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Polymeric Loop Formation At Hard And Soft Interfaces, Earl Ashcraft 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Polymeric Loop Formation At Hard And Soft Interfaces, Earl Ashcraft

Doctoral Dissertations

Copolymers are used to increase the interfacial strength of immiscible components and suppress recombination of the minor phase by steric hindrance. The experiments conducted in these studies are designed to investigate in situ polymer loop formation at soft interfaces and functionalized nanotube surfaces. Block copolymers are the most effective type of copolymer for compatibilization because they extend perpendicular to the interface, allowing good entanglement with the homopolymer chains. Multiblock copolymers are more effective than diblock copolymers for strengthening the interface because they can cross the interface multiple times, forming “loops” in each phase that provide entanglement points for the homopolymer ...


Hairy Particles: Polymer Brush-Supported Organocatalysts And Asymmetric Mixed Homopolymer Brushes, Xiaoming Jiang 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Hairy Particles: Polymer Brush-Supported Organocatalysts And Asymmetric Mixed Homopolymer Brushes, Xiaoming Jiang

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation presents the synthesis and studies of polymer brush-supported organocatalysts and asymmetric mixed homopolymer brushes grafted on particles. The brushes were synthesized from initiator-functionalized particles by surface-initiated “living” radical polymerizations.

Polymer brush-supported organocatalysts were designed to combine the advantages of both soluble polymer- (high activity) and crosslinked insoluble polymer-supported catalysts (recyclability). Chapter 1 describes the synthesis of a polymer brush-supported 4-N,N-dialkylaminopyridine (DAAP) catalyst from initiator-functionalized latex particles by surface-initiated nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMRP). The hairy particles efficiently catalyzed the acylation of secondary alcohols and Baylis-Hillman reaction and were recycled  six times with no or negligible decrease in the ...


On-Metal Synthesis Of Some Aryl Substituted Rhenium Η5 Cyclopenta[C] Pyridazyl Complexes, Phenahas Gandu Sriramulu 2010 Western Kentucky University

On-Metal Synthesis Of Some Aryl Substituted Rhenium Η5 Cyclopenta[C] Pyridazyl Complexes, Phenahas Gandu Sriramulu

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Heterocyclic organic and organometallic compounds (e.g. polypyrrole) and their derivatives have been of great interest for conductive polymers due to their novel properties and environmental stability as compared to non-aromatic analogs (e.g. polyacetylene). We are interested in synthesizing organometallic pyridazines and rhenium pyridazyl complexes for polymer research. SeveraI5,6-fused ring pyridazines (1,2-CsH3(CRNH)(CRN) have been synthesized and characterized. Additionally, pyridazyl complexes of rhenium were synthesized in three steps beginning from fulvenes 1,2-CsH3(COHR)(COR). On-Metal synthesis and characterization of (Re(CO)3 {1,2- CSH3(CRN)(CRN)}] (R=C6RtOMe, C6RtCI, C4H30) and some off-metal pyridazines ...


Structure-Property Correlation In Cyclopolymerization Of New Acrylate-Based Functional Monomers, Huseyin Tas 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Structure-Property Correlation In Cyclopolymerization Of New Acrylate-Based Functional Monomers, Huseyin Tas

Dissertations

New ether dimer; (ED-Od) and (ED-Eh) and diester; (ODE) and (EHDE) derivatives of α-(hydroxymethyl)acrylate, each having two octadecyl and 2-ethylhexyl side chains respectively, and an amine-linked di(2-ethylhexyl)acrylate (AL-Eh), having three 2-ethylhexyl side chains, were synthesized and (co)polymerized to evaluate the effects of differences in the structures of the monomers on final (co)polymer properties, particularly glass transition temperature, Tg. The free radical polymerizations of these monomers yielded high molecular weight polymers. Cyclopolymer formation of ED-Od, ED-Eh and AL-Eh was confirmed by 13C NMR analysis and the cyclization efficiencies were found to be very high (~100 ...


Design, Synthesis, And Polymerization Of Novel Heterocyclic Monomers As Precursors For Functional Polyester, Poly(Ester Amide)S And Polyamides, Eylem Tarkin-Tas 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Design, Synthesis, And Polymerization Of Novel Heterocyclic Monomers As Precursors For Functional Polyester, Poly(Ester Amide)S And Polyamides, Eylem Tarkin-Tas

Dissertations

The research presented in this dissertation involves the synthesis and polymerization of heterocyclic monomers which pave the way to biodegradable polyester nanocomposites, functional polyesters or poly(ester amide)s, functional polyamides and supramolecular polymers. The key monomers are ε-caprolactone, γ-acetamido-ε- caprolactone, γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactam and α-amino-ε-caprolactam.

