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Neutron Scintillation Detectors Based On Polymers Containing Lithium-6 For Radiation Portal Monitor Applications, Andrew Neil Mabe 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Neutron Scintillation Detectors Based On Polymers Containing Lithium-6 For Radiation Portal Monitor Applications, Andrew Neil Mabe

Doctoral Dissertations

The work presented herein describes an investigation of four main types of thin film polymer scintillators containing 6Li [lithium-6] for neutron detection: polystyrene containing 6LiF [lithium-6 fluoride] and a preblended fluor mixture comprising 2,5-diphenyloxazole and 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl)benzene; poly(styrene-co-lithium maleate) containing salicylic acid; poly[styrene-co-lithium maleate-co-2-phenyl-5-(4-vinylphenyl)oxazole]; and poly(styrene-co-lithium 4-vinylbenzoate). A variety of chemical and physical characterizations as well as optical and scintillation characterizations were performed to guide the development of optimized compositions of each type of polymer film. The scintillation performances of optimized compositions ...


Relation Between The Adsorption Behavior And Bulk Complexation In Oppositely Charged Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Systems: Effect Of Polyelectrolyte Concentration, Molecular Weight, Charge Localization And Backbone Rigidity/Hydrophobicity, Vipul Suhas Padman 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

Relation Between The Adsorption Behavior And Bulk Complexation In Oppositely Charged Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Systems: Effect Of Polyelectrolyte Concentration, Molecular Weight, Charge Localization And Backbone Rigidity/Hydrophobicity, Vipul Suhas Padman

Dissertations

Due to a wide range of applications, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the physicochemical behavior of polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes, both at air-water interface and in the bulk. However, the correlation between the adsorption behavior and complexation in the bulk is less explored. In this research, this correlation is investigated and its dependence on polyelectrolyte concentration, molecular weight, charge localization and backbone rigidity and hydrophobicity is studied. The polyelectrolyte concentration is normalized with respect to it critical overlap concentration in order to compare the polymer in same concentration regime. Different polyelectrolyte systems were used to analyze the polyelectrolyte structural ...


In Situ Quenching And Post-Polymerization Modification Of Telechelic Polyisobutylene, Todd Raymond Hartlage 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

In Situ Quenching And Post-Polymerization Modification Of Telechelic Polyisobutylene, Todd Raymond Hartlage

Dissertations

Polyisobutylene (PIB) is a saturated hydrocarbon elastomer that can only be produced by cationic polymerization. The water-initiated, chain transfer controlled synthesis conducted on an industrial scale produces monofunctional PIB with mixed olefin end groups. Living cationic techniques produce mono- and di-functional telechelic PIB. In situ quenching is the process of adding functional molecules to the polymerization reactor after all monomer is consumed. These quencher species bond to the chain ends, installing their latent functionality onto the polymer chain. To date, all quenchers utilized have been soft π-nucleophiles.

In the first project, free thiols, both aromatic and aliphatic, are shown to ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Polyisobutylene-Block-Polyamides As Novel Thermoplastic Elastomers, Lauren Renee Kucera 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

Synthesis And Characterization Of Polyisobutylene-Block-Polyamides As Novel Thermoplastic Elastomers, Lauren Renee Kucera

Dissertations

Academic research has focused on two main areas of the living carbocationic polymerization (LCP) of isobutylene (IB): (1) the in-depth study and understanding of mechanistic features of the polymerization, and (2) the utilization and manipulation of the unique aspects of PIB in order to produce practically useful polymeric materials. The research included in this dissertation focuses mainly on the latter objective. This work details three main areas of research: (1) the copolymerization of PIB and polyamides (PA) to form novel thermoplastic elastsomers (TPEs), (2) the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of the novel PIB-PA materials, and (3) the use of ...


