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Intermolecular-Trapping Of 1,3-Dialkyl Diaziridines With Hdda-Derived Benzynes, Ramitha Rupasinghe 2018 University of Minnesota, Morris

Intermolecular-Trapping Of 1,3-Dialkyl Diaziridines With Hdda-Derived Benzynes, Ramitha Rupasinghe

Undergraduate Research Symposium 2018

The extent to which benzynes react with various trapping agents is an important question in synthetic chemistry due to its versatility to produce products that can be used as pharmaceuticals, dyes and other complex molecules. The hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction allows the generation of benzynes in situ which then can be efficiently trapped to synthesize complex products in one step with high yields. Reactions of HDDA - derived benzynes with trapping agents such as thioamides, alcohols, pyrroles, silyl ethers and multifunctional natural products have been studied in previous research. In this research, the reactions of HDDA-derived benzynes with diaziridines is explored because ...


Evaluation Of Vaporization Enthalpies And Vapor Pressures Of Various Aroma And Pharmacologically Active Compounds By Correlation Gas Chromatography, Daniel Simmons 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Evaluation Of Vaporization Enthalpies And Vapor Pressures Of Various Aroma And Pharmacologically Active Compounds By Correlation Gas Chromatography, Daniel Simmons

Theses

Scientists in the pharmaceutical, food, and aroma industries can benefit from reliable thermochemical data. Vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure data are not available for all compounds. Furthermore, some literature data is conflicting. The goal of this work was to use a method called correlation gas chromatography (CGC) to generate reliable vaporization enthalpy data in instances where other experimental methods are not applicable. Vapor pressures of the targets were also calculated in cases where the required literature data on the standards used in this technique were available.

CGC involves making a standard cocktail that includes a mixture of standards and one ...


Synthesis Of Novel Agents For The Treatment Of Infectious And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Benjamin Joe Eduful 2018 University of South Florida

Synthesis Of Novel Agents For The Treatment Of Infectious And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Benjamin Joe Eduful

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Infectious and neurodegenerative diseases continue to be a major concern worldwide. In spite of the great advances in drug therapy for treating various infectious and neurodegenerative diseases, there is still an urgent need for new and improved drugs due to increasing drug resistance among pathogens, emergence of new pathogens, ease of transmission of infections, ineffective available treatments, toxicity associated with current standard of care, aging populations and the lack of better alternative treatment options.

The first part of this manuscript (chapters 1 - 5) describes the synthesis of novel agents active against Leishmania donovani. According to the World Health Organization (WHO ...


Organic Chemistry I & Ii (Ccga), Colleen Knight, Leon Gardner, Joseph Lodmell, Ernest Pascoe, Andrea Wallace, Lisa McNeal 2018 College of Coastal Georgia

Organic Chemistry I & Ii (Ccga), Colleen Knight, Leon Gardner, Joseph Lodmell, Ernest Pascoe, Andrea Wallace, Lisa Mcneal

Chemistry Grants Collections

This Grants Collection for Organic Chemistry I & II was created under a Round Seven ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.

Affordable Learning Georgia Grants Collections are intended to provide faculty with the frameworks to quickly implement or revise the same materials as a Textbook Transformation Grants team, along with the aims and lessons learned from project teams during the implementation process.

Documents are in .pdf format, with a separate .docx (Word) version available for download. Each collection contains the following materials:

  • Linked Syllabus
  • Initial Proposal
  • Final Report


Secondary Electronic And Solvent Effects On Regiospecific P-Bromination Of Aromatic Systems, Selahaddin Gumus 2018 Western Kentucky University

Secondary Electronic And Solvent Effects On Regiospecific P-Bromination Of Aromatic Systems, Selahaddin Gumus

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bromoarenes are important aromatic building blocks that are commonly used to synthesize various functional compounds in pharmaceutical, agrochemical and related industries.1,2 This great demand for bromoarenes makes their preparation a widely studied area of synthetic organic chemistry. However, further understanding of the reactivity and regiochemistry of aromatic functionalization reactions is still necessary, as much about the secondary substitution and solvent effects remain unknown.

Resonance Theory is a widely used theoretical model to predict the regiospecifity and reactivity of the bromination of various aromatic compounds.3 The reactivity and regiospecificity of many substituted aromatic compounds is well explained using ...


