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Speciation Behavior Of Americium Higher Oxidation States For The Separation Of Americium From Curium, Catherine Lynn Riddle 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Speciation Behavior Of Americium Higher Oxidation States For The Separation Of Americium From Curium, Catherine Lynn Riddle

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Several countries are currently expanding the use of nuclear energy as a method for the safe generation of carbon free energy and a number are evaluating starting up a nuclear power program. Closed fuel cycle technologies may be key to waste reduction and a sustainable nuclear energy future and to support the development of more efficient fuel cycles, the investigation of the chemical properties of key actinides is at the forefront of separations research. In this work the characterization of higher oxidation states of americium (Am) has been performed using spectroscopic methods. Americium in the formal oxidation state of Am ...


Radiopharmaceuticals: The Application Of Technetium-99m And Rhenium Complexes, Angela Kristin Binion 2014 Syracuse University

Radiopharmaceuticals: The Application Of Technetium-99m And Rhenium Complexes, Angela Kristin Binion

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Nuclear imaging used in diagnostic medicine requires the use of radiopharmaceuticals to make biological areas visible under a gamma camera. Although much success has been found in the use of technetium based imaging agents, their corresponding rhenium complexes can provide insight into the chemical properties of these radiopharmaceuticals without the potentially damaging effects of radiation. Technetium and rhenium complexes utilize a bifunctional chelator to act as a linker between biological vectors and the metal, improving the coordination between the two. Ligands containing thiazole rings have been successfully coordinated to technetium or rhenium tricarbonyl complexes, although it is uncertain whether coordination ...


Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Binary Technetium Halides, Erik Vaughan Johnstone 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Binary Technetium Halides, Erik Vaughan Johnstone

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In this work, the synthetic and coordination chemistry as well as the physico-chemical properties of binary technetium (Tc) chlorides, bromides, and iodides were investigated. Resulting from these studies was the discovery of five new binary Tc halide phases: α/β-TcCl3, α/β-TcCl2, and TcI3, and the reinvestigation of the chemistries of TcBr3 and TcX4 (X = Cl, Br). Prior to 2009, the chemistry of binary Tc halides was poorly studied and defined by only three compounds, i.e., TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. Today, ten phases are known (i.e., TcF6, TcF5 ...


Characterization And Optimization Of Extraction Chromatography Resins For Rapid Separations For Safeguard And Nuclear Forensics Purposes, Audrey Roman 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Characterization And Optimization Of Extraction Chromatography Resins For Rapid Separations For Safeguard And Nuclear Forensics Purposes, Audrey Roman

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In this work, extraction chromatography resins, DGA and UTEVA, were characterized under various conditions in order to identify novel rapid separations for safeguards and nuclear forensic purposes. For safeguards purposes, mixed matrices containing some of the largest components found in used fuel and either Am, Pu, or U were characterized on DGA and UTEVA resins in order to determine any effects from the addition of these constituents. Results indicated that 5 M HNO3 would be an optimal loading condition due to the consistent actinide adsorption in the presence of the additional used fuel components. Investigations of varying the anion ...


The Electrochemistry Of Hydrogen Peroxide On Uranium Dioxide And The Modelling Of Used Nuclear Fuel Corrosion Under Permanent Disposal Conditions, Linda Wu 2014 The University of Western Ontario

The Electrochemistry Of Hydrogen Peroxide On Uranium Dioxide And The Modelling Of Used Nuclear Fuel Corrosion Under Permanent Disposal Conditions, Linda Wu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis reports a series of investigations examining the corrosion process of used nuclear fuel under permanent disposal conditions. The motivation of the project is that the safety assessment of deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel requires a fundamental understanding of the processes controlling fuel corrosion which could lead to the release of radionuclides to the geosphere from a failed container.

One primary objective of this project was to develop a computational model in order to simulate fuel corrosion under the disposal conditions. A series of simulations based on COMSOL were designed and developed to determine the influence of ...


