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Origins Of The Quantum Efficiency Duality In The Primary Photochemical Event Of Bacteriorhodopsin, Robert R. Birge, Leonore A. Findsen, Albert F. Lawrence, Mark Masthay, Chian-Fan Zhang 2018 Syracuse University

Origins Of The Quantum Efficiency Duality In The Primary Photochemical Event Of Bacteriorhodopsin, Robert R. Birge, Leonore A. Findsen, Albert F. Lawrence, Mark Masthay, Chian-Fan Zhang

Mark Masthay

Experimental and theoretical evidence is presented which suggests that two distinct forms of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin may exist. We propose that these two forms have characteristic photocycles with significantly different primary quantum yields. INDO-PSDCI molecular orbital procedures and semiempirical molecular dynamics simulations predict that one ground state geometry of bR undergoes photochemistry with a primary quantum yield, Φ1, of ~ 0.27, and that a second ground state geometry, with a slightly displaced counterion, yields Φ1 ~ 0.74. This theoretical model is supported by the observation that literature measurements of Φ1 tend to fall into one of two categories- those that observe ...


Organic Photochemistry: Remote Delivery Of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates Via A Heterogeneous Approach, Niluksha Walalawela Abeykoon 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Organic Photochemistry: Remote Delivery Of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates Via A Heterogeneous Approach, Niluksha Walalawela Abeykoon

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Photosensitized oxidation reactions produce a number of intermediates species, which are generated in varying amounts over time. This complexity presents major challenges in the study of oxidation processes. Mechanistic efforts to separate and deliver reactive oxygen intermediates enable their controlled use in processes such as bacterial inactivation. This thesis describes a heterogeneous reaction approach taken to control the generation and delivery of reactive oxygen intermediates. The mechanistic details of photosensitized reactions were elucidated via synthetic, materials, and physical organic techniques to optimize the delivery of reactive oxygen intermediates. This thesis contains six chapters as described below.

Chapter 1 gives a ...


A High Throughput Approach For The Generation Of Orthogonally Interacting Protein Pairs, Justin Lawrie, Xi Song, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A High Throughput Approach For The Generation Of Orthogonally Interacting Protein Pairs, Justin Lawrie, Xi Song, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

In contrast to the nearly error-free self-assembly of protein architectures in nature, artificial assembly of protein complexes with pre-defined structure and function in vitro is still challenging. To mimic nature’s strategy to construct pre-defined three-dimensional protein architectures, highly specific proteinprotein interacting pairs are needed. Here we report an effort to create an orthogonally interacting protein pair from its parental pair using a bacteria-based in vivo directed evolution strategy. This high throughput approach features a combination of a negative and a positive selection. The newly developed negative selection from this work was used to remove any protein mutants that retain ...


Changes In Enzymatic Activities And Functionality Of Whole Wheat Flour Due To Steaming Of Wheat Kernels, Rachana Poudel, Devin J. Rose 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Changes In Enzymatic Activities And Functionality Of Whole Wheat Flour Due To Steaming Of Wheat Kernels, Rachana Poudel, Devin J. Rose

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The effects of steaming wheat kernels on lipolytic degradation of resulting whole flour was studied by quantifying enzyme activities and lipid degradation products during storage. Lipase, lipoxygenase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activities were decreased by up to 81%, 63%, 22%, and 34%, respectively, as the time of steaming increased up to 90 s. Steaming had no effect on starch and gluten properties. Upon storage free fatty acids decreased with respect to time of steaming. Time of steaming did not affect lipid oxidation in flour; however, total carbonyls produced in dough made from stored flour were decreased with the increase in ...


Experiential Learning Activity: Biodiesel Inquiry Project, ji kim 2018 CUNY Guttman Community College

Experiential Learning Activity: Biodiesel Inquiry Project, Ji Kim

Open Educational Resources

The activity described herein can be implemented in introductory chemistry and high school chemistry courses. The main goal of the project is to integrate a ubiquitous biodiesel production with experiential learning by providing a community-based project. The students work in groups, research the benefits of using biodiesel over petroleum-based diesel, collect waste cooking oil from home or restaurants, develop simple and cost-effective methods to produce biodiesel.


Polar Ozone Depletion: Mario J. Molina, Kirsten Oberg 2018 Parkland College

Polar Ozone Depletion: Mario J. Molina, Kirsten Oberg

Natural Sciences Poster Sessions

This poster for the Natural Sciences Poster Session at Parkland College features the contribution of Mario J. Molina to the field of atmospheric chemistry, especially in regards to the formation and decomposition aspects of the ozone layer.