Extraction And Identification Of Tomatidine In Cubanelle Peppers, Sadie Schultz, Madeleine Burkholder, Han Chang, Sydney Huffman 2018 Taylor University

Extraction And Identification Of Tomatidine In Cubanelle Peppers, Sadie Schultz, Madeleine Burkholder, Han Chang, Sydney Huffman

Chemistry Student Scholarship

Tomatidine is an aglycone commonly found in green tomatoes. Previous research suggests tomatidine and similar glycoalkaloids can inhibit the growth of cancer and promote the immune system. It has also been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory agent. Tomatoes are a part of the Solanaceae family and we decided to investigate to see if another member of that family also has the presence of tomatidine. We chose the Cubanelle peppers to be our subject of study because peppers are a common food and are closely related to green tomatoes.


Studies Into The Stereoselectivity Of Diels-Alder Reactions With Η 6- Ruthenium Arene Complex Substituents, Kerri McInnis 2018 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Studies Into The Stereoselectivity Of Diels-Alder Reactions With Η 6- Ruthenium Arene Complex Substituents, Kerri Mcinnis

Chemistry and Physics Undergraduate Theses

In organic chemistry, η6-ruthenium arene complexes are able to act as powerful electron-withdrawing groups, thereby facilitating the nucleophilic aromatic substitution and deprotonation of benzylic and aromatic positions.1–7 Additionally, having the metal complex bound to a non-symmetrical arene provides a source of chirality, allowing for stereoselective chemistry.1,6,8–18 It is well known that Diels-Alder (DA) reactions with an electron-rich diene can be accelerated by electron-withdrawing substituents on the dienophile. Previous studies by the Hitt research group have suggested that η6-ruthenium arene complexes can accelerate DA reactions involving adjacent alkenes.19 However, the effect of using a ...


Photo-Controlled Release Of Zinc Ions In Aqueous Solution With Simultaneous Fluorescence Detection, Tyler Larson 2018 College of William and Mary

Photo-Controlled Release Of Zinc Ions In Aqueous Solution With Simultaneous Fluorescence Detection, Tyler Larson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

We created a system consisting of a highly fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticle paired with a photo-release dye. Upon irradiation at the maximum absorbance of the nanoparticle, it non-radiatively transfers its energy to the dye through the process of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer), exciting the dye, which then releases a biologically relevant ion, zinc. This system enhances the photo-release process, making it kinetically faster and more efficient. The photo-event is accompanied by a change in fluorescence of the dye, allowing for simultaneous detection of photo-release. This thesis outlines nanoparticle synthesis using the reprecipitation method, synthesis of the zinc releasing dye ...


Photoremovable Protecting Groups Based On Electrocyclization With Leaving Group Expulsion Via A Proposed Zwitterion, Gilbert Ndzeidze 2018 Marquette University

Photoremovable Protecting Groups Based On Electrocyclization With Leaving Group Expulsion Via A Proposed Zwitterion, Gilbert Ndzeidze

Dissertations (2009 -)

The triplet excited state of thioxanthone produced by photolysis undergoes reversible triplet energy transfer with a trimethylene - linked benzothiophene-2-carboxanilide ring system. The ensuing electrocyclic ring closure of the anilide moiety produces a putative zwitterionic intermediate that is capable of expelling leaving groups (LG-) from the C-3 position of the benzothiophene ring. Stern-Volmer quenching studies with cyclohexadiene as quencher furnish the rate constants for the triplet excitation transfer in the forward and reverse directions, which can be expressed as an equilibrium constant K = 0.058. Overall, the rate of triplet excited state reaction becomes K x kr = 5.7 x 104 ...


Organocatalyzed Synthesis Of Epoxides From Chalcones Utilizing Amino Acids, Sabrina N. Kegeler 2018 Western Michigan University

Organocatalyzed Synthesis Of Epoxides From Chalcones Utilizing Amino Acids, Sabrina N. Kegeler

Master's Theses

The epoxide functional group is important throughout the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in nature. In the chemical industry, epoxides are present in resins and fragrances. In the pharmaceutical industry, epoxide-containing compounds are used as intermediates in the manufacturing of drugs. In nature, many natural products contain epoxide groups and are used for medicinal purposes, and for models to create synthetic molecules.

One approach to epoxide synthesis involves the use of an alkene precursor, a base, and an oxidizing agent. This is where my investigations began. The first step was to optimize the epoxidation reaction, examining substrate scope ...