Poly(ε-caprolactone) organo-modified montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ polymerization using dibutyltin dimethoxide as initiator/catalyst. The montmorillonite was first modified with 1-decyl-2-methyl-3-(11-hydroxyundecyl)- imidazolium cation. The hydroxyl functionality was used for not only initiating polymer chains from the surface of the clay platelets but also for grafting polymer chains to the surface by acting ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Photoactive Amorphous Molecular And Polymeric Pyridinium Materials, Alexi Kamenov Nedeltchev 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Synthesis And Characterization Of Photoactive Amorphous Molecular And Polymeric Pyridinium Materials, Alexi Kamenov Nedeltchev

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Pyridinium materials both molecular and polymeric are interesting class of multifunctional electrolytes and polyelectrolytes, which exhibit liquid-crystalline and light-emitting properties. Moreover, their properties could be easily tuned simply by modifying the chemical structures of counterions.

In this dissertation, we described the preparation and analysis of new ionic molecular materials based on bis(pyridinium salt)s and a new class of poly(pyridinium salt)s with various heterocyclic moieties in their backbones with various organic counterions. They were prepared by either ring-transmutation reaction or by metathesis reaction. Their chemical structures were confirmed by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemental ...


Novel Π-Conjugated Materials Plus Their Characterizations And Applications, Xiuxian He 2010 Clemson University

Novel Π-Conjugated Materials Plus Their Characterizations And Applications, Xiuxian He

All Dissertations

The theme of this dissertation will focus on the syntheses and characterization of bipyridine (bipy) containing π-conjugated polymers (CPs). Specifically, poly(p-phenylene ethynylene), polyfluorene and poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivatives have been prepared via Sonogashira coupling, Suzuki coupling and Heck coupling, respectively. Derivatives of poly(p-phenylene ethynylene), polyfluorene and poly(p-phenylene vinylene) are known to have applications in optical and electronic devices. Through this study, polymers condensed with bulky bipy-containing TAB as one of the copolymer units have shown increased solubility and diminished intrachain/interchain aggregation in solution and in film due to the effectiveness of TAB in controlling the relative ...


Self-Assembly And Gold Nanoparticle Cross-Linking Of Stimuliresponsive Block Copolymers Synthesized Bt Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization, Adam Eugene Smith 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Self-Assembly And Gold Nanoparticle Cross-Linking Of Stimuliresponsive Block Copolymers Synthesized Bt Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization, Adam Eugene Smith

Dissertations

The ability of amphiphilic block copolymers to self-assemble into various morphologies in aqueous solution in response to specific stimuli has attracted widespread interest for potential applications as targeted drug delivery and diagnostic vehicles. Stimuli-responsive block copolymers afford a facile method for tuning the hydrophilic mass fraction to provide access to various solution morphologies. Reversible additionfragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization provides the ability to prepare stimuli-responsive block copolymers while maintaining precise control over the macromolecular characteristics (molecular weight, copolymer composition, functionality, etc.) that dictate nanostructure morphology.

This work may be divided into four sections. In the first section the synthesis and ...


Aqueous Raft Synthesis Of Stimuli-Responsive, Amphiphilic Block Copolymers And Self-Assembly Behavior In Solution And Incorporation Into Lbl Films, Matthew Grady Kellum 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Aqueous Raft Synthesis Of Stimuli-Responsive, Amphiphilic Block Copolymers And Self-Assembly Behavior In Solution And Incorporation Into Lbl Films, Matthew Grady Kellum

Dissertations

Of all the living radical polymerization techniques, reversible addition– fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization is arguably the most versatile in terms of the reaction conditions (e.g. temperature and solvent selection), monomer selection (e.g. neutral, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic), and purification. Since the introduction of RAFT in 1998, the McCormick research group and others including the Lowe, Sumerlin, and Davis research groups have synthesized a wide range of (co)polymers with predetermined molecular weights, low polydispersities, and advanced architectures utilizing aqueous RAFT (ARAFT) polymerization. These research groups have also studied how various block copolymers exhibit stimuli-responsive behavior due to ...


