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Synthesis Of Diazonium N-(Perfluoroalkyl) Benzenesulfonimide Polymers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Helal Alharbi 2019 East Tennessee State University

Synthesis Of Diazonium N-(Perfluoroalkyl) Benzenesulfonimide Polymers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Helal Alharbi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of the research is to synthesize the diazonium N-(perfluoroalkyl) benzenesulfonimide (PFSI)zwitterionicpolymers as electrolytes in polymerelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The proposed diazoniumPFSI zwitterionic polymer (I) is expected to enhance the thermal and chemical stability, increase the proton conductivity of electrolytes, and improve the catalyst efficiency for PEM fuel cells. Synthesis of the perfluorobenzoyl peroxide initiator, homopolymerization of perfluoro (3-oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride,coupling reaction with4-sulfamonylacetanilide, couplingreaction with 4-nitrobenzene sulfonyl amide, n-deacetylation reaction, and diazotization reactionhave been carried outsuccessfully in the lab. The intermediate chemicals are characterized by GC-MS, IR, NMR, and GPC spectroscopies.


Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee 2019 Iowa State University

Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee

Young-Jin Lee

Exploring the metabolic differences directly on tissues is essential for the comprehensive understanding of how multicellular organisms function. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an attractive technique toward this goal; however, MSI in metabolomics scale has been hindered by multiple limitations. This is most notable for single cell level high-spatial resolution imaging because of the limited number of molecules in small sampling size and the low ionization yields of many metabolites. Several on-tissue chemical derivatization approaches have been reported to increase MSI signals of targeted compounds, especially in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)- MSI. Herein, we adopt a combination of chemical ...


Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee 2019 Iowa State University

Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

Exploring the metabolic differences directly on tissues is essential for the comprehensive understanding of how multicellular organisms function. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an attractive technique toward this goal; however, MSI in metabolomics scale has been hindered by multiple limitations. This is most notable for single cell level high-spatial resolution imaging because of the limited number of molecules in small sampling size and the low ionization yields of many metabolites. Several on-tissue chemical derivatization approaches have been reported to increase MSI signals of targeted compounds, especially in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)- MSI. Herein, we adopt a combination of chemical ...


Photoswitchable Self-Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Suendues Noori, James A. Wisner 2019 University of Western Ontario

Photoswitchable Self-Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Suendues Noori, James A. Wisner

Western Research Forum

Background: Photochromism is the reversible transformation of a chemical material to another form by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation (light), where the two metastable forms have distinct absorption spectra and other properties. Photochromism in materials allows for the switching of their function solely based on irradiation with light. Polymers are used frequently as the building blocks for materials as they are versatile, multifunctional, can carry charge and be processed by solution-based deposition methods. Supramolecular polymers share the same definition as polymers with the exception that they are held together by reversible and directional non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds. Synthesizing ...


Development Of Bioorthogonal Molecular Tools On Gold Nanoparticles, Wilson Luo 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of Bioorthogonal Molecular Tools On Gold Nanoparticles, Wilson Luo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis describes the development of bioorthogonal chemical tools — originally designed to form bonds cleanly and selectively in living systems — on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model reactive nanomaterial template to showcase chemical modifications in a facile and robust manner. To achieve this goal, new methodologies to cleanly incorporate strained alkyne (SA) and cargo-bearing triarylphosphine derivatives onto AuNPs were developed. The protocols described herein provide well-defined reactive AuNP interfaces that undergo bioorthogonal bond-forming and breaking reactions cleanly, selectively, and rapidly to enable chemical tuning of their properties and function.

In order to circumvent the high reactivity of SAs, which hindered ...


Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman 2019 University of Kentucky

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hy­droxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-di­hydro­furan-2-carb­oxy­lic acid), C6H6O5, which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intra­molecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxo­propanoic acid), C3H4O3, at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B33, 210–212 ...


