Sphingomyelin And Gm1 Influence Huntingtin Binding To, Disruption Of, And Aggregation On Lipid Membranes, 2018 West Virginia University
Sphingomyelin And Gm1 Influence Huntingtin Binding To, Disruption Of, And Aggregation On Lipid Membranes, Maxmore Chaibva, Xiang Gao, Pranav Jain, Warren A. Campbell, Shelli L. Frey, Justin Legleiter
Chemistry Faculty Publications
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion beyond a critical threshold of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract near the N-terminus of the huntingtin (htt) protein. Expanded polyQ promotes the formation of a variety of oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates of htt that accumulate into the hallmark proteinaceous inclusion bodies associated with HD. htt is also highly associated with numerous cellular and subcellular membranes that contain a variety of lipids. As lipid homeostasis and metabolism abnormalities are observed in HD patients, we investigated how varying both the sphingomyelin (SM) and ganglioside (GM1) contents modifies the interactions between htt ...
Catalytic Conversion Of Monosaccharides Into 5-(Hydroxymethyl)Furfural In Ionic Liquids Using Aluminum Complexes Bearing Bidentate (Aminomethyl)Phenolate Ligands, Daudi Sayialel Saang'onyo
Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry
Currently, the major sources of fuel, energy, and chemicals are nonrenewable fossil resources such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Additionally, petroleum is used for the production of most transportation fuels and for the production of about 95% of organic chemicals. However, the production and use of non-renewable fossil fuels are unsustainable. For economic and environmental sustainability, there is a need to search for new and/or renewable resources and technologies for energy, fuels, and chemicals production that have the potential of effectively substituting fossil resources. In this context, lignocellulosic biomass is one of the candidates that meet these requirements ...
Development Of Bifunctional Thiourea Catalysts For Effective Direct Amidation Reactions, 2018 University of Puget Sound
Development Of Bifunctional Thiourea Catalysts For Effective Direct Amidation Reactions, Alex Guzman
This research synthesized and analyzed novel catalysts that can effectively form amides. An amide is a chemical group commonly found in many pharmaceuticals and biochemicals, such as proteins. In fact, about 30% of pharmaceuticals contain an amide, and the formation of amides leads to corrosive and toxic by-products which are especially problematic on the large industrial scale. Green Chemistry has proven to be a critical tool in providing innovative solutions by making the industrial production of chemicals more sustainable and safe. The pharmaceutical industry has some of the most inefficient reactions in the chemical industry mainly due to the complexity ...
Progress Towards The Synthesis Of Iron-Based Hydrogenation Catalysts Using Hydroxypyridine Bidentate And Tetradentate Ligands, 2018 University of Puget Sound
Progress Towards The Synthesis Of Iron-Based Hydrogenation Catalysts Using Hydroxypyridine Bidentate And Tetradentate Ligands, Sara Rockow
This project aimed to develop tools to increase the sustainability of the pharmaceutical industry. The pharmaceutical industry is one of the largest global markets; and one of the most wasteful. Catalysis has been identified as a key tool in sustainable chemistry. One of the most important catalytic reactions in the pharmaceutical industry is the hydrogenation of carbonyl groups, which traditionally relies on transition metal complexes. These metals are environmentally harmful; this project focuses on synthesizing iron-based hydrogenation catalysts as benign alternatives. In order to form the catalysts, organic ligands need to be attached to iron precursors. Simpler model ligands were ...
Effect Of Curing Rate On The Microstructure And Macroscopic Properties Of Epoxy Fiberglass Composites, 2018 Old Dominion University
Effect Of Curing Rate On The Microstructure And Macroscopic Properties Of Epoxy Fiberglass Composites, Ammar Patel, Olesksandr Kravchenko, Ica Manas-Zloczower
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications
Curing rates of an epoxy amine system were varied via different curing cycles, and glass-fiber epoxy composites were prepared using the same protocol, with the aim of investigating the correlation between microstructure and composite properties. It was found that the fast curing cycle resulted in a non-homogenous network, with a larger percentage of a softer phase. Homogenized composite properties, namely storage modulus and quasi-static intra-laminar shear strength, remained unaffected by the change in resin microstructure. However, fatigue tests revealed a significant reduction in fatigue life for composites cured at fast curing rates, while composites with curing cycles that allowed a ...
Syntheses Of Azepinoindole Alkaloids Cimitrypazepine, Fargesine And Hyrtioreticulins C & D, 2018 West Virginia University
Syntheses Of Azepinoindole Alkaloids Cimitrypazepine, Fargesine And Hyrtioreticulins C & D, Ganesh Ghimire
Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports
The Watanabe-Cenini-Söderberg reductive N-heterocyclization has emerged as a powerful tool for the synthesis of a variety of functionalized indoles. Söderberg’s elaboration of this methodology has been utilized as a late-stage cyclization protocol for the synthesis of azepinoindole alkaloids, a class of natural products characterized by an azepane skeleton fused with an indole ring. Short syntheses of the naturally occurring azepino[5,4,3-cd]indole alkaloids, cimitrypazepine, fargesine, and the diastereomeric hyrtioreticulins C & D have been completed starting from commercially available tetra-substituted benzene derivatives. The key azepinoindole core in each case was assembled via an intramolecular Mizoroki-Heck reaction ...
