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Synthesis Of Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Sensitive Electrophiles, Shahien Shahsavari 2019 Michigan Technological University

Synthesis Of Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Sensitive Electrophiles, Shahien Shahsavari

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing electrophilic groups are useful in many studies including antisense drug development and DNA/protein interaction. Due to the use of strong nucleophiles for cleavage and deprotection, traditional ODN synthesis methods are not suitable for their preparation. To solve this problem, a new ODN synthesis technology using the 1,3- dithiane-2-yl-methoxycarbonyl (Dmoc) function as protecting groups and linker has been developed. Furthermore, Dmoc-derivatives were developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology. The Dmoc and Dmoc derivative functions are stable under all ODN synthesis conditions using the phosphoramidite chemistry. Upon oxidation of the sulfides in them, because of ...


Design, Synthesis And Study Of Functional Amphiphilic Polymers And Their Applications, Huan He 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Design, Synthesis And Study Of Functional Amphiphilic Polymers And Their Applications, Huan He

Doctoral Dissertations

Amphiphilic homopolymers with high densities of functional groups are synthetically challenging. Thiol-yne nucleophilic click reactions have been investigated to introduce multiple functional groups in polymers with high density. An electron deficient alkyne group bearing methacrylate monomer was polymerized using reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Subsequently, the electron deficient alkyne group on polymer side chain was readily reacted with a thiol reagent using triethylamine (TEA) as the organocatalyst. This reaction was found to be very efficient under mild conditions. The resultant homopolymer bearing thiol vinyl ether functional groups could perform a second thiol addition with a stronger base, such as ...


Modification Of 2d Materials Utilizing Functional Polymer Interfacial Layers, Ryan Selhorst 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Modification Of 2d Materials Utilizing Functional Polymer Interfacial Layers, Ryan Selhorst

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes the modification of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). These materials exhibit unique electronic properties, ranging from metallic to insulating, and can transport either electrons (n-type) or holes (p-type). Polymers containing electronically-active moieties offer a path to control the electronic properties of a 2D material without altering the inherent structure of the semiconductor. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis of polymers bearing chalcogen-rich or zwitterionic moieties to alter the electronic and solution properties of 2D materials.

Chapter 2 describes polymers containing sulfur-rich tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and their effects as electroactive coatings on the TMDC molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). These ...


Oxidative Degradation Of Lignin And Investigation Of Utilization Of Lignin-Derived Materials As Building Blocks For Epoxy Resins, Zhen Fang 2019 University of Kentucky

Oxidative Degradation Of Lignin And Investigation Of Utilization Of Lignin-Derived Materials As Building Blocks For Epoxy Resins, Zhen Fang

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Lignin, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, is potentially a replaceable source for bulky fuels and chemical feedstocks. There have been numerous reports on methods for the oxidative cleavage of β-O-4 linkages but relatively few reports of how those methods affect other linkages that are present in lignin. We investigated how the β-1 and β-5 linkages respond under oxidative conditions proposed for lignin deconstruction based on their effect on β-O-4 linkages. Mechanochemical treatment of lignin can greatly improve the yield of monomer products and we applied a mechanochemical approach, using powerful ring-and-puck milling to promote lignin degradation. Along with ...


Oxidative Depolymerization Of Lignin To Low Molecular Weight Aromatics, Yang Song 2019 University of Kentucky

Oxidative Depolymerization Of Lignin To Low Molecular Weight Aromatics, Yang Song

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

To date, most lignocellulosic biorefinery strategies have focused on optimizing conversion of cellulose to ethanol, leaving lignin as an underutilized biomass constituent. Lignin is engineered by nature with the intent to protect plants from chemical and biological attack; this leaves lignin with high structural irregularity and recalcitrance, rendering conversion of the lignin macromolecule to valuable products particularly challenging. Nevertheless, given that the economics of cellulosic ethanol production are strongly dependent on the value that can be obtained for the lignin co-product, the successful valorization of lignin is a crucial step in the transition towards a bio-based economy.

This thesis focuses ...


Catalytic Alkene And Carbonyl Functionalization Reactions, Tanner Lee Metz 2019 Iowa State University

Catalytic Alkene And Carbonyl Functionalization Reactions, Tanner Lee Metz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents the development of bismuth(III) triflate-promoted conjugate additions of electron-rich heteroarenes to ,-disubstituted enones, regioselective 1,6-additions of electron-rich heteroarenes to dienones, and 1,2-addition of nucleophilic heteroarenes to progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone acetate and andrenosterone. Additionally, this dissertation describes the first examples of intermolecular alkene carboacylation triggered by amide CN bond activation.

