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United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabian G. Fernandez, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan 2019 South Dakota State University

United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabian G. Fernandez, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

Jason Clark

Nitrogen provided to crops through mineralization is an important factor in N management guidelines. Understanding of the interactive effects of soil and weather conditions on N mineralization needs to be improved. Relationships between anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) and soil and weather conditions were evaluated under the contrasting climates of eight US Midwestern states. Soil was sampled (0–30 cm) for PMNan analysis before pre-plant N application (PP0N) and at the V5 development stage from the pre-plant 0 (V50N) and 180 kg N ha−1 (V5180N) rates and incubated for 7, 14, and 28 d ...


Capacity And Distribution Of Water Stored In The Vadose Zone Of The Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanjun Zhu, Xiaoxu Jia, Jiangbo Qiao, Andrew Binley, Robert Horton, Wei Hu, Yunqiang Wang, Ming’an Shao 2019 Northwest A&F University

Capacity And Distribution Of Water Stored In The Vadose Zone Of The Chinese Loess Plateau, Yuanjun Zhu, Xiaoxu Jia, Jiangbo Qiao, Andrew Binley, Robert Horton, Wei Hu, Yunqiang Wang, Ming’An Shao

Agronomy Publications

Water stored in the vadose (unsaturated) zone provides the majority of water required by plants and buffers water resources; thus, it is central to understanding ecological and hydrological processes in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) with its thick loess deposits. We used multisource data on soil water content (SWC) and vadose zone thickness, combined with a spatial interpolation method, to quantify the vadose zone water and further deduce the water resource composition in the CLP. Vadose zone water is approximately 3.1 × 1012 m3 (±27.5%) in the CLP, 92.4% of which is stored in the deep ...


Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich 2019 Iowa State University

Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich

James W. Raich

Humid tropical forests are major players in the global carbon cycle, despite evidence that cations (rock‐derived, positively charged ions) can limit or co‐limit net primary productivity (NPP). In mature forests, tight cation cycling, i.e., without leaching losses, could maintain cation stocks on site. That mechanism does not explain how regenerating tropical secondary forest trees start from seeds and accrue large cation stocks in biomass, when growing on soils depleted in available cations. We propose a new mechanism that links tree species’ traits to soil cation availability via impacts on soil pH, a master biogeochemical driver. We tested ...


Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar 2019 Iowa State University

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Ann E. Russell

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich 2019 Iowa State University

Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich

Ann E. Russell

Humid tropical forests are major players in the global carbon cycle, despite evidence that cations (rock‐derived, positively charged ions) can limit or co‐limit net primary productivity (NPP). In mature forests, tight cation cycling, i.e., without leaching losses, could maintain cation stocks on site. That mechanism does not explain how regenerating tropical secondary forest trees start from seeds and accrue large cation stocks in biomass, when growing on soils depleted in available cations. We propose a new mechanism that links tree species’ traits to soil cation availability via impacts on soil pH, a master biogeochemical driver. We tested ...


Application Of A Formulated Humic Product Can Increase Soybean Yield, Andrew W. Lenssen, Daniel C. Olk, Dana L. Dinnes 2019 Iowa State University

Application Of A Formulated Humic Product Can Increase Soybean Yield, Andrew W. Lenssen, Daniel C. Olk, Dana L. Dinnes

Andrew W. Lenssen

Application of humic products to crops remains controversial. We conducted a field study in Iowa over four environments from 2012 to 2014 examining productivity of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] receiving foliar application of a humic product at one of four application times based on plant development. Humic product application never influenced soybean height at harvest. Soybean yield increased following application of the humic product in two of four environments, but application timing was not completely consistent between these two environments. In one 2012 environment, humic product application at V2, V6, and R2 resulted in greater yield than the untreated ...


Predicting Economic Optimal Nitrogen Rate With The Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen Test, Jason D. Clark, Fabián G. Fernández, Kristen S. Veum, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan 2019 South Dakota State University

Predicting Economic Optimal Nitrogen Rate With The Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen Test, Jason D. Clark, Fabián G. Fernández, Kristen S. Veum, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

John E. Sawyer

Estimates of mineralizable N with the anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) test could improve predictions of corn (Zea mays L.) economic optimal N rate (EONR). A study across eight US midwestern states was conducted to quantify the predictability of EONR for single and split N applications by PMNan. Treatment factors included different soil sample timings (pre-plant and V5 development stage), planting N rates (0 and 180 kg N ha−1), and incubation lengths (7, 14, and 28 d) with and without initial soil NH4–N included with PMNan. Soil was sampled (0–30 cm depth) before ...