An Interdisciplinary Approach To The Target Elucidation Of Novel Antibiotic 31g12, 2018 University of Montana
An Interdisciplinary Approach To The Target Elucidation Of Novel Antibiotic 31g12, Larissa A. Walker
Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections that can quickly acquire antibiotic resistance. We have identified a novel triazole antimicrobial 31G12 based on the natural product core of nonactin isolated from the fermentation of Streptomyces griseus, that is active against many Gram-positive bacteria as well as antibiotic resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. The synthesis and characterization indicate that 31G12 exists as a mixture of two rotamers at room temperature and displays bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus with moderate mammalian cell toxicity. We have currently identified potential protein targets of 31G12 in S ...
Detection And Determination Of Food Residues In Native American Pottery, 2018 University of Northern Iowa
Detection And Determination Of Food Residues In Native American Pottery, Katherine A. Plotzke
Honors Program Theses
The purpose of this research was to develop a new method of analyzing organic residues left on Native American pottery using linear Raman spectroscopy. Native American pottery was replicated using terra cotta and maple syrup was boiled in each of the pots using boiling stones. The pottery shards were then analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. Shards of pottery with maple syrup residue were compared to the standards and the syrup residue was not only detected, but also matched to compounds in the instrument library. Typically, the study of Native American pottery has been done in a variety of different ways, many ...
Modification Of 4,5- Aminoglycosides To Overcome Drug Resistance Bacteria And Toxic Side Effect, 2018 Wayne State University
Modification Of 4,5- Aminoglycosides To Overcome Drug Resistance Bacteria And Toxic Side Effect, Guanyu Yang
Wayne State University Dissertations
MODIFICATION OF 4,5- AMINOGLYCOSIDES TO OVERCOME DRUG RESISTANCE BACTERIA AND TOXIC SIDE EFFECT
Advisor: Professor David Crich
Degree: Doctor of Philosophy
Infectious diseases causing by antibiotic resistant pathogen are one of the major threat to human health and society today. Many researchers tried to develop next generation of antibiotics by reinvesting the existing antibacterial drugs. Aminoglycosides have long been used as highly potent and broad-spectrum antibiotics for treating bacterial infections. But their side effect, especially the irreversible ototoxicity, and the fast-growing resistant problem limit their application. The goal of this research ...
Design And Synthesis Of Oligo-(3,5-Dithio-Β-D-Glucopyranoside) As Β-(1→3)-Glucan Mimetics, 2018 Wayne State University
Design And Synthesis Of Oligo-(3,5-Dithio-Β-D-Glucopyranoside) As Β-(1→3)-Glucan Mimetics, Xiaoxiao Liao
Wayne State University Dissertations
This dissertation presents the design and synthesis of oligo-(3,5-dithio-β-D-glucopyranoside) as β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan mimetics. The synthesized dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric mimetics were tested for their binding affinities to Dectin-1 and CR3 and their abilities to activate phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
The first chapter gives an introduction of β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan. It gives an introduction about the structure and origin of β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan as well as the immunostimulating effect of natural β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan. The study of interaction between β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan and the receptors leads to a conclusion that the hydrophobicity of β- ...
Cation Clock Reactions For The Determination Of Relative Reaction Kinetics In Glycosylation Reactions, 2018 Wayne State University
Cation Clock Reactions For The Determination Of Relative Reaction Kinetics In Glycosylation Reactions, Philip Adero
Wayne State University Dissertations
This dissertation presents the development of cyclization reactions as clocks for the determination of the molecularity of glycosylation reactions in individual pyranoside systems and extends it to the arabinofuranoside systems. It also describes the development of selective hydrogenolytic cleavage of naphthylmethyl ethers in the presence of sulfides.
The first part of chapter one gives an overview of the significance of glycochemistry and the challenges involved. The second part describes some selected glycosylation methods and extends this to the general mechanistic studies of glycosylation. This is followed by the discussion of the general clock reactions in literature which initiates a further ...
Richard Smalley And The Materials Of Tomorrow: The Discovery And Science Of Fullerenes, 2018 Parkland College
Richard Smalley And The Materials Of Tomorrow: The Discovery And Science Of Fullerenes, Creighton A. Jackson
Natural Sciences Poster Sessions
This poster for the Natural Sciences Poster Session at Parkland College details the contributions of Richard Smalley to organic chemistry, specifically the discovery of fullerenes in 1984, which led to advancements in the field of nanoscience. Fullerene use in materials science, Single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes and use of fullerenes in biology are also outlined.
The Scientific Contributions Of Donald J. Cram, 2018 Parkland College
The Scientific Contributions Of Donald J. Cram, Leiah Carney
Natural Sciences Poster Sessions
This poster for the Natural Sciences Poster Session summarizes the work of Donald J. Cram in the field of organic chemistry. A Nobel prizewinner in 1987, he is known for his work with hemicarcerands and carcerands, molecular containers which aided in the study of unstable molecules.