Microstructural Changes To Proso Millet Protein Bodies Upon Cooking And Digestion, Paridhi Gulati, You Zhou, Christian Elowsky, Devin J. Rose 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Microstructural Changes To Proso Millet Protein Bodies Upon Cooking And Digestion, Paridhi Gulati, You Zhou, Christian Elowsky, Devin J. Rose

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Cooking results in a drastic decline in digestibility of proso millet proteins, panicins. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy were used to observe morphological changes in proso millet protein bodies upon cooking and digestion that could be associated with the loss in digestibility. Spherical protein bodies (1–2.5 mm) were observed in proso millet flour and extracted protein. Cooking did not result in any noticeable change in the size or shape of the protein bodies. However, upon digestion with pepsin the poor digestibility of cooked proso millet protein was clearly evident from the differences in microstructure of the protein bodies ...


Modification Of Wheat Gluten For Improvement Of Binding Capacity With Keratin In Hair, Shukun Wang, Danyang Meng, Sisi Wang, Zhong Zhang, Ruijin Yang, Wei Zhao 2018 Jiangnan University

Modification Of Wheat Gluten For Improvement Of Binding Capacity With Keratin In Hair, Shukun Wang, Danyang Meng, Sisi Wang, Zhong Zhang, Ruijin Yang, Wei Zhao

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis and cationization with epoxypropyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride of wheat protein, an economic protein complex containing great amount of disulfide bonds, were conducted to improve properties such as solubility and disassociation behaviour for recovery of damaged hair when used in shampoo. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were pH 8.2, 55°C with Alcalase for 60min. After the selected hydrolysis, the degree of hydrolysis, nitrogen solubility index, foaming capacity index, foam stability index, emulsifying activity index and emulsion stability index of hydrolysate with 58.71% of shortchain peptides (less than 1000 Da) were 8.81%, 39.07 ...


Chemists Atwitter, Raychelle Burks, Stephani Page, Kiyomi D. Deards, Joan Barnes 2018 St. Edwards University

Chemists Atwitter, Raychelle Burks, Stephani Page, Kiyomi D. Deards, Joan Barnes

Faculty Publications, UNL Libraries

Twitter can be used to promote chemists, their work, and their events to other scientists and the general public. From checklists to timelines; how to use Twitter successfully as an individual or institution is discussed. This chapter includes: examples of how the authors have used Twitter, how to find and use common subject tags, tags most used when Tweeting about chemistry and science, and a discussion about measuring success. Knowing when and how to Tweet will help chemists communicate successfully with their peers and the general public in 280 characters or less.


Gas-Surface Interactions: Reactive And Non-Reactive Scattering, Azar Farjamnia 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Gas-Surface Interactions: Reactive And Non-Reactive Scattering, Azar Farjamnia

Doctoral Dissertations

The adsorption and dissociation of small molecules on metal surfaces are key steps in many industrial reactions. A detailed understanding of the dynamics of these reactions provides us with the ability to control the outcome and efficacy of the reactions. The molecule-metal interactions will lead to reorientation, energy redistribution, or bond dissociation in the molecule. The process is strongly depending upon the initial conditions, i. e. the incident energy and vibrational state of the molecule, and the surface temperature. We use a fully quantum approach to compute the dissociative sticking probability of the molecules at zero overage, on the surface ...


Reductive Cleavage Of Organic Peroxides By Iron Salts And Thiols, Anderw Olson, Abigail J. Jameson, Shiva K. Kyasa, Boone W. Evans, Patrick H. Dussault 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Reductive Cleavage Of Organic Peroxides By Iron Salts And Thiols, Anderw Olson, Abigail J. Jameson, Shiva K. Kyasa, Boone W. Evans, Patrick H. Dussault

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Despite the low bond strength of the oxygen− oxygen bond, organic peroxides are often surprisingly resistant to cleavage by nucleophiles and reductants. As a result, achieving decomposition under mild conditions can be challenging. Herein, we explore the reactivity of a selection of peroxides toward thiolates, phenyl selenide, Fe(II) salts, and iron thiolates. Peroxides activated by conjugation, strain, or stereoelectronics are rapidly cleaved at room temperature by thiolate anions, phenylselenide, or Fe(II) salts. Under the same conditions, unhindered dialkyl peroxides are only marginally reactive; hindered peroxides, including triacetone triperoxide and diacetone diperoxide (DADP), are inert. In contrast, all but ...


