The Interaction Of Glutathione With Platinum, And The Role Of Ph In Altering Ligand Formation Between Platinum And N-Acetylcysteine, 2015 Western Kentucky University
The Interaction Of Glutathione With Platinum, And The Role Of Ph In Altering Ligand Formation Between Platinum And N-Acetylcysteine, Kyle B. Mann
Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects
Cisplatin is an important anti-cancer drug. Structurally, cisplatin is a coordination complex, which means that it has a central metallic atom: platinum. Side interactions prevent cisplatin from effectively treating cancerous cells by reaction with DNA. Cisplatin has a high rate of forming protein adducts, primarily with sulfur containing amino acids. To better understand how cisplatin interacts with sulfur containing amino acids in the body, a platinum compound with an ethylenediamine ligand attached was reacted with N-acetylcysteine and glutathione. The reactions of cysteine with platinum were performed at three pH values: 7.0, 8.5, and 10. NMR spectroscopy was used ...
Relative Reaction Rates Of The Amino Acids Cysteine, Methionine, And Histidine With Analogs Of The Anti-Cancer Drug Cisplatin, 2015 Western Kentucky University
Relative Reaction Rates Of The Amino Acids Cysteine, Methionine, And Histidine With Analogs Of The Anti-Cancer Drug Cisplatin, Cynthia A. Tope
Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects
We are studying the reaction of analogs of the anticancer drug cisplatin with amino acids that differ in size and shape. The reaction of cisplatin with proteins likely precedes reaction with DNA in the body, forming a variety of products that may be toxic to the human body. The size and shape of the platinum(II) complexes often affects the rate of reaction with proteins, more so than with DNA. In this study, triamine cisplatin analogs are reacted with the amino acids cysteine, methionine, and histidine simultaneously. These reactions are monitored by NMR spectroscopy. The effect of the bulk of ...
Observing Enzymatic Production Of Fatty Acids In The Mouth, 2015 Wofford College
Observing Enzymatic Production Of Fatty Acids In The Mouth, Neelam J. Mulji
As one of the leading preventable medical conditions in the world, obesity persists to exist within the global population. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is defined as excessive fat accumulation. A more quantitative definition is Body Mass Index (BMI), which is a ratio of height and mass of an individual. Key benchmark levels, BMI > 25 defining overweight and BMI > 30 defining obese, have been implemented for decades in understanding and defining the population at risk. Figure 1 demonstrates the percentages of each national population's obesity occurrences. Alarmingly increasing rates of obesity within the adult as well ...
Distributed Drug Discovery: Synthesis Of Unnatural Amino Acids As Potential Antimalarial Drugs, 2015 Abilene Christian University
Distributed Drug Discovery: Synthesis Of Unnatural Amino Acids As Potential Antimalarial Drugs, Amanda Dugan
Through the collaboration of many institutions across the globe, the Distributed Drug Discovery project founded at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis seeks to aid in the development of drugs for the developing world. In response to two antimalarial assay hits, our team at Abilene Christian University has synthesized many unnatural amino acid analogs using resin-based combinatorial chemistry. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the compounds and thin layer chromatography to determine purity. All compounds were purified on hypersep cyanosilica columns.
Green Chemistry As A Tool For Understanding The Toxic Substances Control Act: A Lecture Module For Undergraduate Students, 2015 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Green Chemistry As A Tool For Understanding The Toxic Substances Control Act: A Lecture Module For Undergraduate Students, Molly R. Blessing
Honors Scholar Theses
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is the central form of chemical regulation existent in the United States today, yet scientists are often unaware or uncertain of its provisions. Violations of TSCA by unknowing chemists set industry and government unnecessarily at odds. A lecture on TSCA was developed for undergraduate students that uses the concept of green chemistry to promote interest and incentivize learning. Green chemistry methods are cleaner and less wasteful than traditional chemical ones, and many companies using them are at the forefront of technological innovation. The lecture explains both green chemistry and TSCA, includes company case studies ...