Development Of Colloid Displacement Lithography Platforms For Sensor Applications, Mahesh Thugu 2013 Western Kentucky University

Development Of Colloid Displacement Lithography Platforms For Sensor Applications, Mahesh Thugu

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In this work, Poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride - (PDDA) was used as a base layer for developing colloid displacement lithography platforms for sensor applications. Previous work shows that glass coated with PDDA and exposed to gold acts as a good platform for colloid displacement lithography. However, for actual sensor applications, electrical isolation of individual sensor sections must be achieved. This is attempted by laying down a 40 μm stripe of PDDA on a cleaned substrate and coating that stripe with gold colloid. The size of 40 μm or less in width is set as the target to fit within the scan window ...


Tethered Antioxidants For Animal Health, George A. Kraus 2013 Iowa State University

Tethered Antioxidants For Animal Health, George A. Kraus

Chemistry Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

The targeting of drugs to specific cellular compartments is an emerging objective in animal health. Recently, there has been success in targeting drugs to the mitochondrial membrane.


Improving The Stability Of High And Low Bandgap Polymers Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using A Solution Based Titanium Sub-Oxide Interfacial Layer, Kurniawan Foe 2013 Old Dominion University

Improving The Stability Of High And Low Bandgap Polymers Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using A Solution Based Titanium Sub-Oxide Interfacial Layer, Kurniawan Foe

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

The improvement in device efficiency has brought organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices closer to commercial viability, highlighting the importance of studying the lifetime and stability of OPV devices. At present, the lifetime and stability of OPV devices is much shorter and poor mainly caused by oxygen, moisture, and light resulting in the oxidation on low work function electrodes and the degradation of the morphology of the photoactive layer. To improve the lifetime and stability of the OPV devices, we used newly developed low bandgap polymer, PCDTBT, as the electron acceptor material and a solution based titanium sub-oxide (TiOx) interfacial layer inserted ...


Degradation Kinetics And Functional Design Of Linear Self-Immolative Polymers, Ryan A. McBride 2013 The University of Western Ontario

Degradation Kinetics And Functional Design Of Linear Self-Immolative Polymers, Ryan A. Mcbride

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Linear self-immolative polymers display a potential to address many of the limitations in the control over the degradation process in traditional biodegradable polymers. These materials are unique relative to most degradable 
polymers, in that they undergo end-to-end depolymerization in
 response to the cleavage of a stabilizing end-capping agent. Although one of their cited 
attributes is a dependence of their degradation time on chain length, no conclusive study has been conducted to demonstrate and study this 
effect. Using a previously reported linear self-immolative backbone derived from alternating 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and N,N’-dimethylethylenediamine spacers, this work offers the first conclusive study ...


Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec 2013 The University of Western Ontario

Butyl Rubber-Aliphatic Polyester Graft Copolymers For Biomedical Applications: Synthesis And Analysis Of Chemical, Physical And Biological Properties, Bethany A. Turowec

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biomaterials can be used in a wide variety of medical applications owing to their breadth of characteristics that can be imparted by varying their chemical structures. Butyl rubber (IIR), which is a copolymer of isobutylene (IB) and small percentages of isoprene (IP), is particularly attractive as a biomaterial because of its elastomeric mechanical properties, biocompatibility, impermeability and high damping characteristics. IIR is typically vulcanized through chemical-based crosslinking mechanisms. However, these methods are not acceptable for biological applications. This thesis focuses on the synthesis of IIR-polyester graft copolymers by grafting biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters including poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(d ...


Latent Cysteine Residues From Polymers Prepared Via Free And Controlled Radical Polymerizations, Douglas Vincent Amato 2013 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Latent Cysteine Residues From Polymers Prepared Via Free And Controlled Radical Polymerizations, Douglas Vincent Amato

Master's Theses and Project Reports

One less commonly used “click” reaction is thiazolidine chemistry. Thiazolidine chemistry is a commonly used reaction used in biological systems because the reaction requires the presence of both cysteine (a common amino acid) and an aldehyde or ketone. If cysteine residues could be incorporated into a polymer then a variety of applications could be developed. Polymers containing free thiols (aka thiomers) have developed in the last decade to become great mucoadhesives. If there was a facile route to control the amount of free thiols along the polymer then more fine-tuned and potentially stronger adhesives could be made. For these reasons ...