Peptidomimetic Ghs-R1a Agonists As Pet Imaging Agents For Prostate Cancer, Milan M. Fowkes 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Peptidomimetic Ghs-R1a Agonists As Pet Imaging Agents For Prostate Cancer, Milan M. Fowkes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Contemporary diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer (PCa) have a limited ability to distinguish between benign and malignant disease. The ghrelin receptor has a differential expression in normal, benign and cancerous prostatic tissue. Targeting this receptor with 18F-radiolabelled peptidomimetics would enable differentiation between these disease states via PET imaging. A series of 19F-peptidomimetics were synthesized and characterized by HRMS, HPLC and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy in order to test locations for 18F radioisotope insertion. Competitive receptor binding assays using HEK293/GHS-R1a cells were used to evaluate compound binding affinities. This led to the identification of two lead compounds: [1-Nal4,Lys5(4-FB)]G-7039 ...


Efficient Synthesis Of Fluorescent Rosamines: Multifunctional Platforms For Cellular Imaging, George A. Kraus, Tezcan Guney, Aaron Kempema, Joel M. Hyman, Bahram Parvin 2014 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Efficient Synthesis Of Fluorescent Rosamines: Multifunctional Platforms For Cellular Imaging, George A. Kraus, Tezcan Guney, Aaron Kempema, Joel M. Hyman, Bahram Parvin

Chemistry Publications

Substituted rosamines are efficiently prepared through a new organometallic addition to an imine-substituted xanthone as a novel primary amine equivalent. The synthesis reduces the number of synthetic steps to the targeted rosamines, for convenient and facile access to potential libraries of rosamine dyes. The prepared rosamine derivatives represent unique multifunctional platforms that possess radiolabeling capability and fluorescence. Rosamines have (i) useful non-specific binding properties in mammalian cells and plant root hair, and (ii) positive uptake or binding properties in microbial systems.


Nuclear Structure In Transitional Regions: Studies Of ¹³²,¹³⁴Xe And Lifetimes In The Stable Zr Nuclei With The (N,N′Γ) Reaction, Erin Elizabeth Peters 2014 University of Kentucky

Nuclear Structure In Transitional Regions: Studies Of ¹³²,¹³⁴Xe And Lifetimes In The Stable Zr Nuclei With The (N,N′Γ) Reaction, Erin Elizabeth Peters

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Nuclei at closed shells tend to be spherical and are well-described by the shell model, while those between closed shells are deformed and better described by collective models. The nuclei which are in transitional regions between spherical and deformed may be studied to gain insight into the nature of this transition. The stable isotopes of zirconium and xenon span such transitional regions and are the subject of this dissertation. Gamma-ray spectroscopy following inelastic neutron scattering has been performed on the stable isotopes of Zr as well as 132,134Xe at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory. Level lifetimes have ...


Bubble And Pattern Formation In Liquid Induced By An Electron Beam, Joseph M. Grogan, Nicholas M. Schneider, Frances M. Ross, Haim H. Bau 2013 University of Pennsylvania

Bubble And Pattern Formation In Liquid Induced By An Electron Beam, Joseph M. Grogan, Nicholas M. Schneider, Frances M. Ross, Haim H. Bau

Departmental Papers (MEAM)

Liquid cell electron microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique for in situ studies of nanoscale processes in liquids. An accurate understanding of the interactions between the electron beam and the liquid medium is essential to account for, suppress, and exploit beam effects. We quantify the interactions of high energy electrons with water, finding that radiolysis plays an important role, while heating is typically insignificant. For typical imaging conditions, we find that radiolysis products such as hydrogen and hydrated electrons achieve equilibrium concentrations within seconds. At sufficiently high dose-rate, the gaseous products form bubbles. We image bubble nucleation, growth, and ...


