to participate in wholesale electricity markets to an extent that is reflective ...


An Integrated Resource Plan For Public Service Company Of Colorado (Psco), Rawley Loken, Alex Smith 2019 University of San Francisco

An Integrated Resource Plan For Public Service Company Of Colorado (Psco), Rawley Loken, Alex Smith

Master of Science in Energy Systems Management

An Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) is a tool used by load serving entities (LSEs) to plan how they will meet forecasted energy demand and system reliability requirements through a combination of supply-side and demand-side resources. The goal of an IRP is to identify the lowest cost option to meet future load while also adhering to policy requirements. For Public Service Company of Colorado’s (PSCo) IRP process, a suite of generating resources, storage capacity, and demand-side management programs are all considered when developing a plan that meets state and utility regulatory requirements and environmental targets.

In 2016, PSCo’s system ...


Enabling Electric Storage Participation In Wholesale Markets: An Analysis Of Ferc Order No. 841, Glenn A. Smith 2019 University of San Francisco

Enabling Electric Storage Participation In Wholesale Markets: An Analysis Of Ferc Order No. 841, Glenn A. Smith

Master's Projects and Capstones

This study has been performed to understand the potential impact that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s (FERC) Order No. 841 will have on the adoption of energy storage resources (ESR). This analysis looked at: (1) the Order’s requirements, (2) FERC’s exercise of its authorized jurisdiction within the Order, and (3) actions taken by the Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO), Independent System Operators (ISO) and FERC to demonstrate compliance with the Order’s requirements:

Order No. 841 utilizes a participation model to ensure ESR’s are able to participate in wholesale electricity markets to an extent that is reflective ...


An Integrated Resource Plan For Public Service Company Of Colorado (Psco), Rawley Loken, Alex Smith 2019 University of San Francisco

An Integrated Resource Plan For Public Service Company Of Colorado (Psco), Rawley Loken, Alex Smith

Master's Projects and Capstones

An Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) is a tool used by load serving entities (LSEs) to plan how they will meet forecasted energy demand and system reliability requirements through a combination of supply-side and demand-side resources. The goal of an IRP is to identify the lowest cost option to meet future load while also adhering to policy requirements. For Public Service Company of Colorado’s (PSCo) IRP process, a suite of generating resources, storage capacity, and demand-side management programs are all considered when developing a plan that meets state and utility regulatory requirements and environmental targets.

In 2016, PSCo’s system ...


The Environmental Impact And Formation Of Meals From The Pilot Year Of A Las Vegas Convention Food Rescue Program, Samantha To, Courtney Coughenour, Jennifer Pharr 2019 Coconino County Public Health Services District

The Environmental Impact And Formation Of Meals From The Pilot Year Of A Las Vegas Convention Food Rescue Program, Samantha To, Courtney Coughenour, Jennifer Pharr

Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Annually, millions of tonnes of leftover edible foods are sent to landfill. Not only does this harm the environment by increasing the release of greenhouse gases which contribute to climate change, but it poses a question of ethics given that nearly 16 million households are food insecure in the US, and hundreds of millions of people around the globe. The purpose of this study was to document the amount of food diverted from landfill in the pilot year of a convention food rescue program and to determine the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by the diversion of such ...


Water Quality Assessment Of Deer Lakes County Park Before, During And After Unconventional Shale Gas Drilling, Daniel Robinson 2019 Duquesne University

Water Quality Assessment Of Deer Lakes County Park Before, During And After Unconventional Shale Gas Drilling, Daniel Robinson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, signed a lease to allow unconventional natural gas extraction from Marcellus Shale beneath Deer Lakes County Park in 2014. The park has three man-made lakes and four waterways that eventually flow into the Allegheny River. Drilling commenced in early 2016, and there are now five producing wells. The park has an extensive abandoned coal mine network and several abandoned oil and gas wells. Thus, an independent water quality study was undertaken beginning in July 2015. Samples from seven different sites in the park were used to establish a water quality baseline prior to the drilling. Monthly sampling ...


Unconventional Gas Extraction In Southwestern Pennsylvania: Complaints, Production, And Water Quality, Dannielle Pratt 2019 Duquesne University

Unconventional Gas Extraction In Southwestern Pennsylvania: Complaints, Production, And Water Quality, Dannielle Pratt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The dramatic rise in unconventional oil and gas extraction in Pennsylvania has presented a challenge to the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection in managing regulatory required data, and the uniformity of public access via their online databases. This study analyzed over a decade of all the oil and gas complaints and unconventional gas production in Washington County. Of the 1,811 wells drilled between 2004 and 2018, 1,683 are producing, 74 are plugged, 52 regulatory inactive, and 2 abandoned. The PADEP received 10,389 complaints from 2004 to 2018. Only 2,420 of 4,489 water quality complaints were ...


Are Firm Emissions Data Likely To Be Accurate Under Carbon-Dioxide Cap & Trade Programs? An Economic Analysis, Kyle Beck 2019 James Madison University

Are Firm Emissions Data Likely To Be Accurate Under Carbon-Dioxide Cap & Trade Programs? An Economic Analysis, Kyle Beck

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Numerous policy makers around the world have implemented carbon dioxide (CO2) cap and trade programs in an effort to combat global climate change. However, under this policy option emitters face incentives to both overstate prior emission levels and then exaggerate emissions reductions induced by regulation. I first build a simple conceptual model which demonstrates these incentives for fraud, and then outline institutional conditions which could plausibly enhance, or else reduce, firm incentives to disseminate erroneous emissions data under this policy option. Next I analyze real world evidence suggesting that duplicitous emissions data, particularly for the pre-regulatory period, is a serious ...


Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu 2019 Iowa State University

Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of ...


Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang 2019 Auburn University

Preindustrial Nitrous Oxide Emissions From The Land Biosphere Estimated By Using A Global Biogeochemistry Model, Rongting Xu, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shufen Pan, Jian Chen, Jia Yang, Bowen Zhang

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

To accurately assess how increased global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission has affected the climate system requires a robust estimation of the preindustrial N2O emissions since only the difference between current and preindustrial emissions represents net drivers of anthropogenic climate change. However, large uncertainty exists in previous estimates of preindustrial N2O emissions from the land biosphere, while preindustrial N2O emissions on the finer scales, such as regional, biome, or sector scales, have not been well quantified yet. In this study, we applied a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to estimate the magnitude and spatial patterns of preindustrial N2O fluxes at ...


Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan 2019 Auburn University

Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Given the importance of the potential positive feedback between methane (CH4) emissions and climate change, it is critical to accurately estimate the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and better understand the underlying determinants governing the emissions. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model in combination with satellite‐derived contemporary inundation area to quantify the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and attribute the environmental controls of CH4 emissions during 1901–2010. Our study estimated that CH4 emissions from global rice fields varied from 18.3 ± 0.1 Tg CH4 ...


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