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Rgd-Decorated Cholesterol Stabilized Polyplexes For Targeted Sirna Delivery To Glioblastoma Cells., Bo Lou, Kate Connor, Kieron Sweeney, Ian S. Miller, Alice C. O'Farrell, Eduardo Ruiz-Hernandez, David M. Murray, Garry P. Duffy, Alan Wolfe, Enrico Mastrobattista, Annette Byrne, Wim E. Hennink 2019 Utrecht University

Rgd-Decorated Cholesterol Stabilized Polyplexes For Targeted Sirna Delivery To Glioblastoma Cells., Bo Lou, Kate Connor, Kieron Sweeney, Ian S. Miller, Alice C. O'Farrell, Eduardo Ruiz-Hernandez, David M. Murray, Garry P. Duffy, Alan Wolfe, Enrico Mastrobattista, Annette Byrne, Wim E. Hennink

Physiology and Medical Physics Articles

The development of an effective and safe treatment for glioblastoma (GBM) represents a significant challenge in oncology today. Downregulation of key mediators of cell signal transduction by RNA interference is considered a promising treatment strategy but requires efficient, intracellular delivery of siRNA into GBM tumor cells. Here, we describe novel polymeric siRNA nanocarriers functionalized with cRGD peptide that mediates targeted and efficient reporter gene silencing in U87R invasive human GBM cells. The polymer was synthesized via RAFT copolymerization of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA) and N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS), followed by post-polymerization modification with cholesterol for stabilization, cationic amines for siRNA complexation, and ...


Synthesis And Optimization Of Novel Poly-(Β-Amino Ester) Polymer For Gene-Delivery, Maria Montes 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Synthesis And Optimization Of Novel Poly-(Β-Amino Ester) Polymer For Gene-Delivery, Maria Montes

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Gene delivery is one of the most promising methods to treat multiple diseases through the alteration of a genetic code to enhance or inhibit gene expression (NIH). The potential for gene delivery to be used as a treatment for cancerous cells is the beginning for advanced personalized healthcare. Current methods for cancer are costly, nonspecific, and come with major side effects that lowers quality of life in cancer patients. Previous studies have demonstrated Poly-(β-amino ester) (PBAE) to be biodegradable, non-toxic, and capable to deliver payloads in a targeted manner. For this study, PBAE was synthesized and characterized by Nuclear ...


Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels are 3-dimensional crosslinked polymer networks that can absorb significant amounts of water. The physical properties associated with hydrogels affords them resemblance to biological tissues making them good candidates for biomedical applications. Many pharmaceuticals, specifically non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have poor aqueous solubility, which limits their bioavailability and efficacy. People suffering from chronic osteoarthritis (OA) are required to frequently take large doses to mitigate pain, which can lead to serious side effects. Hydrogels are good strategies to deliver NSAIDs via articular injection because they can form solid gels in situ. This thesis describes the synthesis, formulation, mechanical testing, in vitro ...


Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown 2019 Iowa State University

Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

In this study, we methylated hydroxyl groups (phenolic hydroxyl: Phe-OH and aliphatic hydroxyl: Aliph-OH) in soda lignin (SL) prior to solvent liquefaction to improve storage stability of the resulting oil. We investigated two methylating reagents, dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), for selective Phe-OH and total hydroxyl group (Phe-OH and Aliph-OH) blocking. Samples of SL, DMS-SL, and DMC-SL were depolymerized into oils under supercritical ethanol (350 °C). Both methylated lignins produced higher amounts of oils and smaller amounts of char compared to untreated SL due to suppressed charring reactions. Oil produced from SL had relatively higher functional group contents ...


Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are membraneless assemblies of condensed RNA and protein that form through multivalent interactions between the constituent components. Recently, RNA self-assembly has been shown to contribute to the formation of stress granules, which are RNP granules associated with the stress response and neurodegeneration. However, little is understood about the properties of self-assembled RNA. Here, I show that different RNA sequences can self- assemble into condensates with distinct material properties and partitioning preferences in vitro. Due to interactions that minimize surface free energy, RNA self-assembly can generate the spontaneous self-patterning of RNA assemblies. By reducing surface free energy, thereby ...


Therapeutic Delivery Technology And Its Economic Impact, Paul E. Savas Jr. 2019 Liberty University

Therapeutic Delivery Technology And Its Economic Impact, Paul E. Savas Jr.

