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An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman 2018 University of Kentucky

An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Due to the adverse effect of atmospheric aerosols on public health and their ability to affect climate, extensive research has been undertaken in recent decades to understand their sources and sinks, as well as to study their physical and chemical properties. Atmospheric aerosols are important players in the Earth’s radiative budget, affecting incoming and outgoing solar radiation through absorption and scattering by direct and indirect means. While the cooling properties of pure inorganic aerosols are relatively well understood, the impact of organic aerosols on the radiative budget is unclear. Additionally, organic aerosols are transformed through chemical reactions during atmospheric ...


Nascent O2 (A1ΔG, V = 0, 1) Rotational Distributions From The Photodissociation Of Jet‐Cooled O3 In The Hartley Band, Michelle L. Warter, Carolyn E. Gunthardt, Wei Wei, George McBane, Simon W. North 2018 Texas A & M University - College Station

Nascent O2 (A1ΔG, V = 0, 1) Rotational Distributions From The Photodissociation Of Jet‐Cooled O3 In The Hartley Band, Michelle L. Warter, Carolyn E. Gunthardt, Wei Wei, George Mcbane, Simon W. North

Peer Reviewed Articles

We report rotational distributions for the O2 (a 1Δg) fragment from photodissociation of jet‐cooled O3 at 248, 266, and 282 nm. The rotational distributions show a population alternation that favors the even states, as previously reported for a 300 K sample by Valentini et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6745 (1987)). The alternation from the jet‐cooled precursor is much stronger than that observed by Valentini et al., and in contrast to their observations does not depend strongly on O2 (a 1Δg) vibrational state or photolysis wavelength. The odd/even alternation diminishes ...


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies Of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids And Garnet-Type Li7la3zr2o12, Shen Lai 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies Of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids And Garnet-Type Li7la3zr2o12, Shen Lai

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Advancements in electrochemical energy storage materials are critical in the development and utilization of renewable energy technologies. These advancements involve obtaining a better understanding of electrochemical mechanisms and properties through scientific research towards an improved energy storage technology. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), is a sensitive and selective method to probe particle dynamics (magnetic relaxation, diffusometry, etc.) and material structures (spectroscopy) down to the atomic level. In this work, several NMR techniques are employed to study imidazolium-based ionic liquids and garnet-type inorganic materials. These are being studied due to their potential use as safer alternatives to organic solvent-based electrolytes in lithium-ion ...


Instrumentation For Cryogenic Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Electron Decoupling In Rotating Solids, Faith Joellen Scott 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Instrumentation For Cryogenic Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Electron Decoupling In Rotating Solids, Faith Joellen Scott

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) increases the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using the higher polarization of electron radical spins compared to nuclear spins. The addition of electron radicals for DNP to the sample can cause hyperfine broadening, which decreases the resolution of the NMR resonances due to hyperfine interactions between electron and nuclear spins. Electron decoupling has been shown to attenuate the effects of hyperfine coupling in rotating solids. Magic angle spinning (MAS) DNP with electron decoupling requires a high electron Rabi frequency provided by a high-power microwave source such as a frequency-agile gyrotron. This dissertation describes the development ...


Building On Nature: Spectroscopic Studies Of Photosynthesis-Inspired Pigments, Fused Light Harvesting Proteins, And Bacterial Reaction Center Mutants, Kaitlyn Faries 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Building On Nature: Spectroscopic Studies Of Photosynthesis-Inspired Pigments, Fused Light Harvesting Proteins, And Bacterial Reaction Center Mutants, Kaitlyn Faries

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photosynthesis is the dominant form of solar energy conversion on the planet, making it critical to understand the fundamentals of the process in order to effectively mimic and improve upon it for human energy needs. The initial stages of photosynthesis include light harvesting and chemical conversion of that harvested energy via electron transport, with both of these stages relying on pigments (or chromophores) such as chlorophyll and specific protein architectures for the processes. In this work, the fundamental underpinnings of photosynthetic light harvesting and electron transport are explored via spectroscopy of various photosynthetic systems with altered natural pigments and proteins ...


Materials Characterization By Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Solid-State Nmr Spectroscopy, Aaron Rossini 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Materials Characterization By Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Solid-State Nmr Spectroscopy, Aaron Rossini

Chemistry Publications

High-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the study of organic and inorganic materials because it can directly probe the symmetry and structure at nuclear sites, the connectivity/bonding of atoms and precisely measure inter-atomic distances. However, NMR spectroscopy is hampered by intrinsically poor sensitivity, consequently, the application of NMR spectroscopy to many solid materials is often infeasible. High-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has emerged as a technique to routinely enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments by one to three orders of magnitude. This perspective gives a general overview of how DNP enables advanced solid-state NMR experiments ...


