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Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry Commons

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New Applications Of Mass Spectrometry For Drug And Lipid Analysis, Elizabeth Lauren Emerson 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

New Applications Of Mass Spectrometry For Drug And Lipid Analysis, Elizabeth Lauren Emerson

Theses and Dissertations

Mass spectrometry is an important tool used in many different disciplines and settings that include forensics, drug discovery, environmental analysis, and proteomics. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI - TOF MS) are two of the most important instruments used for analysis of compounds. Chapters 1 and 2 of this discussion use GC-MS for the investigation of synthetic cannabinoids in `K2' incense products and the detection of metabolites in urine samples from individuals suspected of consuming these mixtures. Analytical standards were synthesized and used for identification and confirmation of structures. Detection of these ...


Activation Of Pad4 In Net Formation, Amanda S. Rohrbach, Daniel J. Slade, Paul R. Thompson, Kerri A. Mowen 2012 The Scripps Research Institute

Activation Of Pad4 In Net Formation, Amanda S. Rohrbach, Daniel J. Slade, Paul R. Thompson, Kerri A. Mowen

Thompson Lab Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various ...


Identification Of Padi2 As A Potential Breast Cancer Biomarker And Therapeutic Target., John L. McElwee, Sunish Mohanan, Obi L. Griffith, Heike C. Breuer, Lynne J. Anguish, Brian D. Cherrington, Ashley M. Palmer, Louise R. Howe, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Joe W. Gray, Scott A. Coonrod 2012 Cornell University

Identification Of Padi2 As A Potential Breast Cancer Biomarker And Therapeutic Target., John L. Mcelwee, Sunish Mohanan, Obi L. Griffith, Heike C. Breuer, Lynne J. Anguish, Brian D. Cherrington, Ashley M. Palmer, Louise R. Howe, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Joe W. Gray, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) is regulated by EGF in mammary cancer cells and appears to play a role in the proliferation of normal mammary epithelium; however, the role of PADI2 in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer has yet to be investigated. Thus, the goals of this study were to examine whether PADI2 plays a role in mammary tumor progression, and whether the inhibition of PADI activity has anti-tumor effects.

METHODS: RNA-seq data from a collection of 57 breast cancer cell lines was queried for PADI2 levels, and correlations with known ...


Potential Role Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Enzymes And Protein Citrullination In Cancer Pathogenesis., Sunish Mohanan, Brian D. Cherrington, Sachi Horibata, John L. McElwee, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod 2012 Cornell University

Potential Role Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Enzymes And Protein Citrullination In Cancer Pathogenesis., Sunish Mohanan, Brian D. Cherrington, Sachi Horibata, John L. Mcelwee, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of posttranslational modification enzymes that catalyze the conversion of positively charged protein-bound arginine and methylarginine residues to the uncharged, nonstandard amino acid citrulline. This enzymatic activity is referred to as citrullination or, alternatively, deimination. Citrullination can significantly affect biochemical pathways by altering the structure and function of target proteins. Five mammalian PAD family members (PADs 1-4 and 6) have been described and show tissue-specific distribution. Recent reviews on PADs have focused on their role in autoimmune diseases. Here, we will discuss the potential role of PADs in tumor progression and tumor-associated inflammation. In ...


The Development Of Organometallic Oboc Peptide Libraries For Use In Molecular Imaging, Dana R. Cruickshank 2012 The University of Western Ontario

The Development Of Organometallic Oboc Peptide Libraries For Use In Molecular Imaging, Dana R. Cruickshank

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The discovery of peptide-based targeted imaging agents is hindered by the required addition of a radionuclide that can affect the binding properties of the peptide. Screening of peptide libraries is problematic because they do not take into account the presence of the imaging agent. Herein the development of an organometallic OBOC peptide library that contain a rhenium (I) tricarbonyl-based imaging entity surrogate incorporated directly onto the peptide chain, is reported. Additionally, MALDI tandem mass spectrometry is reported as a method to deconvolute organometallic peptides containing four different rhenium (I) tricarbonyl chelates on the N-terminus of octapeptides. Furthermore, an organometallic OBOC ...