Higher Energy Gap Control Of Fluorescence In Conjugated Polymers, Chien-Hung Chiang 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Higher Energy Gap Control Of Fluorescence In Conjugated Polymers, Chien-Hung Chiang

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Chemo- and biosensors based on fluorescent conjugated polymer benefit from greater detection sensitivity due to amplification of the electronic perturbations produced by analyte binding. This amplification stems from the exciton-transporting properties of conjugated polymers. A conventional design paradigm relies on the analyte binding events which generate sites of lower energy relative to the polymer energy: either fluorescence quenching sites (turn-off sensors) or bathochromically shifted fluorophores (turn-on sensors). In both type sensors, the excitons migrate to the lower-energy site created by analyte binding.

This dissertation primarily focused the investigation of an alternative paradigm when analyte binding creates higher energy gap sites ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Covalent Adaptable Networks Comprised Of Dynamic Imine And Aminal Covalent Bonds, Albert Chao 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Synthesis And Characterization Of Covalent Adaptable Networks Comprised Of Dynamic Imine And Aminal Covalent Bonds, Albert Chao

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The dissertation is about the design, synthesis and characterization of materials comprised of covalent adaptable networks (CANs). There are three chapters within this dissertation.

Chapter 1 contains a short overview of conventional thermosets and thermoplastics. A new strategy of combining advantages from thermosets and thermoplastics is utilizing dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) for material design. Dynamic covalent bonds are able to undergo dynamic exchange which allow the material to adapt to a new state when under stimuli such as stress or strain. Material comprised of such reversible networks is called covalent adaptable networks (CANs). These types of reversible covalent bonds followed ...


A Chimeric Nucleobase - Phenylazo Derivative As An Intrinsic Nucleobase Quencher, Gyeongsu Park, Timothy Martin-Chan, Amer El Samm, Robert H.E. Hudson 2018 Western University

A Chimeric Nucleobase - Phenylazo Derivative As An Intrinsic Nucleobase Quencher, Gyeongsu Park, Timothy Martin-Chan, Amer El Samm, Robert H.E. Hudson

Western Research Forum

Molecular beacons are important bioanalytical probes which are most often

constructed from a single-stranded oligonucleotide which has been labeled at

opposite termini with a fluorophore and a quencher. When the fluorophore and

quencher are in close proximity, no fluorescence is observed due to FRET

(Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer). DABCYL (4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-

4'-carboxylic acid) has been used as a quencher in the molecular beacon to absorbs

excitation energy from a fluorophore and to dissipate the energy as heat. However,

DABCYL is unable to form a base-pair and is conventionally placed as an overhanging

residue. This produces a derivative wherein the chromophore ...


Unveiling The Effects Of Linker Substitution In Suzuki Coupling With Palladium Nanoparticles In Metal–Organic Frameworks, Xinle Li, Biying Zhang, Ryan Van Zeeland, Linlin Tang, Yuchen Pei, Tian Wei Goh, Levi M. Stanley, Wenyu Huang 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Unveiling The Effects Of Linker Substitution In Suzuki Coupling With Palladium Nanoparticles In Metal–Organic Frameworks, Xinle Li, Biying Zhang, Ryan Van Zeeland, Linlin Tang, Yuchen Pei, Tian Wei Goh, Levi M. Stanley, Wenyu Huang

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The establishment of structure–property relationships in heterogeneous catalysis is of prime importance but remains a formidable challenge. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) featuring excellent chemical tunability are emerging as an auspicious platform for the atomic-level control of heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, we encapsulate palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) in a series of isoreticular mixed-linker MOFs, and the obtained MOF-Pd NPs catalysts were used to unveil the electronic and steric effects of linker substitution on the activity of these catalysts in the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. Significantly, m-6,6′-Me2bpy-MOF-Pd exhibits a remarkable enhancement in the activity compared to non-functionalized m-bpy-MOF-Pd and m-4 ...


Beyond Hydrophobicity: Aqueous Interfaces, Interactions And Reactions, Russell James Perkins 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Beyond Hydrophobicity: Aqueous Interfaces, Interactions And Reactions, Russell James Perkins

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Many important chemical reactions from all branches of chemistry occur with water as a solvent. Furthermore, in environmental chemistry, biochemistry, and synthetic chemistry, key reactions occur in heterogeneous aqueous systems, where interfacial effects are particularly important. Despite the importance of aqueous environments and the tremendous amount of work done to study them, there are aspects that require further explanation and remain controversial. I have performed experimental studies to help elucidate the fundamental characteristics of aqueous systems, while examining specific phenomena across several fields.

