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Synthesis And Characterization Of Catalysts For The Selective Transformation Of Biomass-Derived Materials, Isaac Tyrone Ghampson 2011 The University of Maine

Synthesis And Characterization Of Catalysts For The Selective Transformation Of Biomass-Derived Materials, Isaac Tyrone Ghampson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The experimental work in this thesis focuses on generating catalysts for two intermediate processes related to the thermal conversion of lignocellulosic biomass: the synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica supported cobalt catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, and an exploration of the reactivity of bulk and supported molybdenum-based nitride catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol, a lignin model compound. The first section of the work details the synthesis of a series of silicasupported cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts with pore diameters ranging from 2-23 nm. Detailed X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine the composition and particle diameters of the metal fraction ...


Dynamics And Catalytic Resolution Of Selected Chiral Organolithiums, Timothy Kum Beng 2011 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dynamics And Catalytic Resolution Of Selected Chiral Organolithiums, Timothy Kum Beng

Theses and Dissertations

One of the most important developments of the last decade has been the emergence of new methods to dynamically resolve racemic organolithiums using stoichiometric amounts of the chiral ligand. When this concept is implemented successfully, it obviates the need for covalently attached chiral auxiliary based methods, asymmetric deprotonation, and asymmetric synthesis of a precursor stannane as ways to access enantioenriched organolithium compounds for use in asymmetric synthesis. Since certain electrophiles consume the chiral ligand, it is desirable to render this process catalytic in the chiral ligand.

As part of a larger study on the amenability of chiral organolithiums to a ...


Development Of A Glycoconjugate Tool Set For The Assembly And Presentation Of Carbohydrate Ligands On Surfaces, Irene Esah Abia 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Development Of A Glycoconjugate Tool Set For The Assembly And Presentation Of Carbohydrate Ligands On Surfaces, Irene Esah Abia

Doctoral Dissertations

Carbohydrate and protein interactions are often essential in viral and bacterial infection, the immune response, cell differentiation and development, and the progression of tumor cell metastasis. Therefore, an understanding of carbohydrate–protein interactions at the molecular level would lead to a better insight into the biological process of living systems and assist in the development of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. Our goal was to synthesize different mannose derivatives, immobilize them on nano-patterned surfaces and carry out binding studies with mannose-binding lectins in order to characterize carbohydrate–protein interactions.

Different derivatives of D-mannose (monosaccharide, (1→2)-linked disaccharide, (1→3)-linked ...


The Design, Synthesis And Application Of A Novel Class Of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalysts, Abigail Lynn Hubbard 2011 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Design, Synthesis And Application Of A Novel Class Of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalysts, Abigail Lynn Hubbard

Theses and Dissertations

A copper carbenoid representative of a novel class of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysts has been synthesized. This compound was characterized by X-ray crystallography and was found to confirm the rationale of our synthetic design: The C2-symmetric structure places four stereocenters in close proximity (<5Å) to the reactive site of the carbene via a trans-annular gearing effect. The copper carbenoid was found to catalyze the hydrosilylation of prochiral ketones with superb selectivity in high yield.


Studies Toward The Development Of A Microelectrode Array For Detection Of Dopamine Through Redox Cycling, Anupama Aggarwal 2011 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Studies Toward The Development Of A Microelectrode Array For Detection Of Dopamine Through Redox Cycling, Anupama Aggarwal

Theses and Dissertations

Redox cycling is an electrochemical technique that cycles the reversible redox species between its oxidative states repeatedly on generator and collector electrodes. Two or more individually-addressable microelectrodes located close to each other allow redox cycling to be possible. Electrochemical behavior of a biologically important molecule, dopamine is examined under redox cycling conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection of physiological concentration of dopamine in presence of up to 100 times excess ascorbate with the use of redox cycling, without the involvement of polymer coating such as Nafion®.

Microfabrication was used to produce different geometries (parallel bands ...


Organometallic Acene Complexes For Electronics Applications, Ilya Vinogradov 2011 University of Kentucky

Organometallic Acene Complexes For Electronics Applications, Ilya Vinogradov

Kaleidoscope

No abstract provided.