A Phosphorylcholine Polymer Platform For Cancer Drug Delivery, Todd Emrick, Sallie Schneider 2013 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Phosphorylcholine Polymer Platform For Cancer Drug Delivery, Todd Emrick, Sallie Schneider

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Discusses the use of polymers to enhance a drug delivery system for breast cancer treatment. This presentation is part of the retreat mini-symposium entitled: Biomarker Discovery and Targeted Therapeutics in Cancer.


Synthesis And Characterization Of Stimuli Responsive Polymer Brushes, Chaitra Vasant Deodhar 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Synthesis And Characterization Of Stimuli Responsive Polymer Brushes, Chaitra Vasant Deodhar

Doctoral Dissertations

Polyelectrolytes (PE) are the least understood polymeric systems due to their complex behavior that arises because of the intimate connection between charge and conformation. To address this challenge, my research focuses on understanding the responsive behavior of weak polyelectrolyte brushes to different stimuli such as pH, type of ion and ionic strength. In this work, weak polyelectrolyte brushes made of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and random copolymer brushes incorporating hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as co-monomer were studied. The polymer brushes were synthesized by both “grafting to” and “grafting from” approaches and were characterized mainly by ellipsometry and neutron reflectometry.

Several methods ...


Biodegradable Polymers For Controlling/Studying Material-Cell Interaction, Jereme Raphael Doss 2013 Clark Atlanta University

Biodegradable Polymers For Controlling/Studying Material-Cell Interaction, Jereme Raphael Doss

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

Functionalized nano materials have an expansive range of potential uses in bio medical applications. Functionalized synthetic (biocompatible and/or biodegradable) polymers that control or monitor cell signaling can be effective antagonists and promising drug candidates. We have developed a series of biodegradable functional polymer systems (with dimensions in the nanoscale) for creating allergy-effective drugs, using RBL mast cells and anti-2,4 dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibodies that sensitize these cells by binding to high affinity IgE receptors(FceRI); creating polymers which are effective inhibitors of degranulation of mast cells stimulated by a potent allergen. The inhibition is possible because of the ...


Experimenting With Polymer Blend Solar Cells And Active Layer Thickness, Ryan Blumenthal 2013 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Experimenting With Polymer Blend Solar Cells And Active Layer Thickness, Ryan Blumenthal

Physics

Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics utilize the electrical characteristics of semi-conductive polymers. These solution processable materials are beneficial because of their low material cost, light weight, and simple fabrication requirements. Our devices employ multiple photoactive polymers, P3HT and PCPDTBT, to absorb photons over a wide spectral range. We optimized various device characteristics including thickness and thermal anneal usage to reach a power conversion efficiency of 3.0% in AM1.5 sunlight. Device performance degrades over time due to atmospheric water and oxygen, prompting us to investigate device packaging to extend cell lifetime for additional testing.


Photopolymerization And Characterization Of Modified Thiol-Ene Networks, Bradley James Sparks 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

Photopolymerization And Characterization Of Modified Thiol-Ene Networks, Bradley James Sparks

Dissertations

Photopolymerization provides a unique ability to control variables typically uncontrollable using traditional thermally initiated polymerization, thus leading to its use in a broad range of commercial operations. Many of the traditional photopolymers suffer from several setbacks, including oxygen inhibition, unwanted stress buildup which leads to bulk shrinkage, etc., which ultimately lead to diminished polymer performance. The photopolymerization of multifunctional thiols and alkenes has been shown to provide a means to improve upon the weaknesses of traditional photoinitiated polymerizations. The free radical polymerization of thiol and –ene monomers occurs via a series of free radical chain transfer events, as a result ...