The Use Of Shape Memory Polymers As A Tool To Study Human Fibrosarcoma And Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration, Justin N. Elkhechen
Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of “smart” materials that can transform between two distinct conformations through external stimuli, such as heat or electricity. Their usage in bioengineering has led to a promising field of research that lies at the interface of cell and mechanobiology, potentially providing insight into cancer therapies and tissue development—two processes that exist in dynamic environments in vivo. The present work involves creating new, shape changing, scaffolds for studies to analyze cell migration upon changes to the environmental topography. Specifically, this Capstone has been primarily focused on the development of a “half and half ...
Rediii: A Pipeline For Automated Structure Solution, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Rediii: A Pipeline For Automated Structure Solution, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Celia A. Schiffer
Schiffer Lab Publications
High-throughput crystallographic approaches require integrated software solutions to minimize the need for manual effort. REdiii is a system that allows fully automated crystallographic structure solution by integrating existing crystallographic software into an adaptive and partly autonomous workflow engine. The program can be initiated after collecting the first frame of diffraction data and is able to perform processing, molecular-replacement phasing, chain tracing, ligand fitting and refinement without further user intervention. Preset values for each software component allow efficient progress with high-quality data and known parameters. The adaptive workflow engine can determine whether some parameters require modifications and choose alternative software strategies ...
One-Step Synthesis Of Kanamycin Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles With Potent Antibacterial Activity Against Resistant Bacterial Strains, 2015 Western Kentucky University
One-Step Synthesis Of Kanamycin Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles With Potent Antibacterial Activity Against Resistant Bacterial Strains, Hitesh Kumar Waghwani
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
On the verge of entering the post-antibiotic era, numerous efforts are in place to regain the losing potential of antibiotics which are proving ineffective against common bacterial infections. Engineered nanomaterials, especially gold nanoparticles (GNPs) capped with antibacterial agents are proving to be an effective and novel strategy against multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we report a one-step synthesis of kanamycin-capped GNPs (20 ± 5 nm) utilizing the combined reducing and capping ability of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, kanamycin. Antibacterial assays showed dosedependent broad spectrum activity of Kan-GNPs against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus durans), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes ...
Design, Synthesis, And Reactivity Of Bimetallic Complexes Of Dimethylplatinum(Ii) Containing Ditopic Ligands, 2015 The University of Western Ontario
Design, Synthesis, And Reactivity Of Bimetallic Complexes Of Dimethylplatinum(Ii) Containing Ditopic Ligands, Matthew S. Mccready
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
This thesis describes a study of monometallic and bimetallic dimethylplatinum(II) complexes containing ditopic nitrogen donor ligands. This work details the design and synthesis of side-to-side and cofacial arranged ligands and their respective coordination chemistry. The study of the synthesis, characterization and reaction mechanisms of the various dimethylplatinum(II) complexes is outlined in detail with special emphasis focused on the reactivity of the complexes towards oxidative addition.
The ditopic ligand 6-dppd, 1,4-di(2-pyridyl)-5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydrocycloocta[d]pyridazine, was observed to coordinate only a single equivalent of a platinum(II) center. The inability to coordinate a ...
Hybrid Computational Toxicology Models For Regulatory Risk Assessment, 2015 Marquette University
Hybrid Computational Toxicology Models For Regulatory Risk Assessment, Prachi Pradeep
Dissertations (2009 -)
Computational toxicology is the development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models that relate a quantitative measure of chemical structure to a biological effect. In silico QSAR tools are widely accepted as a faster alternative to time-consuming clinical and animal testing methods for regulatory risk assessment of xenobiotics used in consumer products. However, different QSAR tools often make contrasting predictions for a new xenobiotic and may also vary in their predictive ability for different class of xenobiotics. This makes their use challenging, especially in regulatory applications, where transparency and interpretation of predictions play a crucial role in the development of ...