Concentration Oscillations In The Processes Of Unsaturated Compounds Oxidative Carbonylation. 2. Oxidative Carbonylation Of Alkynes In The Palladium Halogen Complexes Solutions (In Russian), Sergey N. Gorodsky 2011 Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Thechnology

Concentration Oscillations In The Processes Of Unsaturated Compounds Oxidative Carbonylation. 2. Oxidative Carbonylation Of Alkynes In The Palladium Halogen Complexes Solutions (In Russian), Sergey N. Gorodsky

Sergey N. Gorodsky

No abstract provided.


Valine Sulfonamidecinnamic Acid Asymmetric Crystal Reactions, Kraig A. Wheeler, Steven H. Malehorn, Annie E. Egan 2011 Eastern Illinois University

Valine Sulfonamidecinnamic Acid Asymmetric Crystal Reactions, Kraig A. Wheeler, Steven H. Malehorn, Annie E. Egan

Faculty Research and Creative Activity

Racemic and homochiral valine sulfonamidecinnamic acidscrystallize with components aligned by use of thecomplementary features of hydrogen bonds and moleculartopology to give supramolecular dimers. These discretemotifs effectively organize adjacent olefins for UV initiated10 single-crystal-to-single-crystal [2+2] photodimerizationreactions. The racemic crystals produce inversion relatedcyclobutane products, while the desymmetrized crystallinearchitectures of the homochiral phase promote asymmetricphotodimerization with 90% conversion.


Reactivity Of Acyclic (Pentadienyl)Iron(1+) Cations: Synthetic Studies Directed Toward The Frondosins, Do W. Lee, Rajesh K. Pandey, Sergey Lindeman, William Donaldson 2011 Marquette University

Reactivity Of Acyclic (Pentadienyl)Iron(1+) Cations: Synthetic Studies Directed Toward The Frondosins, Do W. Lee, Rajesh K. Pandey, Sergey Lindeman, William Donaldson

Chemistry Faculty Research and Publications

A short, 4-step route to the scaffold of frondosin A and B is reported. The [1-methoxycarbonyl-5-(2′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)pentadienyl]Fe(CO)3+ cation was prepared in two steps from (methyl 6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoate)Fe(CO)3. Reaction of this cation with isopropenyl Grignard or cyclohexenyllithium reagents affords (2-alkenyl-5-aryl-1-methoxycarbonyl-3-pentene-1,5-diyl)Fe(CO)3 along with other addition products. Oxidative decomplexation of these (pentenediyl)iron complexes, utilizing CuCl2, affords 6-aryl-3-methoxycarbonyl-1,4-cycloheptadienes via the presumed intermediacy of a cis-divinylcyclopropane.


Silent, Fluorescent Labeling Of Native Neuronal Receptors, D Vytla, R E. Combs-Bachmann, A M. Hussey, I Hafez, James Chambers 2011 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Silent, Fluorescent Labeling Of Native Neuronal Receptors, D Vytla, R E. Combs-Bachmann, A M. Hussey, I Hafez, James Chambers

James Chambers

We have developed a minimally-perturbing strategy that enables labeling and subcellular visualization of endogenous dendritic receptors on live, wild-type neurons. Specifically, calcium-permeable non-NMDA glutamate receptors expressed in hippocampal neurons can be targeted with this novel synthetic tri-functional molecule. This ligand-directed probe was targeted towards AMPA receptors and bears an electrophilic group for covalent bond formation with an amino acid side chain on the extracellular side of the ion channel. This molecule was designed in such a way that the use-dependent, polyamine-based ligand accumulates the chemically-reactive group at the extracellular side of these polyamine-sensitive receptors, thereby allowing covalent bond formation between ...


6-[(4-Hydroxyphenyl)Diazenyl]- 1,10-Phenanthrolin-1-Ium Chloride Monohydrate, Akram Hazeen, Yan Zhang, Minchong Mao, Kraig A. Wheeler, Mark E. McGuire 2011 Eastern Illinois University

6-[(4-Hydroxyphenyl)Diazenyl]- 1,10-Phenanthrolin-1-Ium Chloride Monohydrate, Akram Hazeen, Yan Zhang, Minchong Mao, Kraig A. Wheeler, Mark E. Mcguire

Faculty Research and Creative Activity

In the cation of the title molecular salt, C18H13N4O+_Cl__H2O, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1,10- phenanthroline system and the phenol ring is 14.40 (19)_. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H_ _ _O hydrogen bonds, weak N—H_ _ _Cl and O—H_ _ _Cl intermolecular interactions and _—_ stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6944 (13) and 3.9702 (12) [A °]


