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Synthesis And Optimization Of Novel Poly-(Β-Amino Ester) Polymer For Gene-Delivery, Maria Montes 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Synthesis And Optimization Of Novel Poly-(Β-Amino Ester) Polymer For Gene-Delivery, Maria Montes

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Gene delivery is one of the most promising methods to treat multiple diseases through the alteration of a genetic code to enhance or inhibit gene expression (NIH). The potential for gene delivery to be used as a treatment for cancerous cells is the beginning for advanced personalized healthcare. Current methods for cancer are costly, nonspecific, and come with major side effects that lowers quality of life in cancer patients. Previous studies have demonstrated Poly-(β-amino ester) (PBAE) to be biodegradable, non-toxic, and capable to deliver payloads in a targeted manner. For this study, PBAE was synthesized and characterized by Nuclear ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Degradable Polymers, Christopher Collins 2019 Western Kentucky University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Degradable Polymers, Christopher Collins

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

A degradable polymer with proposed applications in drug delivery was synthesized and characterized. This polymer was grown from a difunctional initiator, a "core" that is able to grow two polymer chains and able to degrade in the presence of oxidizing agents such as peroxides. During the first part of this project, poly(methyl methacrylate) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization using commercially-available reagents in order to develop an optimal synthesis technique. This technique was then used to synthesize the degradable polymer. After introducing hydrogen peroxide, the molecular weight of the degradable polymer decreased in two different experiments, confirming its ...


Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels are 3-dimensional crosslinked polymer networks that can absorb significant amounts of water. The physical properties associated with hydrogels affords them resemblance to biological tissues making them good candidates for biomedical applications. Many pharmaceuticals, specifically non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have poor aqueous solubility, which limits their bioavailability and efficacy. People suffering from chronic osteoarthritis (OA) are required to frequently take large doses to mitigate pain, which can lead to serious side effects. Hydrogels are good strategies to deliver NSAIDs via articular injection because they can form solid gels in situ. This thesis describes the synthesis, formulation, mechanical testing, in vitro ...


Functional Polymers Through Mechanochemistry, Stephen Schrettl, Diedrik W.R. Balkenende, Céline Calvino, Marc Karman, Ana Lavrenova, Laura N. Neumann, Yoshimitsu Sagara, Ester Verde-Sesto, Michela di Giannantonio, Yoan C. Simon, Katharina M. Fromm, Marco Lattuada, Christoph Weder 2019 University of Fribourg

Functional Polymers Through Mechanochemistry, Stephen Schrettl, Diedrik W.R. Balkenende, Céline Calvino, Marc Karman, Ana Lavrenova, Laura N. Neumann, Yoshimitsu Sagara, Ester Verde-Sesto, Michela Di Giannantonio, Yoan C. Simon, Katharina M. Fromm, Marco Lattuada, Christoph Weder

Faculty Publications

While coupling mechanical and chemical processes is widespread in living organisms, the idea to harness the mechanically induced dissociation of weak covalent and non-covalent bonds to create artificial materials that respond to mechanical stimulation has only recently gained attention. Here we summarize our activities that mainly revolve around the exploitation of non-covalent interactions in (supramolecular) polymeric materials with the goal to translate mechanical stresses into useful, pre-defined events. Focusing on mechano- chromic polymers that alter their optical absorption or fluorescence properties, several new operating principles, mechanosensitive entities, and materials systems were developed. Such materials are expected to be useful for ...


Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown 2019 Iowa State University

Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

In this study, we methylated hydroxyl groups (phenolic hydroxyl: Phe-OH and aliphatic hydroxyl: Aliph-OH) in soda lignin (SL) prior to solvent liquefaction to improve storage stability of the resulting oil. We investigated two methylating reagents, dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), for selective Phe-OH and total hydroxyl group (Phe-OH and Aliph-OH) blocking. Samples of SL, DMS-SL, and DMC-SL were depolymerized into oils under supercritical ethanol (350 °C). Both methylated lignins produced higher amounts of oils and smaller amounts of char compared to untreated SL due to suppressed charring reactions. Oil produced from SL had relatively higher functional group contents ...


Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson 2019 The University of Akron

Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Chemonic™ CCG-6 surfactant is a water-soluble poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated alkyl glyceride emollient. This surfactant exists as a complex mixture of a glycerol cores conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) branches (PEGylation) that were partially esterified with caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) acids. These may be esterified on one, two, or all three arms of the glyceride. The architecture of the structures in this mixture was studied using multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS). Mass spectrometry was interfaced with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ion mobility (IM) separation. The mixture was separated by reversed-phase LC, oligomers of the star-branched polymer were separated ...


Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are membraneless assemblies of condensed RNA and protein that form through multivalent interactions between the constituent components. Recently, RNA self-assembly has been shown to contribute to the formation of stress granules, which are RNP granules associated with the stress response and neurodegeneration. However, little is understood about the properties of self-assembled RNA. Here, I show that different RNA sequences can self- assemble into condensates with distinct material properties and partitioning preferences in vitro. Due to interactions that minimize surface free energy, RNA self-assembly can generate the spontaneous self-patterning of RNA assemblies. By reducing surface free energy, thereby ...


Polyurea Aerogels: From Nanoscopic To Macroscopic Properties, Tahereh Taghvaee 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Polyurea Aerogels: From Nanoscopic To Macroscopic Properties, Tahereh Taghvaee

Doctoral Dissertations

"The morphology of a material is intrinsically a qualitative property and in order to relate nanomorphology to synthetic conditions, it is necessary to express nano/micro-structure quantitatively. In this context, polyurea aerogels were chosen as a model system with demonstrated potential for rich nanomorphology and being guided by a statistical Design-of-Experiments model, a large array of materials (208) with identical chemical composition, but quite different nanostructures were prepared. By reflecting upon the SEM images, it was realized that our first pre-verbal impression about a nanostructure is related to its openness and texture; the former is quantified by porosity (Π), and ...


Nanomorphology Dependent Optical And Mechanical Properties Of Aerogels, Chandana Mandal 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Nanomorphology Dependent Optical And Mechanical Properties Of Aerogels, Chandana Mandal

Doctoral Dissertations

"Aerogels are very low density, light weight open pore materials. A hypothesis that is under intense current investigation by the scientific community states that the mechanical properties of nanostructured polymers depend on their nanomorphology. Aerogels are nanostructured ultra-lightweight nanoporous materials with skeletal frameworks that can display a wide range of nanomorphologies. Thereby aerogels comprise a suitable platform for testing not only that hypothesis but also a wide range of other properties such as light scattering for applications, for example, in thermally insulating windows.

To study the mechanical properties of nanostructured matter as a function of nanomorphology, various shape-memory polyurethane aerogels ...


Synthesis And Applications Of Ceramic (Silicon Carbide And Silicon Nitride), Metallic (Cobalt(0)) And Polymeric (Polyurethane) Aerogels, Parwani M. Rewatkar 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Synthesis And Applications Of Ceramic (Silicon Carbide And Silicon Nitride), Metallic (Cobalt(0)) And Polymeric (Polyurethane) Aerogels, Parwani M. Rewatkar

Doctoral Dissertations

"A new method has been demonstrated for the synthesis of monolithic ceramic and purely metallic aerogels from xerogel powder compacts, and the use of polyurethane aerogels based on cyclodextrins as efficient desiccants.

I. Highly porous ( > 80%) monolithic SiC and Si3N4, aerogels were prepared from compressed compacts of polyurea-crosslinked silica xerogel powders. The process is time efficient as solvent-exchange through powders is fast, and energy efficient as it bypasses drying with supercritical fluids. The final ceramic objects were chemically pure, sturdy, with compressive moduli at 37 ±7 MPa and 59 ± 7 MPa, and thermal conductivities at 0.16 ...


Therapeutic Delivery Technology And Its Economic Impact, Paul E. Savas Jr. 2019 Liberty University

Therapeutic Delivery Technology And Its Economic Impact, Paul E. Savas Jr.