Magnetic Assembly Of Soft Robots With Hard Components, Sen Wai Kwok, Stephen A. Morin, Bobak Mosadegh, Ju-Hee So, Robert F. Shepherd, George M. Whitesides 2018 Watertown, MA

Magnetic Assembly Of Soft Robots With Hard Components, Sen Wai Kwok, Stephen A. Morin, Bobak Mosadegh, Ju-Hee So, Robert F. Shepherd, George M. Whitesides

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Reconfigurable soft robotic actuators with hard components are described. Magnetic attraction is used to couple flexible molded bodies capable of actuation upon pressurization with other flexible molded bodies and/or with hard components (e.g., frames and connectors) to form a seal for fluidic communication and cooperative actuation. Pneumatic decoupling chambers built into the hard components to decouple the hard components from the magnetically-coupled soft molded bodies are described. The use of magnetic self- alignment coupling and pneumatic de-coupling allows for the remote assembly and disassembly of complex structures involving hard and soft components. The magnetic coupling allows for rapid ...


Flexible Robotic Actuators, Stephen A. Morin, Robert F. Shepherd, Adam Stokes, Filip Ilievski, Ramses V. Martinez, Jamie L. Branch, Carina R. Fish, Lihua Jin, Rui M. D. Nunes, Zhigang Suo, George M. Whitesides 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Flexible Robotic Actuators, Stephen A. Morin, Robert F. Shepherd, Adam Stokes, Filip Ilievski, Ramses V. Martinez, Jamie L. Branch, Carina R. Fish, Lihua Jin, Rui M. D. Nunes, Zhigang Suo, George M. Whitesides

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Systems and methods for providing flexible robotic actuators are disclosed. Some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter include a soft robot capable of providing a radial deflection motions; a soft tentacle actuator capable of providing a variety of motions and providing transportation means for various types of materials; and a hybrid robotic system that retains desirable characteristics of both soft robots and hard robots. Some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter also include methods for operating the dis closed robotic systems.


Toward The Detection Of The Triatomic Negative Ion Spn−: Spectroscopy And Potential Energy Surfaces, Tarek Trabelsi, Majdi Hochlaf, Joseph S. Francisco 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Toward The Detection Of The Triatomic Negative Ion Spn−: Spectroscopy And Potential Energy Surfaces, Tarek Trabelsi, Majdi Hochlaf, Joseph S. Francisco

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

High level theoretical calculations using coupled-cluster theory were performed to provide an accurate description of the electronic structure, spectroscopic properties, and stability of the triatomic negative ion comprising S, N, and P. The adiabatic electron affinities (AEAs) and vertical detachment energies

(VDEs) of PNS, SPN, PSN, and cyc-PSN were calculated. The predicted AEA and VDE of the linear SPN isomer are large: 2.24 and 3.04 eV, respectively. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the lowest-lying electronic states of the SPN isomer along the PN and SP bond lengths and bond angle were mapped. A set of spectroscopic ...


Flexible Thin Robotic Actuators, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Stephen A. Morin, Robert F. Shepherd, George M. Whitesides, William B. Kalb 2018 Duenellen, NJ

Flexible Thin Robotic Actuators, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Stephen A. Morin, Robert F. Shepherd, George M. Whitesides, William B. Kalb

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter includes a laminated robotic actuator. The laminated robotic actuator includes a strain-limiting layer comprising a flexible, non extensible material in the form of a sheet or thin film, a flexible inflatable layer in the form of a thin film or sheet in facing relationship with the strain-limiting layer, wherein the inflatable layer is selectively adhered to the strain-limiting layer, and wherein a portion of an un-adhered region between the strain-limiting layer and the inflatable layer defines a pressurizable channel, and at least one fluid inlet in fluid communication with the pressurizable channel. The ...


Facile Synthesis Of Ligand-Free Iridium Nanoparticles And Their In Vitro Biocompatibility, Anna L. Brown, Hayden Winter, Andrea M. Goforth, Gaurav Sahay, Conroy Sun 2018 Oregon State University

Facile Synthesis Of Ligand-Free Iridium Nanoparticles And Their In Vitro Biocompatibility, Anna L. Brown, Hayden Winter, Andrea M. Goforth, Gaurav Sahay, Conroy Sun

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

High-density inorganic nanoparticles have shown promise in medical applications that utilize radiation including X-ray imaging and as radiation dose enhancers for radiotherapy. We have developed an aqueous synthetic method to produce small (~ 2 nm) iridium nanoparticles (IrNPs) by reduction of iridium(III) chloride using a borohydride reducing agent. Unlike other solution-based synthesis methods, uniform and monodispersed IrNPs are produced without the use of surfactants or other solubilizing ligands. These nanoparticles are highly crystalline as observed by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro metabolic toxicity assays using hepatocyte and macrophage cells demonstrate that both IrNPs and iridium ...