Rational Design Of Self-Assembled Nanostructures Based On Polymers Synthesized Via Aqueous Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization, Stacey Kirkland York 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Rational Design Of Self-Assembled Nanostructures Based On Polymers Synthesized Via Aqueous Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization, Stacey Kirkland York

Dissertations

Recent advances in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization have allowed the rational, bottom-up design of biorelevant assemblies. Utilizing foresight, polymers can be tailored to self-assemble into nano-, micro-, and macroscopic structures. Given the size scale on which rationally-designed polymers can be tailored, they hold significant promise in the biomedical field. For example, nanoscale materials can be designed to carry small-molecule and gene therapeutics while macroscopic structures can be tailored for cell growth scaffolds. The design process begins by selecting monomers, chain transfer agents, and reaction conditions which will yield the desired polymer architecture and composition.

The work herein builds ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Deuterium Labeling Of Polyamides Studied By Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Christopher Allen Lange 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Synthesis, Characterization, And Deuterium Labeling Of Polyamides Studied By Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Christopher Allen Lange

Dissertations

The synthesis, characterization, and deuterium labeling of polyamides have been investigated. In Chapter II, selective deuterium labeling of various polyamides was demonstrated via a facile method which does not require organic solvent or catalyst. Quantitative solution-state NMR analysis showed deuterium incorporation at the carbon alpha to the carbonyl ranged from 20-75%. Incorporation in ε-caprolactam increased with repeated treatments. Isotopic shift effects for the deuterated materials were additive for all sites within experimental error.

In Chapter III, the effect of stoichiometric imbalances on the polymerization of poly(dodecamethylene terephthalamide)was investigated. Molecular weight was varied by polymerizing the monomer salt with ...


Structure-Property Relationships In The Formation Of Polyphenylsulfone Molecular Composites And Nanocomposites, Paul Joseph Jones 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Structure-Property Relationships In The Formation Of Polyphenylsulfone Molecular Composites And Nanocomposites, Paul Joseph Jones

Dissertations

As the constituent phases in a polymer composite approach the molecular level, specific phenomena occur that can lead to significant changes in material properties when only minimal quantities of the additive are incorporated into the polymer matrix. Molecular composite and nanocomposites are state-of-the-art polymeric materials that contain nanostructured additives effectively dispersed within polymer matrices. The properties of molecular composites and nanocomposites are directly related to the interactions of the nanostructured additive and the polymer matrix. Subtle changes to the nanostructured additive can have profound effects on the ultimate properties of the composite material. Therefore, understanding the structure-property relationships in these ...


Polyisobutylene Chain End Transformations: Block Copolymer Synthesis And Click Chemistry Functionalizations, Andrew Jackson David Magenau 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Polyisobutylene Chain End Transformations: Block Copolymer Synthesis And Click Chemistry Functionalizations, Andrew Jackson David Magenau

Dissertations

The primary objectives of this research were twofold: (1) development of synthetic procedures for combining quasiliving carbocationic polymerization (QLCCP) of isobutylene (IB) and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization for block copolymer synthesis; (2) utilization of efficient, robust, and modular chemistries for facile functionalization of polyisobutylene (PIB). Two site transformation strategies were employed to create block copolymers effectively linking PIB with either poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS), and poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) block segments. Functionalization of PIB was accomplished by utilizing two click chemistries, the azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cyclo addition and the thiol-ene hydrothiolation reaction, and by efficient transformation of ...


Synthesis Of Functional Copolymers Via Aqueous Raft Polymerization For Bioconjugation And Targeted Delivery Of Small Interfering Rna, Adam Wesley York 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Synthesis Of Functional Copolymers Via Aqueous Raft Polymerization For Bioconjugation And Targeted Delivery Of Small Interfering Rna, Adam Wesley York

Dissertations

The versatility of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization has moved this controlled radical technique to the forefront of copolymer construction for bioapplications including polymeric drug/gene delivery vehicles. Strengths of the RAFT process include the capacity to control the polymerization of a wide variety of vinyl monomers under mild conditions, its tolerance to numerous chemical groups that allow the preparation of functional copolymers for facile modification, and the range of copolymer architectures with predetermined end group functionalities which may be synthesized. Given these strengths, RAFT polymerization was utilized in this research to synthesize functional/reactive copolymers for bioconjugation and ...


Molecular Design And Patterning Of Biosurfaces On Poly(Tetrafluoroethylene) (Ptfe), Nattharika Aumsuwan 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Molecular Design And Patterning Of Biosurfaces On Poly(Tetrafluoroethylene) (Ptfe), Nattharika Aumsuwan

Dissertations

This dissertation describes the design, synthesis, and development of biocompatible poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces that exhibit anti-microbial, anticoagulant, and dual functional surface properties. It consists of two parts: (1) design, synthesis, and analysis of antimicrobial and anti-coagulant PTFE surfaces, and (2) controllable micropatterning of anti-microbial and anti-coagulant species on the surface. PTFE was modified by Ar microwave plasma reactions in the presence of maleic anhydride, which upon hydrolysis creating COOH groups. These COOH primers were utilized as a platform for further surface reactions to attach polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacers, and penicillin (PEN) or ampicillin (AM) onto the PTFE surfaces. The ...