Reactions Of Methyl Perfluoroalkyl Ethers With Isopropyl Alcohol: Experimental And Theoretical Studies, Howard Knachel, Vladimir Benin, Chadwick Barklay, Janine C. Birkbeck, Billy D. Faubion, William E. Moddeman 2012 University of Dayton

Reactions Of Methyl Perfluoroalkyl Ethers With Isopropyl Alcohol: Experimental And Theoretical Studies, Howard Knachel, Vladimir Benin, Chadwick Barklay, Janine C. Birkbeck, Billy D. Faubion, William E. Moddeman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The reaction of an isomeric mixture of the methyl perfluoroalkyl ether, C4F9OCH3 (Novec-7100), in the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and/or water has been studied by measuring the rate of product formation using an ion-selective electrode (ISE) for fluoride ion, Karl Fisher coulometric titrations for water, and 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy for product identification and rate studies. The results showed the methyl perfluoroalkyl ether to be very stable with products forming at the rate of ∼1 ppm per year at a laboratory temperature of 20 °C. Measurements over the temperature range of 6° to 100 °C were made ...


Insights On Cytochrome P450 Enzymes And Inhibitors Obtained Through Qsar Studies, Jayalakshmi Sridhar, Jiawang Liu, Maryam Foroozesh, Cheryl Stevens L. Klein Stevens 2012 Xavier University of Louisiana

Insights On Cytochrome P450 Enzymes And Inhibitors Obtained Through Qsar Studies, Jayalakshmi Sridhar, Jiawang Liu, Maryam Foroozesh, Cheryl Stevens L. Klein Stevens

Faculty and Staff Publications

The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of heme enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including most of the drugs currently on the market. Inhibitors of CYP enzymes have important roles in the treatment of several disease conditions such as numerous cancers and fungal infections in addition to their critical role in drug-drug interactions. Structure activity relationships (SAR), and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationships (3D-QSAR) represent important tools in understanding the interactions of the inhibitors with the active sites of the CYP enzymes. A comprehensive account of the QSAR studies on ...


Characterization Of Polymeric Phthalocyanine Nanoparticles Using Dynamic Light Scattering Laser, Satish Kumar Murarishetty 2012 Governors State University

Characterization Of Polymeric Phthalocyanine Nanoparticles Using Dynamic Light Scattering Laser, Satish Kumar Murarishetty

All Capstone Projects

The objective of this study is to use DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering) to analyze polymeric copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles (CuPcNPs). CuPcNPs are synthesized in order to facilitate drug penetration of bacterial biofilms for the treatment of chronic wounds. Microorganisms that reside inside the biofilms of chronic wounds are very resistant to any kind of treatment, even to the host’s own immune system. Therefore we have proposed an alternative method to destroy the microorganisms existing within the biofilms. Photodynamic anti-bacterial chemotherapy (PACT) has received much attention for the past decade due to the multi-drug resistant strands. PACT uses photons, a photosensitizer ...


Potential Role For Padi-Mediated Histone Citrullination In Preimplantation Development., Rui Kan, Mei Jin, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod 2012 Cornell University

Potential Role For Padi-Mediated Histone Citrullination In Preimplantation Development., Rui Kan, Mei Jin, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) convert positively charged arginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline on protein substrates in a process that is known as citrullination or deimination. Previous reports have documented roles for histone citrullination in chromatin remodeling and gene regulation in several tissue types, however, a potential role for histone citrullination in chromatin-based activities during early embryogenesis has not been investigated.

RESULTS: In the present study, we tested by laser scanning confocal indirect immunofluorescence microscopy whether specific arginine residues on the histone H3 and H4 N-terminal tails (H4R3, H3R2 + 8 + 17, and H3R26) were citrullinated in mouse oocytes and ...