The genetic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) can result in increased levels of the aromatic amino acid phenylalanine in ...


Indole Anion Cycloadditions With Methyl Coumalate, George A. Kraus, Huangchao Yu 2018 Iowa State University

Indole Anion Cycloadditions With Methyl Coumalate, George A. Kraus, Huangchao Yu

Chemistry Publications

The reaction of the anion of indoles with methyl coumalate followed by selective opening of the lactone led to the preparation of tricyclic intermediates for indole alkaloid synthesis.


The Oligomerization State Of Bacterial Enzyme I (Ei) Determines Ei's Allosteric Stimulation Or Competitive Inhibition By Α-Ketoglutarate, Trang T. Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Vincenzo Venditti 2018 Iowa State University

The Oligomerization State Of Bacterial Enzyme I (Ei) Determines Ei's Allosteric Stimulation Or Competitive Inhibition By Α-Ketoglutarate, Trang T. Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Vincenzo Venditti

Chemistry Publications

The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a signal transduction pathway that couples phosphoryl transfer to active sugar transport across the cell membrane. The PTS is initiated by phosphorylation of enzyme I (EI) by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The EI phosphorylation state determines the phosphorylation states of all other PTS components and is thought to play a central role in the regulation of several metabolic pathways and to control the biology of bacterial cells at multiple levels, for example, affecting virulence and biofilm formation. Given the pivotal role of EI in bacterial metabolism, an improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling its activity could ...


Systematic Size Control In The Synthesis Of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles, Grant C. Bleier 2018 University of New Mexico

Systematic Size Control In The Synthesis Of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles, Grant C. Bleier

Chemistry ETDs

A novel synthetic method for the production of highly magnetic, low size-dispersity nanoparticles through reversible magnetic agglomeration is introduced and studied in detail. Initially, a weakly coordinating surfactant (3-octadecyl-2,4-pentanedione) is employed to produce a wide range of nanoparticle sizes ranging from 8 to 20 nm in diameter. The kinetics faced in these reactions by cheap and widely available iron complex precursors can be avoided in this method with the introduction of thermodynamic control, which occurs in the form of a magnetic precipitation event that essentially halts nanoparticle growth. Utilizing this synthetic method, the length of the alkyl chain on ...


Discovery And Development Of A Three-Component Oxidopyrylium Cycloaddition And Its Application Towards Alpha-Hydroxytropolone Synthesis, Michael P. D'Erasmo 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Discovery And Development Of A Three-Component Oxidopyrylium Cycloaddition And Its Application Towards Alpha-Hydroxytropolone Synthesis, Michael P. D'Erasmo

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Historically, natural products have provided unique research opportunities and challenges for organic synthesis, chemical biology, and medicinal chemistry due to their molecular complexity and effects on physiological systems. The total synthesis of natural products has not only produced novel reaction methods and strategies capable of efficiently generating complex structural motifs but also granted access to sufficient quantities of otherwise scarce natural product material for clinical evaluation. These synthetic efforts have facilitated the formation of a transdisciplinary partnership between chemistry, biology, and medicine that has been paramount in elucidating the chemical and pharmaceutical utility of natural products. Chapter I of this ...


Organic Photochemistry: Remote Delivery Of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates Via A Heterogeneous Approach, Niluksha Walalawela Abeykoon 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Organic Photochemistry: Remote Delivery Of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates Via A Heterogeneous Approach, Niluksha Walalawela Abeykoon

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Photosensitized oxidation reactions produce a number of intermediates species, which are generated in varying amounts over time. This complexity presents major challenges in the study of oxidation processes. Mechanistic efforts to separate and deliver reactive oxygen intermediates enable their controlled use in processes such as bacterial inactivation. This thesis describes a heterogeneous reaction approach taken to control the generation and delivery of reactive oxygen intermediates. The mechanistic details of photosensitized reactions were elucidated via synthetic, materials, and physical organic techniques to optimize the delivery of reactive oxygen intermediates. This thesis contains six chapters as described below.

Chapter 1 gives a ...


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