6-[(4-Hydroxyphenyl)Diazenyl]- 1,10-Phenanthrolin-1-Ium Chloride Monohydrate, Akram Hazeen, Yan Zhang, Minchong Mao, Kraig A. Wheeler, Mark E. McGuire 2011 Eastern Illinois University

6-[(4-Hydroxyphenyl)Diazenyl]- 1,10-Phenanthrolin-1-Ium Chloride Monohydrate, Akram Hazeen, Yan Zhang, Minchong Mao, Kraig A. Wheeler, Mark E. Mcguire

Kraig A. Wheeler

In the cation of the title molecular salt, C18H13N4O+_Cl__H2O, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1,10- phenanthroline system and the phenol ring is 14.40 (19)_. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H_ _ _O hydrogen bonds, weak N—H_ _ _Cl and O—H_ _ _Cl intermolecular interactions and _—_ stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6944 (13) and 3.9702 (12) [A °]


Computational Protein Design To Re-Engineer Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1Α (Sdf) Generates An Effective And Translatable Angiogenic Polypeptide Analog, William Hiesinger, Jose Manuel Perez Aguilar, Pavan Atluri, Nicole A. Marotta, John R. Frederick, J Raymond Fitzpatrick, Ryan C. McCormick, Jeffrey R. Muenzer, Elaine C. Yang, Rebecca D. Levit, Li-Jun Yuan, John W. Macarthur, Jeffery G. Saven, Y Joseph Woo 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Computational Protein Design To Re-Engineer Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1Α (Sdf) Generates An Effective And Translatable Angiogenic Polypeptide Analog, William Hiesinger, Jose Manuel Perez Aguilar, Pavan Atluri, Nicole A. Marotta, John R. Frederick, J Raymond Fitzpatrick, Ryan C. Mccormick, Jeffrey R. Muenzer, Elaine C. Yang, Rebecca D. Levit, Li-Jun Yuan, John W. Macarthur, Jeffery G. Saven, Y Joseph Woo

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

BACKGROUND: Experimentally, exogenous administration of recombinant stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF) enhances neovasculogenesis and cardiac function after myocardial infarction. Smaller analogs of SDF may provide translational advantages including enhanced stability and function, ease of synthesis, lower cost, and potential modulated delivery via engineered biomaterials. In this study, computational protein design was used to create a more efficient evolution of the native SDF protein.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Protein structure modeling was used to engineer an SDF polypeptide analog (engineered SDF analog [ESA]) that splices the N-terminus (activation and binding) and C-terminus (extracellular stabilization) with a diproline segment designed to limit the conformational ...


Synthesis Of N-Acyl-N,O-Acetals From N-Aryl Amides And Acetals In The Presence Of Tmsotf, C. Wade Downey, Alan S. Fleisher, James T. Rague, Chelsea L. Safran, Megan E. Venable, Robert D. Pike 2011 University of Richmond

Synthesis Of N-Acyl-N,O-Acetals From N-Aryl Amides And Acetals In The Presence Of Tmsotf, C. Wade Downey, Alan S. Fleisher, James T. Rague, Chelsea L. Safran, Megan E. Venable, Robert D. Pike

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Secondary amides undergo in situ silyl imidate formation mediated by TMSOTf and an amine base, followed by addition to acetal acceptors to provide N-acyl-N,O-acetals in good yields. An analogous, high-yielding reaction is observed with 2-mercaptothiazoline as the silyl imidate precursor. Competing reduction of the acetal to the corresponding methyl ether via transfer hydrogenation can be circumvented by the replacement of i-Pr2NEt with 2,6-lutidine under otherwise identical reaction conditions.


An Integrated Systems Approach To Deconstructing Glycosylation, L. K. Mahal, John F. Rakus, Kanoelani Pilobello, P. Agrawal 2011 Marshall University

An Integrated Systems Approach To Deconstructing Glycosylation, L. K. Mahal, John F. Rakus, Kanoelani Pilobello, P. Agrawal

Chemistry Faculty Research

Glycosylation involves the post-translational addition of carbohydrates to protein molecules and is an intricate and indispensable biochemical process. Study of this complicated network of interactions is hindered by the lack of a coding template analogous to the genetic code, and by the vast structural complexity inherent to carbohydrate polymers. We use lectins (non-enzymatic carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immunological origin) as microarray probes to identify carbohydrate features expressed on cellular surfaces. Specifically, we utilized lectin microarray technology to investigate the differences in carbohydrates expressed by the cell lines of the Nation Cancer Institute’s NCI-60 panel. Our investigation identified tissue-specific expression differences ...