The Other Sio2: Investigating Oxidation Of Alcohols Using (Nh4)2cr2o7 In Sand, John Lepore, Emily Toy, Robert Torregrosa 2019 SUNY Geneseo

The Other Sio2: Investigating Oxidation Of Alcohols Using (Nh4)2cr2o7 In Sand, John Lepore, Emily Toy, Robert Torregrosa

McNair Scholars Program

Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones is one of the classical reactions in organic chemistry which is utilized frequently in medicine, industry, and pharmaceuticals. Classical effective reagents in oxidation include pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium permanganate, Jones reagent, bleach, and Swern conditions. There has been an increasing interest throughout the years to use supported-based reagents in tandem with these reagents, particularly with silica gel especially towards Cr-based oxidizing agents. Despite the abundance of reported reactions in the literature pertaining to silica gel, little is known about sand, despite both are silicon dioxide and exhibit similar porosity and crystallinity. It is not ...


Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d) - Module 2 - Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence 2019 Xavier University of Louisiana

Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d) - Module 2 - Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

Sample Problems for Module 2


Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d) - Module 2 - Functional Groups And Infrared Spectroscopy, Candace M. Lawrence 2019 Xavier University of Louisiana

Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d) - Module 2 - Functional Groups And Infrared Spectroscopy, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

This module teaches the student to draw Lewis structures, identify bond types present in molecules from IR spectroscopic data and predict features of IR spectrum of molecules


Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d)-Module 2- Sample B-Answer Key, Candace M. Lawrence 2019 Xavier University of Louisiana

Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d)-Module 2- Sample B-Answer Key, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

Answer Key to Sample Problems


Stacked Antiaromatic Porphyrins, Ryo Nozawa, Hiroko Tanaka, Won-Young Cha, Yongseok Hong, Ichiro Hisaki, Soji Shimizu, Ji-Young Shin, Tim Kowalczyk, Stephan Irle, Dongho Kim, Hiroshi Shinokubo 2019 Nagoya University

Stacked Antiaromatic Porphyrins, Ryo Nozawa, Hiroko Tanaka, Won-Young Cha, Yongseok Hong, Ichiro Hisaki, Soji Shimizu, Ji-Young Shin, Tim Kowalczyk, Stephan Irle, Dongho Kim, Hiroshi Shinokubo

Tim Kowalczyk

Aromaticity is a key concept in organic chemistry. Even though this concept has already been theoretically extrapolated to three dimensions, it usually still remains restricted to planar molecules in organic chemistry textbooks. Stacking of antiaromatic π-systems has been proposed to induce three-dimensional aromaticity as a result of strong frontier orbital interactions. However, experimental evidence to support this prediction still remains elusive so far. Here we report that close stacking of antiaromatic porphyrins diminishes their inherent antiaromaticity in the solid state as well as in solution. The antiaromatic stacking furthermore allows a delocalization of the π-electrons, which enhances the two-photon absorption ...


The Study Of Nanoparticle Titanium Dioxide-Based Hydrogel For Dye Adsorption And Photo-Degradation, Reem M. Alsharari 2019 Clark Atlanta University

The Study Of Nanoparticle Titanium Dioxide-Based Hydrogel For Dye Adsorption And Photo-Degradation, Reem M. Alsharari

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The objective of this research was to study the adsorption and photodegradation of crystal violet (CV) dye by using poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogel and nanocomposite TiO2-PHEMA hydrogel. Since the TiO2 nanoparticle has poor solubility, another goal of this study was to make a uniform TiO2 nanocomposite gel. These gels can be used in water treatment and can be easily photodegrade by exposure of sunlight which is similar to exposing to UV-vis. PHEMA was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The nanocomposite gels were characterized by FT-IR and XRD to confirm the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles and CV dye inside the PHEMA ...


Application Of The Picoloyl Substituent In Carbohydrate Chemistry, Michael Mannino, Alexei V. Demchenko 2019 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Application Of The Picoloyl Substituent In Carbohydrate Chemistry, Michael Mannino, Alexei V. Demchenko

Michael Mannino

Stereocontrol of glycosylation reactions is a constant struggle in the field of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. The application of the picoloyl (Pico) substituent can offer a numerous stereocontrolling avenues. The most popular application is the Hydrogen-bond-mediated Aglycone Delivery (HAD) method that provides excellent selectivity in the glycosylation of a variety of sugar substrates. The HAD method relies on the formation of an intermolecular hydrogen bond between the nitrogen atom of the Pico substituent on the glycosyl donor with the hydroxyl group of the glycosyl acceptor. This interaction provides a facial preference for the nucleophilic attack and hence provides powerful stereocontrol for ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of 1,2,4-Oxadiazolidinones: The Search For A Potential Non-Β-Lactam Β-Lactamase Inhibitors., Chimdi Eke Kalu 2019 East Tennessee State University