Senior Honors Theses

Therapeutic delivery technology is a current area of high interest in both university and industrial settings. These technologies are being developed in order to deliver therapeutic agents, such as genes, proteins, and drugs, to patients more efficiently. Nanoscale delivery vehicles have proven to be useful for these applications; these vehicles may either be naturally produced or chemically synthesized. The physical properties of these nanomaterials must be characterized correctly using instrumentation that evaluates their size, morphology, and potential for agglomeration. These technologies represent a high-growth economic area that fosters entrepreneurship and innovation. Because of this innovative spirit, research and economic interest ...


Design, Synthesis And Study Of Functional Amphiphilic Polymers And Their Applications, Huan He 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Design, Synthesis And Study Of Functional Amphiphilic Polymers And Their Applications, Huan He

Doctoral Dissertations

Amphiphilic homopolymers with high densities of functional groups are synthetically challenging. Thiol-yne nucleophilic click reactions have been investigated to introduce multiple functional groups in polymers with high density. An electron deficient alkyne group bearing methacrylate monomer was polymerized using reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Subsequently, the electron deficient alkyne group on polymer side chain was readily reacted with a thiol reagent using triethylamine (TEA) as the organocatalyst. This reaction was found to be very efficient under mild conditions. The resultant homopolymer bearing thiol vinyl ether functional groups could perform a second thiol addition with a stronger base, such as ...


Modification Of 2d Materials Utilizing Functional Polymer Interfacial Layers, Ryan Selhorst 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Modification Of 2d Materials Utilizing Functional Polymer Interfacial Layers, Ryan Selhorst

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes the modification of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). These materials exhibit unique electronic properties, ranging from metallic to insulating, and can transport either electrons (n-type) or holes (p-type). Polymers containing electronically-active moieties offer a path to control the electronic properties of a 2D material without altering the inherent structure of the semiconductor. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis of polymers bearing chalcogen-rich or zwitterionic moieties to alter the electronic and solution properties of 2D materials.

Chapter 2 describes polymers containing sulfur-rich tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and their effects as electroactive coatings on the TMDC molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). These ...


Effect Of Mineral Ions On The Functional Properties Of Starch Films, Aliza Sigdel 2019 South Dakota State University

Effect Of Mineral Ions On The Functional Properties Of Starch Films, Aliza Sigdel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Essential minerals are indispensable inorganic micronutrients that modulate vital physiological functions at the molecular level. Their deficiency, though required in small amounts, impairs health significantly. Their supplementation through diet is prudent and carbohydrates standout as favorable choice. Carbohydrates, starches and polysaccharides, exhibit unique chemical structures and functionalities, and interact with mineral ions in several ways. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of mineral ions on the physicochemical properties, tensile strength and in vitro starch digestion of starch-films. Corn starch and potato starch along with Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions have been chosen as model starch ...


Zwitterionic Trivalent (Alkyl)Lanthanide Complexes In Ziegler-Type Butadiene Polymerization, Bradley M. Schmidt, Aradhana Pindwal, Amrit Venkatesh, Arkady Ellern, Aaron Rossini, Aaron D. Sadow 2019 Iowa State University

Zwitterionic Trivalent (Alkyl)Lanthanide Complexes In Ziegler-Type Butadiene Polymerization, Bradley M. Schmidt, Aradhana Pindwal, Amrit Venkatesh, Arkady Ellern, Aaron Rossini, Aaron D. Sadow

Chemistry Publications

The organolanthanide complexes Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}3 (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) react with one or two equiv. of B(C6F5)3 to yield the well-defined zwitterionic species Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}2HB(C6F5)3 (Ln = La, 2a; Ce, 2b; Pr, 2c; Nd, 2d) or LnC(SiHMe2)3{HB(C6F5)3}2 (Ln = La, 3a; Ce, 3b; Pr, 3c; Nd, 3d), respectively. These complexes are shown to contain labile, bridging Si–H⇀Ln and o-F->Ln interactions based upon the observation ...