Mechanistic Studies Of Reducible Metal Oxides As Hydrodeoxygenation Catalysts, Akbar Mahdavi Shakib 2018 University of Maine

Mechanistic Studies Of Reducible Metal Oxides As Hydrodeoxygenation Catalysts, Akbar Mahdavi Shakib

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydrodeoxygenation of phenol to benzene using ruthenium supported titania catalysts strongly varies depending on the support crystal structure and preparation conditions. Here, we performed spectroscopic characterization of titania supports to identify the surface impurities common to commercial and synthesized titania samples using a variety of spectroscopic methods. Sulfate impurities were detected for the commercial anatase samples and a procedure for their elimination was proposed so that inactive catalysts gained reactivity. Surface hydroxyls of different TiO2 samples (anatase, rutile, and pyrogenic) were identified using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) experiments performed on vigorously cleaned surfaces and a facet-specific assignment ...


Cation-Π Interactions Of Selected Alkali Metal Ions With Two Benzene Rings Connected Through Linear Chains, Nouf Alshamrani 2018 Clark Atlanta University

Cation-Π Interactions Of Selected Alkali Metal Ions With Two Benzene Rings Connected Through Linear Chains, Nouf Alshamrani

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Quantum chemical calculations at M06-2X/6-311+G(2d,2p) level were employed to examine the structures, dissociation energies and vibrational spectra of complexes formed by Li+, Na+ and K+ with diphenylmethane, 1,2-diphenylethane, 1,3-diphenylpropane, [2.2]paracyclophane and [3.3]paracyclophane molecules. The effect of heteroatom substitution in the connecting chains of 1,3-diphenylpropane and [3.3]paracyclophane molecules on the binding affinity of cations with ligands was also included in this study. The complexes of [3.3] paracyclophane based molecules seem to have weak cation-pi interactions with metal ions Na+ and K+ when they were placed between two ...


Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman 2018 University of Kentucky

Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Understanding the acid–base behavior of carboxylic acids on aqueous interfaces is a fundamental issue in nature. Surface processes involving carboxylic acids such as acetic and pyruvic acids play roles in (1) the transport of nutrients through cell membranes, (2) the cycling of metabolites relevant to the origin of life, and (3) the photooxidative processing of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions in aerosols and atmospheric waters. Here, we report that 50% of gaseous acetic acid and pyruvic acid molecules transfer a proton to the surface of water at pH 2.8 and 1.8 units lower than their respective acidity constants ...


Infra-Red Microwave Spectra, Overtones, Degeneracy And Thermal Populations All In One Diagram, Carl W. David 2018 University of Connecticut

Infra-Red Microwave Spectra, Overtones, Degeneracy And Thermal Populations All In One Diagram, Carl W. David

Chemistry Education Materials

An old drawing, which had an error in it, is re-presented (corrected) for understanding the relationships in diatomic vibrational-rotational interactions at the introductory level.


Pnnl Dark Matter Bubble Chamber, Ryan Robinson 2018 STAR Program

Pnnl Dark Matter Bubble Chamber, Ryan Robinson

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) prototype bubble chamber is intended to address issues encountered with the current PICO dark matter search detectors and improve the functionality of future experimental designs. The PNNL bubble chamber accomplishes this with a simplified interface between the hydraulic pressure controls and the target vessel and altering the standard chamber design such that it can be easily exchanged and replaced with vessels of various sizes and materials for testing purposes. The chamber itself is a glass vessel which houses perfluorobutane and holds the target fluid above room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The target fluid becomes ...


Novel Relative Spontaneous Ignition Temperature Determination Using Carbon Dioxide Onset With Sta/Ir, Antonio David Trevino 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Novel Relative Spontaneous Ignition Temperature Determination Using Carbon Dioxide Onset With Sta/Ir, Antonio David Trevino

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Simultaneous thermal analysis, coupled with infrared spectroscopy (STA/IR), was utilized to monitor the evolution of gaseous products during the thermal degradation of samples from Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow), Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet), and Ilex vomitoria (yaupon) plants. Identification of carbon dioxide was successful with a spectral match of 90.2 percent and further used in the determination of relative spontaneous ignition temperature, or RSIT. The RSIT value during the growing season for Chinese tallow, Chinese tallow stem, Chinese privet, and Yaupon were 208.4°C, 250.3°C, 210.1°C, and 232.3°C respectively. During the dormant ...


Modern Electronic Structure Theory: The Search For Chemical Accuracy, Jonathan Prince 2018 Boise State University

Modern Electronic Structure Theory: The Search For Chemical Accuracy, Jonathan Prince

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Electronic structure theory has progressed significantly within the last few decades, venturing far from the early days of the Hartree-Fock self-consistent field method. Modern electronic structure theory focuses on compound methods, which operate under the idea that we can take a lower level of theory computation (typically, a result from Hartree-Fock, Configuration Interaction, Coupled Cluster or Moller-Plesset perturbation theory) and add in higher level of the theory corrections such as extrapolations to the infinite basis set limit, as well as, relativistic effects.

Using the Gaussian-n, Complete Basis Set and Weizmann compound methods, we were able to provide theoretical evidence to ...