Chapter II discusses the development of catalytic conjugate additions of heteroarenes to ,-disubstituted enones. Additions of a range of heteroarene nucleophiles, including furans, indoles, pyrroles, and thiophenes to a variety of ,-disubstituted enones occur to form heteroarylated all-carbon quaternary centers in up to 90 ...


Copper-Catalyzed Regioselective Boracarboxylation Of Vinyl Arenes: Catalytic Efficiency And Synthetic Utility, Trina M. Perrone 2019 West Virginia University

Copper-Catalyzed Regioselective Boracarboxylation Of Vinyl Arenes: Catalytic Efficiency And Synthetic Utility, Trina M. Perrone

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Hetero(element) carboxylation is an appealing transformation that involves the installation of CO2 and another hetero(element) in one step. This transition metal-catalyzed one-pot synthesis provides a route to achieve highly functionalized carboxylic acid products with an abundant and cheap C1 feedstock. This difunctionalization also avoids the use of reactive metal hydride species, which is a prominent limitation of hydrocarboxylation chemistry. A copper-catalyzed regioselective boracarboxylation of vinyl arenes has been developed to access pharmaceutically relevant β-boryl-α-aryl propionic acid products. One drawback of this reaction is the necessity for high catalyst loading to achieve catalytic turnover. To circumvent this issue, the ...


Molecularly Imprinted Nanoparticles (Minps) For Molecular Recognition And Bio-Mimetic Catalysis In Water, Md Arifuzzaman 2019 Iowa State University

Molecularly Imprinted Nanoparticles (Minps) For Molecular Recognition And Bio-Mimetic Catalysis In Water, Md Arifuzzaman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Water-soluble molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MINPs) were produced easily by double cross-linking of surfactant micelles in the presence of suitable template molecules. The micellar surface could be modified with different groups to help the binding of guest molecules. The core could be tuned though usage of amide-containing surfactants that gave a layer of hydrogen-bonding groups in the interior. The location and the orientation of these surface and internal functional groups were important to the molecular recognition of MINPs as receptors.

It remains difficult to construct mimics of enzymatic active sites with accurately positioned catalytic groups and tunable selectivity for substrates. Artificial ...


Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel 2019 Iowa State University

Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research dataset, we summarize for the first time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in vivo from ripening wine grapes. We studied four cold-hardy cultivars grown in the Midwestern U.S.: St. Croix, Frontenac, Marquette, and La Crescent. These cultivars have gained popularity among local growers and winemakers, but still very little is known about their performance compared with long-established V. viniferagrapes. Volatiles were collected using two novel approaches: biogenic emissions from grape clusters on a vine and single grape berries. A third approach was headspace collection of volatiles from crushed grapes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to collect ...


Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel 2019 Iowa State University

Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for one-third of the total area grown in the state of Iowa. It is generally accepted that the wine aroma profile plays a crucial role in developing a local, sustainable brand. However, the identity of Brianna/Frontenac Gris-based wine aromas and their link to the grape berry chemistry at harvest is unknown. This study aims to preliminarily characterize ...


Exomol Line List - Xxxiv. A Rovibrational Line List For Phosphinidene (Ph) In Its X³Σ¯ And A¹Δ Electronic States, Jonathan Langleben, Jonathan Tennyson, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Peter Bernath 2019 Old Dominion University

Exomol Line List - Xxxiv. A Rovibrational Line List For Phosphinidene (Ph) In Its X³Σ¯ And A¹Δ Electronic States, Jonathan Langleben, Jonathan Tennyson, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Peter Bernath

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A rovibronic line list for the ground (X3Σ) and first excited (a1Δ) states of phosphinidene, 31PH, is computed. The line list is designed for studies of exoplanetary and cool stellar atmospheres with temperatures up to 4000 K. A combination of empirical and ab initio data is used to produce the line list: potential energy curves (PECs) are fitted using experimental transition frequencies; these transitions are reproduced with a root mean square error of 0.01 cm−1. The nuclear Schrödinger equation is solved using these PECs plus Born–Oppenheimer and spin splitting correction terms. Line ...