Polymerization Of Bromoundecylacrylate And Alkylating Methylimidazole, Shuziao Li 2019 Eastern Michigan University

Polymerization Of Bromoundecylacrylate And Alkylating Methylimidazole, Shuziao Li

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Polymerized ionic liquids (PIL) generally are solids, but a few examples have been reported that also exhibit liquidity in the neighborhood of room temperature called liquid polymerized ionic liquids (LPIL). The development of a platform suitable for exploring LPIL properties based on the monomer 11-bromoundecylacrylate (AcC11Br) was reported. Poly(AcC11Br) is itself a liquid polymer and can be easily used to alkylate 1-methylimidazole to produce poly(AcC11C1ImBr-co- AcC11Br). Various reaction conditions were explored to examine how extensively 1- methylimidazole can be attached to this polymer, and the extent of alkylation is determined quantitatively by silver ion potentiometry. These polymers retain ...


Polymerized Ionic Liquids By Condensation Polymerization: Stimuli Responsive Polyurethane Gels And Dispersions, Harshit Gupta 2019 Eastern Michigan University

Polymerized Ionic Liquids By Condensation Polymerization: Stimuli Responsive Polyurethane Gels And Dispersions, Harshit Gupta

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Ionic liquids have been used in free radical polymerizations to make polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) materials of various types. PIL gels based on imidazolium cations have been found to exhibit an anion-exchange induced stimuli responsiveness. This thesis explores incorporation of ionic liquids in polyurethane (PU) polymers to make PIL PU gels and dispersions through condensation polymerization. PIL gels are synthesized through a single-pot approach that show stimuli response to solvents. This approach allows one to make these gels rapidly and cheaply on-site. These gels can reversibly porate in different solvents and are found to be porous when analyzed by scanning ...


Zwitterionic Trivalent (Alkyl)Lanthanide Complexes In Ziegler-Type Butadiene Polymerization, Bradley M. Schmidt, Aradhana Pindwal, Amrit Venkatesh, Arkady Ellern, Aaron Rossini, Aaron D. Sadow 2018 Iowa State University

Zwitterionic Trivalent (Alkyl)Lanthanide Complexes In Ziegler-Type Butadiene Polymerization, Bradley M. Schmidt, Aradhana Pindwal, Amrit Venkatesh, Arkady Ellern, Aaron Rossini, Aaron D. Sadow

Aaron D. Sadow

The organolanthanide complexes Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}3 (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) react with one or two equiv. of B(C6F5)3 to yield the well-defined zwitterionic species Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}2HB(C6F5)3 (Ln = La, 2a; Ce, 2b; Pr, 2c; Nd, 2d) or LnC(SiHMe2)3{HB(C6F5)3}2 (Ln = La, 3a; Ce, 3b; Pr, 3c; Nd, 3d), respectively. These complexes are shown to contain labile, bridging Si–H⇀Ln and o-F->Ln interactions based upon the observation ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Peo-Ps-Peo Triblock Copolymer Conjugated With Ni-Nta For Biosensors, Esam Allehyani 2018 Atlanta University Center

Synthesis And Characterization Of Peo-Ps-Peo Triblock Copolymer Conjugated With Ni-Nta For Biosensors, Esam Allehyani

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(styrene)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer with di-hydroxyl terminated groups (HO-PEO-PS-PEO-OH) was conjugated with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) via esterification reaction using N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), 4-Dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and Dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent at 80 C. The poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(styrene)-poly(ethylene oxide) with NTA end groups (NTA-PEO-PS-PEO-NTA) was characterized and structure confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and FT-IR spectroscopies.

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out to investigate the thermal stability of the starting triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(styrene)-poly(ethylene oxide) with di-hydroxyl terminated groups (HO-PEO-PS-PEO-OH) and the ...


Copper Grafted Titanium Dioxide In Hydrogels For Photocatalysts, Salem Amsaaed 2018 Atlanta University Center

Copper Grafted Titanium Dioxide In Hydrogels For Photocatalysts, Salem Amsaaed

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

This study are based on the premise that the incorporation of metal ions into nano titania-PHEMA [poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)] hydrogels would enhance the desirable properties in the photodecomposition of pollutants. The investigation are centered in the use of Cu(II) as metal ion of interest. The development of TiO2-PHEMA-Cu hydrogels was conducted, and the characterization of the materials by FT-IR, XRD and fluorescence was performed. The absorption of copper(II) from the solution was monitored by UV-Vis. The FT-IR are found too, be the most effective tool too, analyze the interaction of Cu(II) with PHEMA in the ...


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