Nmr Spectroscopic Properties Of Nucleotides, And A New Method Of Numeric Calculation Of Raman Intensities For Organic Molecules, William R. Ehrhardt 2018 Missouri State University

Nmr Spectroscopic Properties Of Nucleotides, And A New Method Of Numeric Calculation Of Raman Intensities For Organic Molecules, William R. Ehrhardt

MSU Graduate Theses

General and accurate computational methodologies are currently lacking for large chemical systems. This is primarily due to the computational expense required to perform calculations on systems with one hundred or more atoms. Calculated spectroscopic properties could aid in the process of elucidating structural features of large biologically relevant molecules if accurate and inexpensive methods are developed. Towards this end the first steps were taken to design a general methodology for predicting NMR chemical shifts of large nucleic acid systems. It was found that HF and semi-empirical methods were not sufficient for optimization of nucleobases, and therefore larger nucleotide or nucleic ...


Ultrafast And Nonlinear Spectroscopy Of Nanomaterials, Rami Anthony Khoury 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Ultrafast And Nonlinear Spectroscopy Of Nanomaterials, Rami Anthony Khoury

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Ultrafast and nonlinear spectroscopies are implemented in the investigation of excited-state dynamics and structural properties of materials and nanomaterials. In the first study, the excited-state dynamics of size-dependent colloidal TiO2-Au nanocomposites are investigated using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The dynamics corresponding to the plasmon depletion band are characterized by electron-phonon and phonon-phonon coupling lifetimes that are observed to be independent of the gold nanocluster shell thickness. The excited-state dynamics corresponding to the interband transition of gold is also spectrally overlapped with the interfacial electron transfer lifetime, which is shown to decrease as the nanocluster shell thickness increases. In ...


The Commutator Of The Runge Lenz Vector With Other Operators Of The H-Atoms Physics Using Maxima, Carl W. David 2018 University of Connecticut

The Commutator Of The Runge Lenz Vector With Other Operators Of The H-Atoms Physics Using Maxima, Carl W. David

Chemistry Education Materials

Commutators of components of the Runge-Lenz vector and constants of the motion and ladder operators for the H-atom problem are evaluated using brute force calculus and Maxima.


Investigation Of Vaporization Enthalpies And Vapor Pressures Of Organic Compounds By Correlation Gas Chromatography, Carissa Nelson 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Investigation Of Vaporization Enthalpies And Vapor Pressures Of Organic Compounds By Correlation Gas Chromatography, Carissa Nelson

Dissertations

Thermodynamic properties of organic compounds are useful to scientists and manufacturers in many areas of research and technology. This work focuses on measuring and reporting these properties on materials of commercial, environmental and scientific interest. Vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of several organic compounds have been studied using correlation gas chromatography (CGC) and are reported here as well as in recent publications. The CGC method allows for the indirect measurement of these properties in instances where these materials are available only in mixtures or in very small amounts.

The qualities of these measurements for any chosen target are directly related ...


The Photodynamic And Structural Analyses Of Advanced Materials For Solar Fuel Conversion, Brian Pattengale 2018 Marquette University

The Photodynamic And Structural Analyses Of Advanced Materials For Solar Fuel Conversion, Brian Pattengale

Dissertations (2009 -)

Mitigating the current and future climate and pollution issues that have been brought on by the combustion of fossil fuels is of utmost importance and will rely on, in part, the availability of renewable fuel sources. Of the possible sources of energy, solar is abundant, but must be harnessed efficiently and stored as a solar fuel to overcome the current storage issues that limit photovoltaic cells. One such fuel, H2(g), represents a carbon-neutral source of energy if it can be efficiently liberated from water via the water splitting reaction. Thus, much attention is focused on designing materials to perform ...


Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov 2018 Physical-Technical High School

Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov

The International Student Science Fair 2018

The goal of our work was to determine the principal mechanisms that provide the difference in visual perception of two marine species that live on different depths: T. Pacificus and O. Vulgaris. In nature, visual perception of species that live deeper is shifted towards the blue region. This is related to the fact that red, orange and yellow light is absorbed more strongly by water than the blue light. On the other hand, the visual perception spectrum of an animal is determined by the absorption spectrum of the "light sensor" located in rods and cones of its eye retina. These ...


Super‐Resolution Imaging Of Amyloid Structures Over Extended Times By Using Transient Binding Of Single Thioflavin T Molecules, Kevin Spehar, Tianben Ding, Yuanzi Sun, Niraja Kedia, Jin Lu, George R. Nahass, Matthew D. Lew, Jan Bieschke 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Super‐Resolution Imaging Of Amyloid Structures Over Extended Times By Using Transient Binding Of Single Thioflavin T Molecules, Kevin Spehar, Tianben Ding, Yuanzi Sun, Niraja Kedia, Jin Lu, George R. Nahass, Matthew D. Lew, Jan Bieschke

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Oligomeric amyloid structures are crucial therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's and other amyloid diseases. However, these oligomers are too small to be resolved by standard light microscopy. We have developed a simple and versatile tool to image amyloid structures by using thioflavin T without the need for covalent labeling or immunostaining. The dynamic binding of single dye molecules generates photon bursts that are used for fluorophore localization on a nanometer scale. Thus, photobleaching cannot degrade image quality, allowing for extended observation times. Super‐resolution transient amyloid binding microscopy promises to directly image native amyloid by using standard probes and record ...


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