Design And Synthesis Studies Of New S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Analogues, Shanshan Wu 2012 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Design And Synthesis Studies Of New S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Analogues, Shanshan Wu

Theses

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM), which is involved in methyl group transfers, is the second most abundant coenzyme in the human body. It is made from adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) and methionine catalyzed by adenosyltransferase. Methyltransferases (MTs) transfer the activated methyl group from the sulfur center to a specific position in a variety of substrates, e.g., DNA, RNA, proteins, and secondary metabolites. Methyltransferases have been linked to various diseases, including cancer.

In recent years, more and more SAM analogues have been reported. These analogues show activities in biological target labeling. The purpose of this thesis is to design and synthesize new SAM analogues to ...


Size Dependent Antimicrobial Properties Of Sugar Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles, Lakshmisri Manisha Vangala 2012 Western Kentucky University

Size Dependent Antimicrobial Properties Of Sugar Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles, Lakshmisri Manisha Vangala

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The antimicrobial properties of dextrose encapsulated gold nanoparticles (dGNPs) with average diameters of 25 nm, 60 nm, and 120 nm (± 5 nm) synthesized by green chemistry principles were investigated against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Studies were performed involving the effect of the dGNPs on the growth, morphology and the ultrastructural properties of bacteria. dGNPs were found to have significant dose dependent antibacterial activity which was directly proportional to their size and also their concentration. The microbial assays revealed the dGNPs to be bacteriostatic as well as bactericidal. The dGNPs exhibited their bactericidal action through the disruption of the bacterial ...


Synthesis And Development Of Potential Cb1 Receptor Neutral Antagonists, Kimari Slaughter 2012 University of New Orleans

Synthesis And Development Of Potential Cb1 Receptor Neutral Antagonists, Kimari Slaughter

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Cannabis and its derivatives have been used for both medicinal and recreational purposes. The study of this plant led to the discovery of over 60 cannabinoids, found exclusively in cannabis, that contribute to the behavioral effects of cannabis use, the most common is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Cannabinoid receptors function to increase activity in the mesolimbic dopamine reward system. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a major role in addition and its regulation plays a crucial role in mental and physical well-being. There is evidence that CB1 receptors are important to the reinforcing effects and the development of physical dependence on opiate ...


Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Rigid Analogues Of Methamphetamines, Andrea N. Forsyth 2012 University of New Orleans

Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Rigid Analogues Of Methamphetamines, Andrea N. Forsyth

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A series of rigid azetidenyl-based methamphetamine analogs were synthesized from commercially available N-Boc-azetidinone. The benzylideneazetidine analogs were prepared via a Wittig olefination via the ylides generated from the corresponding triphenylphosphonium benzylhalide salts. The substituted benzylazetidine analogs were synthesized from the corresponding benzylideneazetidienes via hydrogention over palladium and platinum catalysts. The benzylideneazetidine and benzyliazetidine analogs were evaluated at monoamine transporters as a part of preliminary structure-activity study for the development of novel monoamine transporter ligands. The binding affinities of the azetidine analogs were determined at dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) transporters in rat brain tissue preparations. The preliminary in vitro ...


Synthesis Of S-Ribosyl-L-Homocysteine And Analogs Modified At The Homocysteine-C3 Position, Ruoyi Liu 2012 The University of San Francisco

Synthesis Of S-Ribosyl-L-Homocysteine And Analogs Modified At The Homocysteine-C3 Position, Ruoyi Liu

Master's Theses

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial cell-to-cell communication that conveys population density information in order to coordinate gene expression to produce synchronized behaviors. QS regulates the expression of virulence genes in many species of bacteria; hence, the manipulation of QS pathways may lead to treatment options against many bacterial diseases. The LuxS enzyme converts S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine (SRH) into homocysteine (HCys) and 4(S),5-dihydroxypentane-2,3-dione (DPD), which is the precursor of autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Thus, inhibitors of LuxS could prevent QS by halting the conversion of SRH to AI-2 rendering the cell “uncommunicative”. This work shows the successful chemical ...