Investigation Of The Structure And Dynamics Of Regioisomeric Eu³⁺ And Gd³⁺ Chelates Of Nb-Dotma: Implications For Mri Contrast Agent Design, Benjamin Charles Webber 2013 Portland State University

Investigation Of The Structure And Dynamics Of Regioisomeric Eu³⁺ And Gd³⁺ Chelates Of Nb-Dotma: Implications For Mri Contrast Agent Design, Benjamin Charles Webber

Dissertations and Theses

The detection of disease and abnormal pathology by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been aided significantly by the use of gadolinium (Gd3+)-based contrast agents (CAs) over the past three decades. MRI and MRI CAs play a critical role in diagnosing tumors and diseases of the central nervous system. The agents used clinically have been shown to safely increase MRI contrast despite the toxicity of Gd3+, owing to the high kinetic and thermodynamic stability of these chelates. However, current CAs enhance contrast at a small fraction of what is theoretically possible. This leads to the necessity of introducing ...


Comparative Metabolism Of Phenanthro[3,4-B]Thiophene And Benzo[C]Phenanthrene, Jaquan M. Williams 2013 Selected Works

Comparative Metabolism Of Phenanthro[3,4-B]Thiophene And Benzo[C]Phenanthrene, Jaquan M. Williams

Jaquan M Williams

ABSTRACT OF THESIS Comparative Metabolism of Phenanthro[3,4-b]Thiophene And Benzo[c]Phenanthrene Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their sulfur-heterocyclic analogs (thia-PAHs) are commonly occurring persistent environmental contaminants formed by incomplete combustion of organic matter. A number of thia-PAHs have shown significant mutagenic and carcinogenic activities. As noted with PAHs, these chemical contaminants also require metabolic activation in order to exhibit their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In the present study, a comparison of the metabolism of highly mutagenic phenanthro[3,4-b]thiophene (P[3,4-b]T) and its weakly mutagenic carbon analogue, benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]P), was ...


Neutron Scintillation Detectors Based On Polymers Containing Lithium-6 For Radiation Portal Monitor Applications, Andrew Neil Mabe 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Neutron Scintillation Detectors Based On Polymers Containing Lithium-6 For Radiation Portal Monitor Applications, Andrew Neil Mabe

Doctoral Dissertations

The work presented herein describes an investigation of four main types of thin film polymer scintillators containing 6Li [lithium-6] for neutron detection: polystyrene containing 6LiF [lithium-6 fluoride] and a preblended fluor mixture comprising 2,5-diphenyloxazole and 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl)benzene; poly(styrene-co-lithium maleate) containing salicylic acid; poly[styrene-co-lithium maleate-co-2-phenyl-5-(4-vinylphenyl)oxazole]; and poly(styrene-co-lithium 4-vinylbenzoate). A variety of chemical and physical characterizations as well as optical and scintillation characterizations were performed to guide the development of optimized compositions of each type of polymer film. The scintillation performances of optimized compositions ...


Investigation Of Storage-Phosphor Autoradiography For The Rapid Quantitative Screening Of Air Filters For Emergency Response Purposes, Athena Marie Gallardo 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Investigation Of Storage-Phosphor Autoradiography For The Rapid Quantitative Screening Of Air Filters For Emergency Response Purposes, Athena Marie Gallardo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Past nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl, resulted in a large release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Radiological assessment of the vicinity of the site of the incident is vital to assess the exposure levels and dose received by the population and workers. Therefore, it is critical to thoroughly understand the situation and risks associated with a particular event in a timely manner in order to properly manage the event. Current atmospheric radiological assessments of alpha emitting radioisotopes include acquiring large quantities of air samples, chemical separation of radionuclides, sample mounting, counting through alpha spectrometry, and analysis of the data. The ...


A. Catalysis Of Co-Prox By Water-Soluble Rhodium Fluorinated Porphyrins B. Studies Toward Fluorination Of Electron Rich Aromatics By Nucleophilic Fluoride, Shri Harsha Uppaluri 2013 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A. Catalysis Of Co-Prox By Water-Soluble Rhodium Fluorinated Porphyrins B. Studies Toward Fluorination Of Electron Rich Aromatics By Nucleophilic Fluoride, Shri Harsha Uppaluri

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

The rhodium(III) derivative of a water soluble, heavily fluorinated porphyrin is shown to catalyze the low temperature, low pressure selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen gas streams for use in fuel cell applications. The catalytic activity is a direct result of the removal of electron density from the metal center. Selectivity for CO oxidation is a direct consequence of fluorination of the porphyrin periphery, since these substituents enhance the rate of the reaction and prevent the formation of Rh(II)-Rh(II) dimmers. Significantly, the dramatic increase in rhodium hydride acidity caused by fluorination precludes hydrogen activation and ...