Investigation Of Novel Quasiliving Polyisobutylene Chain-End Functionalization (Quenching) Methods, David Lee Morgan 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigation Of Novel Quasiliving Polyisobutylene Chain-End Functionalization (Quenching) Methods, David Lee Morgan

Dissertations

This volume recounts efforts toward the development and understanding of chain functionalization techniques involving the direct addition of nucleophiles to quasiliving polyisobutylene (PIB). Nucleophiles included in the study were sterically hindered organic bases, (di)sulfides, N-substituted pyrroles, and alkoxybenzenes. A kinetic investigation of the end-quenching of TiCl4-catalyzed quasiliving PIB with sterically hindered amines was used to determine the mode of interaction with TiCl4 and the active species responsible for -proton abstraction. 2,5-disubstituted-N-hydropyrroles formed pyrrole-TiCl3 adducts that were active in formation of exo-olefin chain ends; whereas, with other sterically hindered amines, only an equilibrium fraction of the amine that did ...


Nanomaterials From Biologically Active Molecules: Self-Assembly And Molecular Recognition, Min Yu 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Nanomaterials From Biologically Active Molecules: Self-Assembly And Molecular Recognition, Min Yu

Dissertations

This dissertation describes the development of molecular assemblies and molecular recognition of phospholipids (PLs) that exhibit potential applications in emerging nanotechnologies. It consists of two parts: (1) structural features of PLs responsible for recognition of synthetic copolymers, and (2) design, synthesis and analysis of magnetic nanotubes obtained from PLs with a common theme of colloidal synthesis served as a platform for film formation and nano-assemblies of nanotubes. Poly(methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) (p-MMA/nBA) colloidal particles that were stabilized by 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) PLs were synthesized, and upon the particle coalescence, PL stratification resulted in the formation of surface localized ...


Multi Stimuli-Responsive Copolymers Obtained From Colloidal Dispersions, Fang Liu 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Multi Stimuli-Responsive Copolymers Obtained From Colloidal Dispersions, Fang Liu

Dissertations

This dissertation describes the design, synthesis, and development of multi stimuli-responsive random copolymers that exhibit collective responsiveness to temperature, pH or electromagnetic radiation. New colloidal particles of poly(N-(DL)-(1- Hydroxyymethyl) propylmethacrylamide/n-butyl acrylate) (p(DL-HMPMA/nBA) and poly(2-(N,N′-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate) (p(DMAEMA/nBA)) were synthesized, which upon coalesce to form solid continuous films. The presence of lower glass transition (Tg) nBA components not only facilitate film formation, but also provide sufficient free volume for polymer chain rearrangements. These studies showed that coalesced films exhibit 3D dimensional changes upon external stimuli, which are ...


Self-Assembly Of Architecturally Complex Block Copolymers, Juan Hinestrosa 2010 Clemson University

Self-Assembly Of Architecturally Complex Block Copolymers, Juan Hinestrosa

All Dissertations

The term self-assembly denotes the formation of complex structures from simpler building blocks, resembling the manner in which Nature generates functional systems. In this pursuit, block copolymers present a great opportunity to study the interactions, dynamics and self-assembly of soft matter. Block copolymers have the ability to self-assemble into thermodynamically stable microphase segregated domains of precise shape and size, which are controlled by the chemistry of the constituent blocks, their size and connectivity, temperature and solvent conditions. Specifically, in this body of work two different types of branched copolymers with polystyrene (PS) and polyisoprene (PI) constituents are studied. The complex ...


Changes To Electrical Conductivity In Irradiated Carbon-Nickel Nanocomposites, David F. Coy 2010 Air Force Institute of Technology

Changes To Electrical Conductivity In Irradiated Carbon-Nickel Nanocomposites, David F. Coy

Theses and Dissertations

Pre and post irradiation resistivity and XAFS measurements have been conducted to examine the effects of 0.5 MeV electron irradiations on nickel-carbon composites. Results showed a decrease in surface resistivity in all sample types of 14-30% following irradiation with a total electron exposure of 4 x 10-16 cm-2. Results also showed a corresponding decrease in NiO content for the irradiated samples as compared to measurements of non-irradiated samples. Surface resistivity measurement capabilities were established and measurement techniques refined to produce repeatable results of sufficient precision to discern changes in resistivity for an exposure of 2 x 10 ...


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