Metaproteomics Reveal That Rapid Perturbations In Organic Matter Prioritize Functional Restructuring Over Taxonomy In Western Arctic Ocean Microbiomes, Molly P. Mikan, H. Rodger Harvey, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Ian Salter, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn 2019 Old Dominion University

Metaproteomics Reveal That Rapid Perturbations In Organic Matter Prioritize Functional Restructuring Over Taxonomy In Western Arctic Ocean Microbiomes, Molly P. Mikan, H. Rodger Harvey, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Ian Salter, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

We examined metaproteome profiles from two Arctic microbiomes during 10-day shipboard incubations to directly track early functional and taxonomic responses to a simulated algal bloom and an oligotrophic control. Using a novel peptide-based enrichment analysis, significant changes (p-value < 0.01) in biological and molecular functions associated with carbon and nitrogen recycling were observed. Within the first day under both organic matter conditions, Bering Strait surface microbiomes increased protein synthesis, carbohydrate degradation, and cellular redox processes while decreasing C1 metabolism. Taxonomic assignments revealed that the core microbiome collectively responded to algal substrates by assimilating carbon before select taxa utilize and metabolize nitrogen intracellularly. Incubations of Chukchi Sea bottom water microbiomes showed similar, but delayed functional responses to identical treatments. Although 24 functional terms were shared between experimental treatments, the timing, and degree of the remaining responses were highly variable, showing that organic matter perturbation directs community functionality prior to alterations to the taxonomic distribution at the microbiome class level. The dynamic responses of these two oceanic microbial communities have important implications for timing and magnitude of responses to organic perturbations within the Arctic Ocean and how community-level functions may forecast biogeochemical gradients in oceans.


Copper-Mediated N1-Arylation Of Benzotriazoles, Magdalena R. Andrzejewska 2019 CUNY City College

Copper-Mediated N1-Arylation Of Benzotriazoles, Magdalena R. Andrzejewska

Dissertations and Theses

Benzotriazoles are group of bicyclic heterocyclic compounds that contain three nitrogen atoms fused to a benzene ring. Along with their derivatives, they possess a wide range of properties. They are used in medical field, as they exhibit such properties as antibacterial,antiplasmoidal,antiprotozoal, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. They are also used in various industries as herbicides, UV absorbers, deicing and antiicing agents and corrosion inhibitors, to list a few. Because of their wide range of applications, we designed a new two-step synthesis for the formation of N-1-aryl benzotriazoles. 1-Hydroxy-1H-benzotriazole N-oxides were synthesized using phenylboronic ...


Syntheses Of A Tin (Iv) Meso-Tetra(4-Pyridyl) Porphyrin Dichloride-Tetrachlorobis (Bipy)2 Ruthenium (Ii) Complex And Studies Of Photophysical Properties Of 1-Nitropyrene, Phillip Sharp 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Syntheses Of A Tin (Iv) Meso-Tetra(4-Pyridyl) Porphyrin Dichloride-Tetrachlorobis (Bipy)2 Ruthenium (Ii) Complex And Studies Of Photophysical Properties Of 1-Nitropyrene, Phillip Sharp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Development of a photosensitizer that can work in both aerobic and anaerobic environments would increase the robustness of the cancer treatment known as photodynamic therapy. The development of a photosensitizer was first attempted by synthesizing a tin (IV) meso-tetra (4-pyridyl) porphyrin dichloride-tetrachlorobis (Bipy)2 ruthenium (II) complex. The synthesize of the tin porphyrin was done by a method from literature and had a percent error of 31.58 and 37.31 when comparing the theoretical percentages of carbon (55.39) and nitrogen (12.92) meaning that photosensitizer was not synthesized.

The second type of chromophore that was studied was 1-nitropyrene ...


Photo-Isomerizable Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Jeffrey S. Pleizier 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Photo-Isomerizable Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Jeffrey S. Pleizier

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The use of light as an external stimulus provides a non-invasive technique to induce large changes in physical and chemical properties of a substrate. The incorporation of a photochromic subunit into supramolecular polymeric systems therefore adds a potential "smart" quality for polymer manipulation. The azo moiety (-N=N-) is one of the most popular photochromic units as the trans to cis isomerization results in a large degree of spatial rearrangement. This present thesis exploits the azo group by its incorporation into complementary hydrogen bonded complexes. Hydrogen bonding acceptor groups attached to the periphery of the central azo photoswitch provided strong ...