Studies Directed Toward The Synthesis Of Aristopyridinone A, 2015 College of William and Mary
Studies Directed Toward The Synthesis Of Aristopyridinone A, Maren K. Leibowitz
Undergraduate Honors Theses
This thesis outlines progress towards the synthesis of aristopyridinone A. Aristopyridinone A is a compound isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine plant Aristolochia manshuriensis. While the plant has been used in a variety of medicinal capacities, the biological activity of aristopyridinone A is unknown. The synthetic pathways presented in this thesis expand on previous work using a merged Diels Alder [4+2] cycloaddition and cycloreversion strategy to form the 2-pyridone core of the aristopyridinone A molecule. These studies also explore the chemistry of the inter-molecular Diels-Alder reaction using a diketopiperazine-derived azadiene.
Spectral Characterization Of Cytochromes Cyp11a1 (Aka P450scc) Active Site And Catalytic Intermediates, 2015 Marquette University
Spectral Characterization Of Cytochromes Cyp11a1 (Aka P450scc) Active Site And Catalytic Intermediates, Qianhong Zhu
Dissertations (2009 -)
The Cytochromes P450 are monooxygenases which use dioxygen and endogenous reducing equivalents to generate highly reactive intermediates capable of performing several types of oxidative transformations, most commonly, hydroxylations via the so-called Compound I species. There are two main kinds of mammalian P450s: those functioning in drug metabolism and those that facilitate steroid biosynthesis. Steroidogenic P450s participating in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones are involved in a number of different pathways. CYP11A1, one of the steroidogenic P450s also known as P450scc, is the enzyme that converts cholesterol to pregnenolone through side chain cleavage between carbon 20 and 22. The overall process ...
Identifying Medication Targets For Psychostimulant Addiction: Unraveling The Dopamine D3 Receptor Hypothesis, Thomas M. Keck, William S. John, Paul W. Czoty, Michael A. Nader, Amy Hauck Newman
Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics
The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a target for developing medications to treat substance use disorders. D3R-selective compounds with high affinity and varying efficacies have been discovered, providing critical research tools for cell-based studies that have been translated to in vivo models of drug abuse. D3R antagonists and partial agonists have shown especially promising results in rodent models of relapse-like behavior, including stress-, drug-, and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. However, to date, translation to human studies has been limited. Herein, we present an overview and illustrate some of the pitfalls and challenges of developing novel D3R-selective compounds toward clinical ...
Sucralose Destabilization Of Protein Structure, 2015 Wesleyan University
Sucralose Destabilization Of Protein Structure, Christina M. Othon
Christina M Othon
Sucralose is a commonly employed artificial sweetener that behaves very differently than its natural disaccharide counterpart, sucrose, in terms of its interaction with biomolecules. The presence of sucralose in solution is found to destabilize the native structure of two model protein systems: the globular protein bovine serum albumin and an enzyme staphylococcal nuclease. The melting temperature of these proteins decreases as a linear function of sucralose concentration. We correlate this destabilization to the increased polarity of the molecule. The strongly polar nature is manifested as a large dielectric friction exerted on the excited-state rotational diffusion of tryptophan using time-resolved fluorescence ...
Facile Methods For The Analysis Of Lysophosphatidic Acids In Human Plasma, 2015 Portland State University
Facile Methods For The Analysis Of Lysophosphatidic Acids In Human Plasma, Jialu Wang
Dissertations and Theses
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) influences many physiological processes, such as brain and vascular development. It is associated with several diseases including ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, multiple myeloma atherosclerotic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary inflammatory diseases and renal diseases. LPA plasma and serum levels have been reported to be important values in diagnosing ovarian cancer and other diseases. However, the extraction and quantification of LPA in plasma are very challenging because of the low physiological concentration and similar structures of LPA to other phospholipids. Many previous studies have not described the separation of LPA from other phospholipids ...
Science Classics, 2015 University of Dayton
Science Classics, Mark Masthay
An essay on the impact of the works in the Imprints and Impressions: Milestones in Human Progress, an exhibition of rare books from the collection of Stuart Rose. Exhibition was held Sept. 29-Nov. 9, 2014, at the University of Dayton.