Senior Honors Theses

Therapeutic delivery technology is a current area of high interest in both university and industrial settings. These technologies are being developed in order to deliver therapeutic agents, such as genes, proteins, and drugs, to patients more efficiently. Nanoscale delivery vehicles have proven to be useful for these applications; these vehicles may either be naturally produced or chemically synthesized. The physical properties of these nanomaterials must be characterized correctly using instrumentation that evaluates their size, morphology, and potential for agglomeration. These technologies represent a high-growth economic area that fosters entrepreneurship and innovation. Because of this innovative spirit, research and economic interest ...


Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson 2019 The University of Akron

Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Chemonic™ CCG-6 surfactant is a water-soluble poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated alkyl glyceride emollient. This surfactant exists as a complex mixture of a glycerol cores conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) branches (PEGylation) that were partially esterified with caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) acids. These may be esterified on one, two, or all three arms of the glyceride. The architecture of the structures in this mixture was studied using multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS). Mass spectrometry was interfaced with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ion mobility (IM) separation. The mixture was separated by reversed-phase LC, oligomers of the star-branched polymer were separated ...


Polymerization Of Bromoundecylacrylate And Alkylating Methylimidazole, Shuziao Li 2019 Eastern Michigan University

Polymerization Of Bromoundecylacrylate And Alkylating Methylimidazole, Shuziao Li

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Polymerized ionic liquids (PIL) generally are solids, but a few examples have been reported that also exhibit liquidity in the neighborhood of room temperature called liquid polymerized ionic liquids (LPIL). The development of a platform suitable for exploring LPIL properties based on the monomer 11-bromoundecylacrylate (AcC11Br) was reported. Poly(AcC11Br) is itself a liquid polymer and can be easily used to alkylate 1-methylimidazole to produce poly(AcC11C1ImBr-co- AcC11Br). Various reaction conditions were explored to examine how extensively 1- methylimidazole can be attached to this polymer, and the extent of alkylation is determined quantitatively by silver ion potentiometry. These polymers retain ...


Polymerized Ionic Liquids By Condensation Polymerization: Stimuli Responsive Polyurethane Gels And Dispersions, Harshit Gupta 2019 Eastern Michigan University

Polymerized Ionic Liquids By Condensation Polymerization: Stimuli Responsive Polyurethane Gels And Dispersions, Harshit Gupta

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Ionic liquids have been used in free radical polymerizations to make polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) materials of various types. PIL gels based on imidazolium cations have been found to exhibit an anion-exchange induced stimuli responsiveness. This thesis explores incorporation of ionic liquids in polyurethane (PU) polymers to make PIL PU gels and dispersions through condensation polymerization. PIL gels are synthesized through a single-pot approach that show stimuli response to solvents. This approach allows one to make these gels rapidly and cheaply on-site. These gels can reversibly porate in different solvents and are found to be porous when analyzed by scanning ...


Copper Grafted Titanium Dioxide In Hydrogels For Photocatalysts, Salem Amsaaed 2018 Atlanta University Center

Copper Grafted Titanium Dioxide In Hydrogels For Photocatalysts, Salem Amsaaed

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

This study are based on the premise that the incorporation of metal ions into nano titania-PHEMA [poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)] hydrogels would enhance the desirable properties in the photodecomposition of pollutants. The investigation are centered in the use of Cu(II) as metal ion of interest. The development of TiO2-PHEMA-Cu hydrogels was conducted, and the characterization of the materials by FT-IR, XRD and fluorescence was performed. The absorption of copper(II) from the solution was monitored by UV-Vis. The FT-IR are found too, be the most effective tool too, analyze the interaction of Cu(II) with PHEMA in the ...