Biological And Biologically Inspired Polymers For Interface Modification, Lea Clayton Paslay 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

Biological And Biologically Inspired Polymers For Interface Modification, Lea Clayton Paslay

Dissertations

Naturally occurring macromolecules are produced for a specific function and have the selectivity to accomplish objectives with little waste in energy. The scientific community strives to develop smart, efficient molecules on an economical scale, thus lessons can be learned from nature and applied to cost effective synthetic systems. First, the mimicry of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) will be described. AMPs show great potential as alternatives to conventional antibiotics as they can selectively bind and eliminate pathogenic bacteria without harming eukaryotic tissues. Aqueous reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was utilized to prepare primary and tertiary amine containing AMP ...


Investigations Toward Tunability Of Mechanical, Thermal, And Impact Properties Of Thiol-Ene Networks For Novel High Energy Absorbing Materials, Olivia Devon McNair 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigations Toward Tunability Of Mechanical, Thermal, And Impact Properties Of Thiol-Ene Networks For Novel High Energy Absorbing Materials, Olivia Devon Mcnair

Dissertations

The UV polymerization of thiols with electron rich alkenes is a highly resourceful reaction that has been utilized by scientists within various disciplines to produce an even more versatile display of applications. This dissertation focuses on a newer application, thiol-ene network (TEN) materials for energy absorption devices. TEN networks display a host of positive polymer properties such as low stress, high optical clarity and uniformity, but they also suffer from unfavorable mechanical properties such as low toughness and elongation at break. The poor mechanical properties demonstrated by TENs prohibit them as choice materials for applications requiring thicker material forms, including ...


Synthesis Of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (Poss) Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes For Improved Dispersion In Polyurethane Films, Xiaonan Kou 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

Synthesis Of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (Poss) Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes For Improved Dispersion In Polyurethane Films, Xiaonan Kou

Dissertations

Carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer nanocomposites are promising advanced materials. These materials exhibit the advantages of traditional polymeric materials, such as being light weight and easy to process, combined with the potential to exhibit enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties compared to pure polymers. To achieve substantial improvement of composite properties at low CNT loading, uniform dispersion of CNTs in the polymer matrix and strong CNT-polymer interfacial interaction are needed. However, it is difficult to achieve adequate dispersion and interfacial interactions due to the inert nature of CNTs. In this project, polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane (POSS) will be used as a dispersing ...


Nanoparticle Filled Polymeric Systems For Gas Barrier And Flame Retardant Properties, Yingji Wu 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

Nanoparticle Filled Polymeric Systems For Gas Barrier And Flame Retardant Properties, Yingji Wu

Dissertations

Polymer composite gas barrier and fire retardant properties were studied in this investigation. An increase in the gas barrier property was observed by adding silicate nanotubes or clay nanoparticles into polymeric systems. Oxygen permeability, diffusivity, solubility and water vapor permeability were determined for polyimide/silicate nanocomposites with 0 to 9.99% (vol/vol) filler loading. Both oxygen and water vapor permeability for the system gradually decreased when adding increasing amounts of nanofiller up to 4.50% (vol/vol) and increase again after that. The permeability decrease was caused by both the diffusivity and solubility coefficient changes, although diffusivity (the tortuous ...


Relationships Between Cure Kinetics, Network Architecture, And Fluid Sensitivity In Glassy Epoxies, Katherine Lea Frank 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

Relationships Between Cure Kinetics, Network Architecture, And Fluid Sensitivity In Glassy Epoxies, Katherine Lea Frank

Dissertations

Relationships between chemical structure, cure kinetics, network morphology and free volume have been correlated with fluid ingress for glassy epoxy network blends. Polymers synthesized from diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F (DGEBF) were blended with varying amounts of triglycidyl-m-aminophenol (TGAP), tetraglycidyl-4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGMP), napthylamine (NA), adamantylamine (AA), and aminopropylisobutyl polyhedral oliogmericsilsesquioxane (AI-POSS) and cured with 3,3’- and 4,4’- diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) to control fractional free volume, average hole size and morphology.

Varying curing profiles introduced morphological changes resulting in differences in network architectures. Epoxy with 10% NA had a smaller Vh (71 ...


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