Improving The Resistance Profile Of Hepatitis C Ns3/4a Inhibitors: Dynamic Substrate Envelope Guided Design, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Improving The Resistance Profile Of Hepatitis C Ns3/4a Inhibitors: Dynamic Substrate Envelope Guided Design, Aysegul Ozen, Woody Sherman, Celia Schiffer
Celia A. Schiffer
Drug resistance is a principal concern in the treatment of quickly evolving diseases. The viral protease NS3/4A is a primary drug target for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is known to evolve resistance mutations in response to drug therapy. At the molecular level, drug resistance reflects a subtle change in the balance of molecular recognition by NS3/4A; the drug resistant protease variants are no longer effectively inhibited by the competitive active site inhibitors but can still process the natural substrates with enough efficiency for viral survival. In previous works we have developed the "substrate envelope" hypothesis, which ...
Development Of A Novel Screening Strategy Designed To Discover A New Class Of Hiv Drugs, 2015 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Development Of A Novel Screening Strategy Designed To Discover A New Class Of Hiv Drugs, Nancy Cheng, Sook-Kyung Lee, P. Donover, Mel Reichman, Celia Schiffer, Emily Hull-Ryde, Ronald Swanstrom, William Janzen
Celia A. Schiffer
Current antiretroviral treatments target multiple pathways important for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) multiplication, including viral entry, synthesis and integration of the DNA provirus, and the processing of viral polyprotein precursors. However, HIV is becoming increasingly resistant to these "combination therapies." Recent findings show that inhibition of HIV Gag protein cleavage into its two structural proteins, matrix (MA) and capsid (CA), has a devastating effect on viral production, revealing a potential new target class for HIV treatment. Unlike the widely used HIV protease inhibitors, this new class of inhibitor would target the substrate, not the protease enzyme itself. This approach offers ...
Crystal Structures Of Human Ctbp In Complex With Substrate Mtob Reveal Active Site Features Useful For Inhibitor Design, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Crystal Structures Of Human Ctbp In Complex With Substrate Mtob Reveal Active Site Features Useful For Inhibitor Design, Brendan Hilbert, Steven Grossman, Celia Schiffer, William Royer
Celia A. Schiffer
The oncogenic corepressors C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) 1 and 2 harbor regulatory d-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (d2-HDH) domains. 4-Methylthio 2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) exhibits substrate inhibition and can interfere with CtBP oncogenic activity in cell culture and mice. Crystal structures of human CtBP1 and CtBP2 in complex with MTOB and NAD(+) revealed two key features: a conserved tryptophan that likely contributes to substrate specificity and a hydrophilic cavity that links MTOB with an NAD(+) phosphate. Neither feature is present in other d2-HDH enzymes. These structures thus offer key opportunities for the development of highly selective anti-neoplastic CtBP inhibitors. Elsevier B.V ...
Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized With Mpeg-Grafted Poly(L-Lysine): In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Potential Theranostic Agent, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized With Mpeg-Grafted Poly(L-Lysine): In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Potential Theranostic Agent, Alexei A. Bogdanov, Suresh Gupta, Nadezhda Koshkina, Stuart J. Corr, Surong Zhang, Steven A. Curley, Gang Han
Radiology Publications and Presentations
As the number of diagnostic and therapeutic applications utilizing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases, so does the need for AuNPs that are stable in vivo, biocompatible, and suitable for bioconjugation. We investigated a strategy for AuNP stabilization that uses methoxypolyethylene glycol-graft-poly(l-lysine) copolymer (MPEG-gPLL) bearing free amino groups as a stabilizing molecule. MPEG-gPLL injected into water solutions of HAuCl4 with or without trisodium citrate resulted in spherical (Zav = 36 nm), monodisperse (PDI = 0.27), weakly positively charged nanoparticles (AuNP3) with electron-dense cores (diameter: 10.4 +/- 2.5 nm) and surface amino groups that were amenable to covalent modification. The AuNP3 were ...