Applications Of Bismuth(Iii) Compounds In Organic Synthesis, Ram Mohan, Jason Bothwell, Scott Krabbe 2011 Illinois Wesleyan University

Applications Of Bismuth(Iii) Compounds In Organic Synthesis, Ram Mohan, Jason Bothwell, Scott Krabbe

Ram S. Mohan

This review article summarizes the applications of bismuth(III) compounds in organic synthesis since 2002. Although there are an increasing number of reports on applications of bismuth(III) salts in polymerization reactions, and their importance is acknowledged, they are not included in this review. This review is largely organized by the reaction type although some reactions can clearly be placed in multiple sections. While every effort has been made to include all relevant reports in this field, any omission is inadvertent and we apologize in advance for the same (358 references).


Nir-Emissive Polymersomal Markers For Molecular-Level Detection Of Metastasis, Wei Qi 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Nir-Emissive Polymersomal Markers For Molecular-Level Detection Of Metastasis, Wei Qi

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Noninvasive imaging technologies, capable of visualizing early carcinoma or dormant or latent metastatic tumor cells and evaluating the efficacy of cancer therapies are becoming increasingly important. In this thesis, NIR-emissive polymersomes are engineered for optimal cellular uptake to enable fluorescence-based tumor targeting. A series of benzothiadiazole conjugated porphyrin oligomers with high emission dipole strength and exceptional large quantum yields in the NIR region are synthesized for optimized emissive output would be greatly enhanced. Furthermore, this thesis established for the first time a class of universal chemistry modification methods to directly attach antibody to polymersomes surface with very high antibody coupling ...


Cryptophane Derivatives As Gas Sensors And Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Biosensors, Najat S. Khan 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Cryptophane Derivatives As Gas Sensors And Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Biosensors, Najat S. Khan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CRYPTOPHANE DERIVATIVES AS GAS SENSORS AND HYPERPOLARIZED XENON-129 BIOSENSORS

Najat S. Khan

Professor Ivan J. Dmochowski

This thesis describes the progress in the development of cryptophanes for three different applications: encapsulation of noble gases, 129Xe NMR biosensing for cancer detection, and the construction of molecular devices. A new water-soluble organic host molecule, tris-(triazole ethylamine) cryptophane, was synthesized for noble gas detection. This host was found to bind xenon with the highest affinity to date (KA = 42,000 ± 2,000 M-1 at 293 K). The same host was employed in the development of a radiometric assay ...


Strategies For The Thermal And Photochemical Modification Of Gold Nanoparticles (Aunps) And The Fabrication Of Aunp Hybrid Materials, Hossein Ismaili 2011 The University of Western Ontario

Strategies For The Thermal And Photochemical Modification Of Gold Nanoparticles (Aunps) And The Fabrication Of Aunp Hybrid Materials, Hossein Ismaili

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Among the existing approaches for the functionalization of the gold nanoparticle (AuNP), a direct interfacial organic reaction of terminal functional groups exposed on the surface of template nanoparticles with various reactants has been shown as a promising strategy to incorporate desired functionality onto the AuNP monolayer. In our own attempts to extend the types of reactions that can be utilized for efficient interfacial modifications of AuNPs, we examined uncatalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar click-type cycloaddition of azide-modified AuNPs to terminal alkynes. These particular reactions were found to be generally too slow to be useful at ambient temperatures but it was shown ...


Reintroducing Explicit Solvent To A Solvent-Free Coarse-Grained Model, Seung Ha Kim, Monica H. Lamm 2011 Iowa State University

Reintroducing Explicit Solvent To A Solvent-Free Coarse-Grained Model, Seung Ha Kim, Monica H. Lamm

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A unique coarse-grained modeling scheme that combines a systematic, solvent-free multiscale coarse-graining algorithm for a complex macromolecule with an existing coarse-grained solvent model is proposed. We show that this procedure efficiently and reliably describes the interactions for complex macromolecules, using the specific example of dendrimers binding phenanthrenes in water. The experimentally measured binding capacity is predicted by the unique coarse-grained modeling approach; the conditions for this simulation are beyond what could be reasonably simulated with an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation.


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