Microspheres For Liver Radiomicrospheres Therapy And Planning, Alejandro Amor-Coarasa 2013 Florida International University

Microspheres For Liver Radiomicrospheres Therapy And Planning, Alejandro Amor-Coarasa

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Liver cancer accounts for nearly 10% of all cancers in the US. Intrahepatic Arterial Radiomicrosphere Therapy (RMT), also known as Selective Internal Radiation Treatment (SIRT), is one of the evolving treatment modalities. Successful patient clinical outcomes require suitable treatment planning followed by delivery of the microspheres for therapy. The production and in vitro evaluation of various polymers (PGCD, CHS and CHSg) microspheres for a RMT and RMT planning are described. Microparticles with a 30±10 µm size distribution were prepared by emulsion method. The in vitro half-life of the particles was determined in PBS buffer and porcine plasma and their ...


Separation Of Tc From U And Development Of Metallic Tc Waste Forms, Edward Mausolf 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Separation Of Tc From U And Development Of Metallic Tc Waste Forms, Edward Mausolf

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The isotope Technetium-99 (99Tc) is a major fission product of the nuclear industry. In the last decade, approximately 20 tons of 99Tc have been produced by the US nuclear industry. Due to its long half-life (t1/2 = 214,000 yr), beta radiotoxicity, and high mobility as pertechnetate [TcO4]-, Tc represents long-term concern to the biosphere. Various options have been considered to manage 99Tc. One of them is its separation from spent fuel, conversion to the metal and incorporation into a metallic waste form for long-term disposal. After dissolution of spent fuel in nitric acid and extraction ...


Forensic Signatures Of Chemical Process History In Uranium Oxides, Jonathan Plaue 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Forensic Signatures Of Chemical Process History In Uranium Oxides, Jonathan Plaue

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This dissertation comprehensively explores and develops new tools for nuclear forensic science to facilitate the identification of chemical process history in uranium oxides. Nuclear forensics is an emerging discipline motivated by the need to prevent and combat malevolent acts involving nuclear and radiological materials. This dissertation examined process signatures in uranium oxide powders, precursors, and sintered fuel pellets.

Signatures were investigated on set of powder and pellet exemplars synthesized in the laboratory and a set of real‐world samples with process information obtained from the literature or manufacturer. The examined techniques included morphology as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, near ...


Density Functional Theory And The Calculation Of Tcmg2O4 Spinel Lattice Parameters, Jon Karlo Macias 2013 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Density Functional Theory And The Calculation Of Tcmg2O4 Spinel Lattice Parameters, Jon Karlo Macias

Physics

The cohesive energy, lattice constant and bulk modulus of two simple HCP crystal structures of magnesium and technetium were calculated using the vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) which is based on density functional theory (DFT). The same properties were determined for TcMg2O4 spinel. The theoretical results of the lattice constant of the pure crystals were compared to experimental results and found to be in excellent agreement with a difference of less than 2%. The results for the lattice constant of the TcMg2O4 spinel were found to be in excellent agreement as well with ...


Computer Code Verification And Cross Section Calculation For Promethium-147, Rita Inez Zell-Lusk 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Computer Code Verification And Cross Section Calculation For Promethium-147, Rita Inez Zell-Lusk

Nuclear Engineering Reports

The goals of this research are to (1) verify the predictions and accuracy of two computer codes which will be utilized in future research on Pm-147 production with data from a previous experiment and to (2) measure the cross section of Pm-147 for single neutron capture producing Pm-148 ground state and Pm-148 metastable state. The research in goal (1) used previous data obtained by James H. Hinderer in 2010 and a sample of Promethium-147 prepared by Rose Boll in 2006. The main elements of the new research done here included a correction of Mr. Hinderer’s data and the subsequent ...


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