The Secant Rate Of Corrosion: Correlating Observations Of The Uss Arizona Submerged In Pearl Harbor, Donald L. Johnson, Robert J. Deangelis, Dana J. Medlin, Jon E. Johnson, James D. Carr, David L. Conlin 2018 National Park Service

The Secant Rate Of Corrosion: Correlating Observations Of The Uss Arizona Submerged In Pearl Harbor, Donald L. Johnson, Robert J. Deangelis, Dana J. Medlin, Jon E. Johnson, James D. Carr, David L. Conlin

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Contrary to previous linear projections of steel corrosion in seawater, analysis of an inert marker embedded in USS Arizona concretion since the 7 December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor reveals evidence that the effective corrosion rate decreases with time. The secant rate of corrosion, or SRC correlation, derived from this discovery could have a significant impact on failure analysis investigations for concreted shipwrecks or underwater structures. The correlation yields a lower rate of metal thinning than predicted. Development of the correlation is described.


Study Of The Oxidation Kinetics Of Nitrite Ions By Potassium Ferrate(Vi), J. Carr, I. Goncharova, D. Golovko, C. McLaughlin, I. Golovko, J. Erickson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Study Of The Oxidation Kinetics Of Nitrite Ions By Potassium Ferrate(Vi), J. Carr, I. Goncharova, D. Golovko, C. Mclaughlin, I. Golovko, J. Erickson

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Вивчено кiнетику окиснення нiтрит до нiтрат йонiв калiй фератом(VI) в широкому дiапазонi рН, вiд нейтрального до лужного сере- довища. Проведено двi серiї кiнетичних експе- риментiв, заснованих на рiзних технологiях одержання калiй ферату(VI). В першiй серiї експериментiв кристалiчний калiй ферат(VI) отримували хiмiчним синтезом. В дiапазонi рН 6.5–11 твердий K2FeO4 додавали до роз- чинiв нiтрит йонiв при вiдомiй концентрацiї та рН. Експерименти проводили пiд контролем рН та йонної сили. Кiнетичнi дослiдження коливалися вiд мiлiсекунд до декiлькох хви- лин. В другiй серiї експериментiв розчини K2FeO4 було отримано електрохiмiчним син- тезом. Лужнi розчини ...


Crystallographic,Vibrational Modes And Optical Properties Data Of Α-Dipabcrystal, Ahmad Alsaad, Chris M. Marin, Nabil Alaqtash, Hsien-Wen Chao, Tsun-Hsu Chang, Chin Li Cheung, A. Ahmad, I. A. Qattan, Renat F. Sabirianov 2018 Jordan University of Science and Technology

Crystallographic,Vibrational Modes And Optical Properties Data Of Α-Dipabcrystal, Ahmad Alsaad, Chris M. Marin, Nabil Alaqtash, Hsien-Wen Chao, Tsun-Hsu Chang, Chin Li Cheung, A. Ahmad, I. A. Qattan, Renat F. Sabirianov

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The Crystallographic data of the α-DIPAB sample was measured using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The crystal structure was also optimized using density functional based method. The calculations were performed both including vander Waals (vdW) interactions and excluding them to quantify the effects of vdW interaction on the crystal formation. The vibrational modes of DIPAB crystal corresponding to the Bromine deficient samples are calculated and presented. These show the origin of drastic change in dielectric response in Br deficient samples as compared to the ideal stoichiometric DIPAB crystal (Alsaad et al. 2018) [4]. Optical properties of an ideal α-DIPAB were calculated ...


Characterization Of Solution-Phase Drug-Protein Interactions By Ultrafast Affinity Extraction, Sandya Beeram, Xiwei Zheng, Kyungah Suh, David S. Hage 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Characterization Of Solution-Phase Drug-Protein Interactions By Ultrafast Affinity Extraction, Sandya Beeram, Xiwei Zheng, Kyungah Suh, David S. Hage

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

A number of tools based on high-performance affinity separations have been developed for studying drug-protein interactions. An example of one recent approach is ultrafast affinity extraction. This method has been employed to examine the free (or non-bound) fractions of drugs and other solutes in simple or complex samples that contain soluble binding agents. These free fractions have also been used to determine the binding constants and rate constants for the interactions of drugs with these soluble agents. This report describes the general principles of ultrafast affinity extraction and the experimental conditions under which it can be used to characterize such ...


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