Synthesis Of Doxorubicin-Based Prodrug And Activatable Mr Nanoprobe For The Imaging And Treatment Of Cancer, Bayan Dous 2018 Pittsburg State University

Synthesis Of Doxorubicin-Based Prodrug And Activatable Mr Nanoprobe For The Imaging And Treatment Of Cancer, Bayan Dous

Electronic Thesis Collection

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used as a diagnostic tool for cancer. We propose a novel molecular probe, Gadolinium-DTPA disulfide-bonded Doxorubicin (Gd-DTPA-SS-Doxo) encapsulated in iron oxide which could provide a dual modality for detecting malignant growth while simultaneously targeting treatment options. We first synthesized Gd-DTPA-SS-Doxo followed by encapsulation within the poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) coating of iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP), producing a nanoprobe (IO-Gd-DTPA-SS-Doxo) with quenched longitudinal spin lattice magnetic relaxation (T1). After receptor-mediated internalization, Gd-DTPA-SS-Doxo is released from the nanoprobe’s polymeric coating due to the acidic microenvironment of the tumor. When the molecular probe is subjected ...


Combination Therapy: Parp Inhibitor Synergizes The Therapeutic Efficacy Of Doxorubicin In The Treatment Of Prostate Cancer, Momin Ansare 2018 Pittsburg State University

Combination Therapy: Parp Inhibitor Synergizes The Therapeutic Efficacy Of Doxorubicin In The Treatment Of Prostate Cancer, Momin Ansare

Electronic Thesis Collection

Men are most susceptible to prostate cancer in the United States. The general treatment options include surgery, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. But in recent days, the nanoformulation have shown promising applications in overcoming the drawbacks of the currently available treatment options. To complement, we tried to enhance the capability of the nanoparticle formulation by loading them with a novel drug combination for the treatment of prostate cancer. Herein, we synthesized folate conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated with doxorubicin and olaparib for imaging and targeted treatment of prostate cancer. Both drugs are approved by FDA for clinical cancer treatment ...


Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane-Phosphate Glass Matrix Nanocomposites With Additional Chapter On Phosphate Glass-Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Matrix Composites, Kyoungtae Kim 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane-Phosphate Glass Matrix Nanocomposites With Additional Chapter On Phosphate Glass-Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Matrix Composites, Kyoungtae Kim

Dissertations

Preparation and characterization of tin fluorophosphate glass (Pglass) matrix nanocomposites incorporating polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) were investigated on the structural, thermal, morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties. Various processes including synthesis, extrusion and sintering processes were applied to prepare the nanocomposite samples. Another application of POSS with hydrophobic functional groups on the well-structured nanoscale silicate cage with three silanol groups was investigated to present the feasibility to use POSS molecule as a coating material on the surface of the hydrophilic inorganic glass. In addition, Poly(ethylene terephthalate) polymer matrix composites incorporating Pglass was studied to present the benefits of the Pglass ...


High-Throughput Assessment Of A Novel, Thiol-Acrylate Hydrogel For Tumor Spheroid Synthesis In A Microfluidic Device, Nathan Daniel Kersker 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

High-Throughput Assessment Of A Novel, Thiol-Acrylate Hydrogel For Tumor Spheroid Synthesis In A Microfluidic Device, Nathan Daniel Kersker

LSU Master's Theses

The extracellular environment plays an important role in regulating cell behavior. The mechanical, structural, and compositional properties of the extracellular matrix can determine the fate of the growing cells. Standard two-dimensional culturing in a flask fails to represent a native cellular environment. To create the native environment suitable for cells, hydrogels were previously studied. One of the most extensively studied synthetic hydrogels was a poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) (PEGDA) hydrogel. However, the need for UV polymerization may introduce unwanted changes in cell morphology and viability. The hydrogel being proposed was a form of a thiol-acrylate hydrogel that can eliminate this ...


A New Generation Of Functional Polyisobutylenes For Advanced Applications, Corey M. Parada 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

A New Generation Of Functional Polyisobutylenes For Advanced Applications, Corey M. Parada

Dissertations

Polyisobutylene (PIB) is a fully saturated, aliphatic polymer of high commercial importance due to its superior gas barrier properties and high chemical/oxidative stability. One commercial end-use for PIB is in insulated glass windows (IGU), where it acts as a gas/moisture barrier and sealant. Under certain adverse conditions, catastrophic failure of the PIB sealant may result in aesthetic and functional failure of the IGU, which necessitates replacement of the unit. Thus, there exists a need to improve current generations of thermoplastic PIB sealants to be able to withstand the harsh environments found in current real-world applications.

In the first ...