Synthesis And Evaluation Of 1,2,4-Oxadiazolidinones: The Search For A Potential Non-Β-Lactam Β-Lactamase Inhibitors., Chimdi Eke Kalu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

β-lactam antibiotics have been the most widely used drug of choice to combat infectious disease caused by bacteria. Unfortunately, their effectiveness is drastically threatened by bacterial β-lactamases. β-lactamases is responsible for the resistance to most antibiotic drugs. For decades, β-lactam β-lactamases inhibitors have been used to reduce bacterial resistance; however, in this study 1,2,4-oxadiazolidinone derivatives as a non-β-lactam β-lactamases inhibitor against TEM-1 and P99 β-lactamases. The significance of oxadiazolidinone is the prominent five-membered ring scaffold in its structure, which is configurationally stable and present in other biologically active compounds such as linezolid and avibactam. Oxadiazolidinones were synthesized by ...


Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem 2210d) - 1st Module - Bonding - Sample B- Answer Key, Candace M. Lawrence 2019 Xavier University of Louisiana

Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem 2210d) - 1st Module - Bonding - Sample B- Answer Key, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

Sample B Answer Key to Organic Chemistry I Drill Module 1.


Mild Synthesis Of Perylene Tetracarboxylic Monoanhydrides With Potential Applications In Organic Optoelectronics, Xizhe Zhao 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Mild Synthesis Of Perylene Tetracarboxylic Monoanhydrides With Potential Applications In Organic Optoelectronics, Xizhe Zhao

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Perylene tetracarboxylic derivatives are considered good n-type semi-conductors. In past decades, there has been extensive study on their synthesis and electronic properties. Because of the high electron affinity, the ability to form π-π stacks, they have been widely utilized in organic photovoltaic solar cells, field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes. Many of those applications prefer unsymmetrically substituted perylene tetracarboxylic derivatives. Perylene monoanhydrides are the most versatile intermediates for the preparation of unsymmetrically substituted perylene tetracarboxylic derivatives. In this thesis, I focused on introducing new synthesis methods for perylene monoanhydrides with labile functional group and their potential applications in organic optoelectronics.

In ...


Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem 2210d) - 1st Module - Bonding - Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence 2019 Xavier University of Louisiana

Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem 2210d) - 1st Module - Bonding - Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

Sample Problems for Organic Chemistry I Module 1.


Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem 2210d) - 1st Module - Bonding, Candace M. Lawrence 2019 Xavier University of Louisiana

Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem 2210d) - 1st Module - Bonding, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

A Review of General Chemistry: Electrons, Bonds and Molecular Properties.


Preparation Of Enantioenriched Alkyltin Species And Their Application In Stereospecific Transformations, Glenn O. Ralph 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Preparation Of Enantioenriched Alkyltin Species And Their Application In Stereospecific Transformations, Glenn O. Ralph

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Organometallic reagents containing the tin-carbon bond are used extensively in modern synthetic chemistry for the formation of new bonds to carbon. Over recent decades, transition metal catalyzed cross coupling reactions between two C(sp2) centers have been widely developed. However, the introduction of a C(sp3) center complicates the catalytic cycle, and opens unproductive chemical pathways which lead to isomerization, elimination, and racemization. Our lab has developed a modified-Stille reaction to combat the deleterious effects of β-hydride elimination. Our protocol enables unactivated 2° alkyl organotin nucleophiles to undergo efficient cross coupling reactions with C(sp2) electrophiles, avoiding ...


An Investigation Of Alkylboron Transmetallation In Palladium-Catalyzed Suzuki Reactions, Benjamin Murray 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

An Investigation Of Alkylboron Transmetallation In Palladium-Catalyzed Suzuki Reactions, Benjamin Murray

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Through the past 40 years, carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions have greatly enhanced the ability of chemists to synthesize C(sp2)-C(sp2) bonds and more recently C(sp2)-C(sp3) bonds. In particular, the Suzuki reaction has proven to be invaluable with its high yields, good functional group tolerance, and low toxicity of reagents. One of the component steps of the catalytic cycle of this reaction is transmetallation, in which the nucleophilic species transfers its organic component to the metal center (generally palladium). The mechanism of transfer from primary alkylboron nucleophiles was studied in the 1990's ...


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