Interaction Of Pharmaceutical Compounds With Dissolved Organic Matter, Carlen Nigl Smith 2012 Western Michigan University

Interaction Of Pharmaceutical Compounds With Dissolved Organic Matter, Carlen Nigl Smith

Honors Theses

Highly prescribed pharmaceutical compounds and their metabolites used to treat conditions ranging from infections to depression are of environmental concern as these excreted compounds are increasingly appearing in wastewater influent. As pharmaceuticals enter treatment plants they also can interact with dissolved organic matter (DOM) present. This potential interaction between pharmaceutical compounds and DOM may inhibit the advanced oxidation process (AOP) based removal of drugs during water treatment. The focus of this research was to utilize multinuclear magnetic resonance and hydroxyl radical kinetics to assess whether an interaction between influent pharmaceuticals and DOM does occur, the extent of the interaction, and ...


Mesoionic Compounds, Mark Gordon 2012 Olivet Nazarene University

Mesoionic Compounds, Mark Gordon

Student Scholarship - Chemistry

A poster presentation defining what mesoionic compounds are, describing their uses in the medical field and beyond, and providing examples of common mesoionic compounds.


Near Ir Scanning Angle Total Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy At Smooth Gold Films, Kristopher J. McKee, Matthew W. Meyer, Emily A. Smith 2012 Iowa State University

Near Ir Scanning Angle Total Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy At Smooth Gold Films, Kristopher J. Mckee, Matthew W. Meyer, Emily A. Smith

Chemistry Publications

Total internal reflection (TIR) Raman and reflectivity spectra were collected for nonresonant analytes as a function of incident angle at sapphire or sapphire/smooth 50 nm gold interfaces using 785 nm excitation. For both interfaces, the Raman signal as a function of incident angle is well-modeled by the calculated interfacial mean square electric field (MSEF) relative to the incident field times the thickness of the layer being probed in the Raman measurement (DRS). The Raman scatter was reproducibly enhanced at the interface containing a gold film relative to the sapphire interface by a factor of 4.3−4.6 for ...


Identification And Analysis Of Stereoselective Drug Interactions With Low Density Lipoprotein By High-Performance Affinity Chromatography, Matt Sobansky, David S. Hage 2012 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Identification And Analysis Of Stereoselective Drug Interactions With Low Density Lipoprotein By High-Performance Affinity Chromatography, Matt Sobansky, David S. Hage

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Columns containing immobilized low density lipoprotein (LDL) were prepared for the analysis of drug interactions with this agent by high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). R/SPropranolol was used as a model drug for this study. The LDL columns gave reproducible binding to propranolol over 60 h of continuous use in the presence of pH 7.4, 0.067 M potassium phosphate buffer. Experiments conducted with this type of column through frontal analysis indicated that two types of interactions were occurring between R-propranolol and LDL, while only a single type of interaction was observed between S-propranolol and LDL. The first ...


Reversed Chloroquine Molecules As A Strategy To Overcome Resistance In Malaria, David H. Peyton 2012 Portland State University

Reversed Chloroquine Molecules As A Strategy To Overcome Resistance In Malaria, David H. Peyton

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

This short review tells the story of how Reversed Chloroquine drugs (RCQs) were developed. These are hybrid molecules, made by combining the quinoline nucleus from chloroquine (CQ) with moieties which are designed to inhibit efflux via known transporters in the membrane of the digestive vacuole of the malaria parasite. The resulting RCQ drugs can have potencies exceeding that of CQ, while at the same time having physical chemical characteristics that may make them favorable as partner drugs in combination therapies. The need for such novel antimalarial drugs will continue for the foreseeable future.


The Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Tamandarin B Analogs, Kenneth Lassen 2012 University of Pennsylvania

The Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Tamandarin B Analogs, Kenneth Lassen

Kenneth Lassen

The tamandarin and didemnins are a class of cyclodepsipeptides that have shown a wide range of biological activity. The didemnins have demonstrated antitumor, antiviral and immunosuppressive activity at low nano- and femtomolar levels. Didemnin B was the first marine natural product to enter clinical trials in humans in the United States. The structures of tamandarins A and B were reported in 2000 and possess almost identical structure and biological activity to didemnin B. These compounds have shown impressive biological activity and some progress has been made in establishing structure-activity relationships. However, their molecular mechanism of action is still unclear. The ...


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