Effect Of Network Structure On Free Volume And Gas Transport Properties Of Thiol-Ene And Epoxy-Amine Networks, Ramesh Krishnan Ramakrishnan 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effect Of Network Structure On Free Volume And Gas Transport Properties Of Thiol-Ene And Epoxy-Amine Networks, Ramesh Krishnan Ramakrishnan

Dissertations

Network parameters such as cross-link density or intermolecular interactions were used as effective parameters to control polymer chain packing or free volume and thereby control the mass transport properties of networks.

A series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) based thiol-ene elastomeric networks having a broad range of molecular weight between cross-links, Mc, (inverse of cross-link density) was prepared. The specific volume of the networks was studied as a function of temperature and pressure using high pressure dilatometry, and the obtained PVT data was fit using Simha-Somcynsky equation of state (S-S eos) analysis. Fractional free volume, quantified through S-S eos analysis ...


Flexible And Versatile Soft Templates For Mesoporous Silicas And Organosilicas Based On Pluronic Block Copolymer Surfactants And Their Mixtures, George Farid 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Flexible And Versatile Soft Templates For Mesoporous Silicas And Organosilicas Based On Pluronic Block Copolymer Surfactants And Their Mixtures, George Farid

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation, the work will be discussed that was focused on the synthesis of consolidated periodic mesoporous materials such as 2-D hexgonal ordered mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) as well as single-micelle-templated silica and organosilica nanotubes and nanospheres using triblock copolymer surfactants and their mixtures in the presence of a swelling agent. The introductory section, Chapter 1, will address the current state of the tunability of single-micelle-templated silica and organosilica nanotubes and will compare it with the work presented in this dissertation on the use of a dual-surfactant templating systems. Chapter 2 of the dissertation discusses transmission electron microscopy characterization of ...


Biomass Based Monomers For Synthesis Of Renewably Sourced Polymers, Anushka E. Vithanage 2018 University of Maine

Biomass Based Monomers For Synthesis Of Renewably Sourced Polymers, Anushka E. Vithanage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Limited fossil resources have raised research focus on synthesizing novel, sustainable polymers and renewably sourcing existing petroleum based polymers. This work presents the synthesis and ring opening polymerization (ROP) of a new functionalized lactone monomer, methoxy-δ-hexalactone (MDHL), to yield a functionalized polyester (polyMDHL). MDHL can be renewably sourced from hydroxymethylfurfural, a renewable platform chemical. MDHL was synthesized from methyl cyclopentanone-2-carboxylate by a five-step synthesis with a global yield of 23%. ROP of MDHL was conducted with benzyl alcohol initiator, catalyzed by diphenyl phosphate. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy verified polyMDHL chemical structure. Targeting higher molecular weights for polyMDHL by increasing ...


Chemically Cross-Linked Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogels Via Thiol-Norbornene Reaction As Sustainable Biomaterials, Nayereh Dadoo 2018 University of Maine

Chemically Cross-Linked Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogels Via Thiol-Norbornene Reaction As Sustainable Biomaterials, Nayereh Dadoo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogels are 3D polymeric networks with high water content and are widely being investigated for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering. Polysaccharides have been used to fabricate hydrogels due to their natural abundance, biocompatibility, and immunogeniety. Additionally, polysaccharide-based hydrogels can provide mechanical and biological cues similar to those of the natural environments. In this work, thiol-norbornene chemistry was used to fabricate polysaccharide-based hydrogels including hyaluronic acid (HA), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). Hydrogels with tunable physical and mechanical properties were achieved. The properties of these hydrogels were spatiotemporally modified by photopatterning. Also, high stem cell viability was achieved ...


Highly Conductive Solid Polymer Electrolytes: Poly(Ethylene Oxide)/Litfsi Blends, Zahra Alquraini 2018 Clark Atlanta University

Highly Conductive Solid Polymer Electrolytes: Poly(Ethylene Oxide)/Litfsi Blends, Zahra Alquraini

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

In this study, highly ionic conductive solid polymer electrolytes have been prepared by blending high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO: MW 35,000 and 100,000) and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide lithium (LiTFSI) salt. The ionic conductivities were determined for several compositions of the blends at different temperatures. A maximum ionic conductivity of 9.45 x 10-6 S cm-1 at 25 °C has been obtained for the blends containing PEO-35,000/LiTFSI at an ethylene oxide to lithium salt ratio (EO/Li+) of 5, whereas a maximum ionic conductivity 7.7 x 10-6 S cm-1 at 25 ...


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