United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabián G. Fernández, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan 2019 South Dakota State University

United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabián G. Fernández, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, Carl J. Rosen, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

John E. Sawyer

Nitrogen provided to crops through mineralization is an important factor in N management guidelines. Understanding of the interactive effects of soil and weather conditions on N mineralization needs to be improved. Relationships between anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) and soil and weather conditions were evaluated under the contrasting climates of eight US Midwestern states. Soil was sampled (0–30 cm) for PMNan analysis before pre-plant N application (PP0N) and at the V5 development stage from the pre-plant 0 (V50N) and 180 kg N ha−1 (V5180N) rates and incubated for 7, 14, and 28 d ...


Maize Root Distributions Strongly Associated With Water Tables In Iowa, Usa, Virginia A. Nichols, Raziel A. Ordonez, Emily E. Wright, Michael J. Castellano, Matt Liebman, Jerry L. Hatfield, Matt Helmers, Sotirios V. Archontoulis 2019 Iowa State University

Maize Root Distributions Strongly Associated With Water Tables In Iowa, Usa, Virginia A. Nichols, Raziel A. Ordonez, Emily E. Wright, Michael J. Castellano, Matt Liebman, Jerry L. Hatfield, Matt Helmers, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Michael Castellano

No abstract provided.


Novel Use Of Conceptual Change Framework Improves Video On Challenging Science Topic, Matthew J. Helmers, Timothy D. Youngquist, Nancy Grudens-Schuck 2019 Iowa State University

Novel Use Of Conceptual Change Framework Improves Video On Challenging Science Topic, Matthew J. Helmers, Timothy D. Youngquist, Nancy Grudens-Schuck

Matthew J. Helmers

Educational campaigns are more complicated when members of our audiences hold scientific misconceptions related to new technologies. Our prairie strips research and education team produced a brief, focused video aimed to dispel a misconception related to the effect of prairie strip plants' roots on agricultural drain tiles in the Midwest. Our "Field Tile Investigation" video was based on the conceptual change framework from science education and featured a discrepant event. The goal was to move farmers, landowners, and their advisors to an understanding of prairie strips that was more compatible with the scientific standard.


Maize Root Distributions Strongly Associated With Water Tables In Iowa, Usa, Virginia A. Nichols, Raziel A. Ordonez, Emily E. Wright, Michael J. Castellano, Matt Liebman, Jerry L. Hatfield, Matt Helmers, Sotirios V. Archontoulis 2019 Iowa State University

Maize Root Distributions Strongly Associated With Water Tables In Iowa, Usa, Virginia A. Nichols, Raziel A. Ordonez, Emily E. Wright, Michael J. Castellano, Matt Liebman, Jerry L. Hatfield, Matt Helmers, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Matthew J. Helmers

No abstract provided.


Environmental Assessment Of Arsenic And Mercury Levels At The Garfield Mill Site, Calico, California, Steven Gregory Thorp 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

Environmental Assessment Of Arsenic And Mercury Levels At The Garfield Mill Site, Calico, California, Steven Gregory Thorp

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Environmental impacts of mining at Calico, California, are poorly understood in comparison to the details of its history of silver production. Human health risks associated with arsenic from the lode rock, as well as mercury from the silver milling process, include central nervous system damage, organ failure, and death. To quantify the potential human health risk and manage remediation of this site, tailings from the Garfield Mill site were digitally mapped and chemically analyzed by portable x-ray fluorescence, which permitted volumetric estimates of total mill tailings and the arsenic and mercury budget, as well as identification of anomalies in the ...


Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar 2019 Iowa State University

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


Lead And Arsenic Contamination In Urban Soils In New York City, Anna Paltseva 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Lead And Arsenic Contamination In Urban Soils In New York City, Anna Paltseva

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examined total and bioaccessible soil lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) concentrations and their accumulation in commonly grown garden vegetables in New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. Direct oral ingestion of contaminated soil and consumption of plants that have accumulated Pb or As from underlying soil are known human exposure pathways in urban garden soils that often contain elevated levels of contaminants. The research had four components: (1) assessment of the variability of bioaccessible Pb in NYC urban soils; (2) field experiments to evaluate Pb stabilization and As mobilization by phosphate and alternative amendments; (3) development of a new ...


Statistical And Machine Learning Methods Evaluated For Incorporating Soil And Weather Into Corn Nitrogen Recommendations, Curtis J. Ransom, Newell R. Kitchen, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, Fabián G. Fernández, David W. Franzen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, D. Brenton Myers, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan 2019 University of Missouri

Statistical And Machine Learning Methods Evaluated For Incorporating Soil And Weather Into Corn Nitrogen Recommendations, Curtis J. Ransom, Newell R. Kitchen, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, Fabián G. Fernández, David W. Franzen, Carrie A. M. Laboski, D. Brenton Myers, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

Agronomy Publications

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer recommendation tools could be improved for estimating corn (Zea mays L.) N needs by incorporating site-specific soil and weather information. However, an evaluation of analytical methods is needed to determine the success of incorporating this information. The objectives of this research were to evaluate statistical and machine learning (ML) algorithms for utilizing soil and weather information for improving corn N recommendation tools. Eight algorithms [stepwise, ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso), elastic net regression, principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares regression (PLSR), decision tree, and random forest] were evaluated using a dataset containing ...