Synthesis Of New Bodipy Analogs, 2018 The University of Akron
Synthesis Of New Bodipy Analogs, John Dilyard
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
This report examines the synthesis of new ligands based upon dipyrazolylmethane and diindazolylmethane. The goal of these modifications is to increase the acidity of the proton on the methyl carbon to allow for deprotonation. The ligands synthesized were dipyrazolylphenylmethane and diindazolylphenylmethane, as well as modifications of the latter. The products were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy and one crystal structure was obtained of diindazolylphenylmethane.
Determination Of Atrazine Concentration In Freshwaters Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 2018 Eastern Kentucky University
Determination Of Atrazine Concentration In Freshwaters Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Boniface Osei Amankona
Online Theses and Dissertations
Atrazine is the most widely used herbicides in USA, but its negative impact on aquatic ecosystem cannot be over-looked. Atrazine was traditionally determined through liquid/gas chromatography or IR spectroscopy. However, these methods are either time-consuming or costly, so fluorescence spectroscopy is investigated as a more cost and time efficient alternative. Literature value of the optimal wavelength of atrazine was found to be 350 nm emission. Experimental value for emission scanned of atrazine resulted in an optimal wavelength of 363 nm. Known and unknown concentrations of atrazine will be analyzed using fluorescence spectrophotometer to develop a calibration curve.
The calibration ...
Direct Measurement Of Rupture Force Of Single Triazole Molecule By Atomic Force Microscope And Solid Phase Synthesis Of Monodisperse Polyethylene Glycols, 2018 Michigan Technological University
Direct Measurement Of Rupture Force Of Single Triazole Molecule By Atomic Force Microscope And Solid Phase Synthesis Of Monodisperse Polyethylene Glycols, Ashok Khanal
Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports
This dissertation includes two topics, which are related to each other: (1) Rupture force measurement of single triazole molecule by atomic force microscope (AFM) and (2) Solid phase stepwise synthesis of polyethylene glycols (PEGs).
The reaction of an alkyne and an azide to form a 1,2,3- triazole has found wide applications. However, the stability of triazole under mechanical stress is unclear. We investigated the cycloreversion at the single molecular level using atomic force microscopy. A mica surface functionalized with a molecule containing a 1,2,3-triazole moiety in the middle and an activated ester at the end was ...
Ecosystem Calcification And Production In Two Great Barrier Reef Coral Reefs : Methodological Challenges And Environmental Drivers, Ashly Mcmahon
This thesis investigates the drivers of coral reef ecosystem metabolism and the abilities of the different methodologies and analytical approaches to accurately represent reef dynamics. It encompassed tracing natural nutrient additions through bird guano into a coral cay. Developing a new, automated system for measuring carbonate chemistry for coral reef metabolism and the effects of mass coral bleaching on ecosystem functioning were quantified. Overall, it showed that natural nutrient additions and bleaching differentially affect coral reef metabolism and that subtle differences in analytical methods, sampling approaches, and data interpretation techniques can cause significant variation in metabolic estimates.
Oxidation Of Β-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds And Application To Lignin Linkage Degradation Facilitated By Mechanochemical Treatment And Two-Step Oxidative Depolymerization, Soledad G. Yao
Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry
The oxidation of lignin model compounds was studied in conventional solvents in parallel with oxidations in ionic liquid solvents. Catalyst systems were investigated in ionic liquid solvents to determine how reaction rates and the selectivity for benzylic carbon oxidation were affected. Oxidation rates were often lower in ionic liquids than in conventional solvents ‒ as indicated by lower conversion in a standard reaction time ‒ likely due, at least in part, to the higher viscosity of ionic liquids. Mechano chemical treatment of Indulin AT kraft lignin by ball milling with KOH and toluene produced significant carbonyl functionality, among other changes. The chemical ...
Experiential Learning Activity: Biodiesel Inquiry Project, 2018 CUNY Guttman Community College
Experiential Learning Activity: Biodiesel Inquiry Project, Ji Kim
Open Educational Resources
The activity described herein can be implemented in introductory chemistry and high school chemistry courses. The main goal of the project is to integrate a ubiquitous biodiesel production with experiential learning by providing a community-based project. The students work in groups, research the benefits of using biodiesel over petroleum-based diesel, collect waste cooking oil from home or restaurants, develop simple and cost-effective methods to produce biodiesel.
Design And Synthesis Of Potential Tlr7 And Tlr8 Inhibitors, 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder
Design And Synthesis Of Potential Tlr7 And Tlr8 Inhibitors, Patrick Nordeen
Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect invading viral and bacterial pathogens and play a critical role in the initiation and regulation of the innate immune system. Over-active TLR signaling has been indicated in the disease pathology of numerous crippling inflammatory autoimmune disorders and inhibition of these receptors is of considerable interest for therapeutic intervention. TLR7 and TLR8 are the two TLRs that share the most similarity in both sequence and structure. Despite their similarity, selective inhibition represents a promising therapy for diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The goal of this master’s thesis is to identify ...