Inequality, Rubber, And Thermodynamics In Indonesia, Ernest M. Oleksy 2018 Cleveland State University

Inequality, Rubber, And Thermodynamics In Indonesia, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Intersectionality has led the charge in ensuring that workplace justice is assured to all people, irrespective of their identities. While intersectionality is a useful theory for explaining inequality, what must not be understated is the contributions that postcolonialism and the blue-collar working identity can have on harsh working conditions. Particularly, miners in Indonesia have had to work in very hostile environments where they are at-risk for sulfur poisoning as they mine for materials to vulcanize rubber. This article serves two purposes. The first is to call attention to how place can help explain the differential experiences of miners in the ...


Copper Grafted Titanium Dioxide In Hydrogels For Photocatalysts, Salem Amsaaed 2018 Atlanta University Center

Copper Grafted Titanium Dioxide In Hydrogels For Photocatalysts, Salem Amsaaed

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

This study are based on the premise that the incorporation of metal ions into nano titania-PHEMA [poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)] hydrogels would enhance the desirable properties in the photodecomposition of pollutants. The investigation are centered in the use of Cu(II) as metal ion of interest. The development of TiO2-PHEMA-Cu hydrogels was conducted, and the characterization of the materials by FT-IR, XRD and fluorescence was performed. The absorption of copper(II) from the solution was monitored by UV-Vis. The FT-IR are found too, be the most effective tool too, analyze the interaction of Cu(II) with PHEMA in the ...


Analysis Of Sterol Diagenesis Stages In A Peat Core From Kamchatka, Russia, Tia Ogus 2018 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Analysis Of Sterol Diagenesis Stages In A Peat Core From Kamchatka, Russia, Tia Ogus

Honors Theses

Peatlands are a critical part of the global carbon cycle. While many studies of peat carbon focus on accumulation, less is known about peat decay. We use the diagenesis of sterols to track the decomposition of peat in a Holocene-length core of a sedge fen on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Diagenesis can transform sterols as soon as the peat is initially deposited, but they can also remain unchanged for millennia. We have quantified the transformation of sterols into their diagenetic products to measure the maturity of peat and estimate carbon loss. Further, there are two pathways in sterol diagenesis, oxidative ...


Shorter And Improved Access To The Key Tetracyclic Core Of Sarpagine-Macroline-Ajmaline Indole Alkaloids: The Total Synthesis Of Alkaloids Macrocarpines A-G, Talcarpine, N(4)-Methyl-N(4),21-Secotalpinine, Deoxyperaksine, Dihydroperaksine, Talpinine, O-Acetyltalpinine, And N(4)-Methyltalpinine, Md Toufiqur Rahman 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Shorter And Improved Access To The Key Tetracyclic Core Of Sarpagine-Macroline-Ajmaline Indole Alkaloids: The Total Synthesis Of Alkaloids Macrocarpines A-G, Talcarpine, N(4)-Methyl-N(4),21-Secotalpinine, Deoxyperaksine, Dihydroperaksine, Talpinine, O-Acetyltalpinine, And N(4)-Methyltalpinine, Md Toufiqur Rahman

Theses and Dissertations

Extension of the asymmetric Pictet-Spengler (P-S) reaction to bulkier Nb-alkylated tryptophan derivatives resulted in a shorter and improved stereospecific access to the key bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane framework of bioactive C-19 methyl substituted sarpagine/macro-line/ajmaline indole alkaloids with excellent diastereoselectivity via internal asymmetric induction. The asymmetric Pictet-Spengler/Dieckmann protocol with bulky Nb-alkyl substituted systems enabled a more direct and two-step shorter route to this key architecture. Complete stereocontrol of the C-19 methyl function in either the α- or β-configuration was achieved which would enable one to gain rapid access to the crucial intermediates for the total synthesis of ...


Extraction And Purification Of Biologically Active Metabolites From Rhodococcus Sp. Mtm3w5.2, Mohrah Alenazi 2018 East Tennessee State University

Extraction And Purification Of Biologically Active Metabolites From Rhodococcus Sp. Mtm3w5.2, Mohrah Alenazi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rhodococcushas been recognized as a potential antibiotic producer. Recently, a strain of Rhodococcussp. MTM3W5.2 was isolated from a soil sample collected in Morristown, Tennessee and was found to produce an inhibitory compound which is active against other related species. The purpose of this research is to extract, purify and analyze the active metabolite. The compound was extracted from RM broth cultures and purified by preliminary fractionation of crude extract through a Sephadex LH-20 column. Further purification was completed using semi-preparative reversed phase column chromatography. Final purification was obtained using multiple rounds of an analytical C18 HPLC column ...


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