United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabian G. Fernandez, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan 2019 South Dakota State University

United States Midwest Soil And Weather Conditions Influence Anaerobic Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, Jason D. Clark, Kristen S. Veum, Fabian G. Fernandez, James J. Camberato, Paul R. Carter, Richard B. Ferguson, David W. Franzen, Daniel E. Kaiser, Newell R. Kitchen, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Emerson D. Nafziger, John E. Sawyer, John F. Shanahan

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Nitrogen provided to crops through mineralization is an important factor in N management guidelines. Understanding of the interactive effects of soil and weather conditions on N mineralization needs to be improved. Relationships between anaerobic potentially mineralizable N (PMNan) and soil and weather conditions were evaluated under the contrasting climates of eight US Midwestern states. Soil was sampled (0–30 cm) for PMNan analysis before pre-plant N application (PP0N) and at the V5 development stage from the pre-plant 0 (V50N) and 180 kg N ha−1 (V5180N) rates and incubated for 7, 14, and 28 d ...


An Improved Thermo-Tdr Technique For Monitoring Soil Thermal Properties, Water Content, Bulk Density, And Porosity, Wei Ping, Yili Lu, Xiaoting Xie, Tusheng Ren, Robert Horton 2019 China Agricultural University

An Improved Thermo-Tdr Technique For Monitoring Soil Thermal Properties, Water Content, Bulk Density, And Porosity, Wei Ping, Yili Lu, Xiaoting Xie, Tusheng Ren, Robert Horton

Robert Horton

The thermo-time domain reflectometry (thermo-TDR) technique is valuable for monitoring in situ soil water content (θ), thermal properties, bulk density (ρb), porosity (n), and air-filled porosity (na) in the vadose zone. However, the previous thermo-TDR sensor has several weaknesses, including limited precision of TDR waveforms due to the short probe length, small measurement volume, and thermal property estimation errors resulting from finite probe properties not accounted for by the heat pulse method. We have developed a new thermo-TDR sensor design for monitoring θ, thermal properties, ρb, n, and na. The new sensor has a robust heater ...


Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. McDaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers 2019 Iowa State University

Regenerating Agricultural Landscapes With Perennial Groundcover For Intensive Crop Production, Kenneth J. Moore, Robert P. Anex, Amani E. Elobeid, Shuizhang Fei, Cornelia B. Flora, A. Susana Goggi, Keri L. Jacobs, Prashant Jha, Amy L. Kaleita, Douglas L. Karlen, David A. Laird, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thomas Lubberstedt, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Raj Raman, Sharon L. Weyers

Andrew W. Lenssen

The Midwestern U.S. landscape is one of the most highly altered and intensively managed ecosystems in the country. The predominant crops grown are maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]. They are typically grown as monocrops in a simple yearly rotation or with multiple years of maize (2 to 3) followed by a single year of soybean. This system is highly productive because the crops and management systems have been well adapted to the regional growing conditions through substantial public and private investment. Furthermore, markets and supporting infrastructure are highly developed for both crops. As maize ...


Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette 2019 Iowa State University

Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette

Douglas L Karlen

Harvesting fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop has been suggested as a method to increase producer revenue and biofuel feedstock production, but drainage N loss impacts are currently unknown. Using the tested Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) across several N rates, spring application of 120 kg N ha-1 prior to winter rye harvest reduced drainage N loss by 54% compared with no cover crop and by 18% compared with planted rye that was neither fertilized nor harvested. Estimates of producer revenue and net energy were also positive, with 8.3 Mg ha-1 of harvested rye biomass ...


Impact Of Biochar Amendments On The Quality Of A Typical Midwestern Agricultural Soil, David A. Laird, Pierce Fleming, Dedrick D. Davis, Robert Horton, Baiqun Wang, Douglas L. Karlen 2019 U.S, Department of Agriculture

Impact Of Biochar Amendments On The Quality Of A Typical Midwestern Agricultural Soil, David A. Laird, Pierce Fleming, Dedrick D. Davis, Robert Horton, Baiqun Wang, Douglas L. Karlen

Douglas L Karlen

Biochar, a co-product of thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic materials into advanced biofuels, may be used as a soil amendment to enhance the sustainability of biomass harvesting. We investigated the impact of biochar amendments (0, 5, 10, and 20 g-biochar kg− 1 soil) on the quality of a Clarion soil (Mesic Typic Hapludolls), collected (0–15 cm) in Boone County, Iowa. Repacked soil columns were incubated for 500 days at 25 °C and 80% relative humidity. On week 12, 5 g of dried and ground swine manure was incorporated into the upper 3 cm of soil for half of the columns ...


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