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Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman 2019 University of Kentucky

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hy­droxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-di­hydro­furan-2-carb­oxy­lic acid), C6H6O5, which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intra­molecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxo­propanoic acid), C3H4O3, at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B33, 210–212 ...


The Investigation Of Methylidyne Radical (Ch) Reactions With Furan, 2-Methylfuran, And 2,5-Dimethlyfuran And The Photoionization And Photodissociation Of Valeric Acid, Erica Carrasco 2019 The University of San Francisco

The Investigation Of Methylidyne Radical (Ch) Reactions With Furan, 2-Methylfuran, And 2,5-Dimethlyfuran And The Photoionization And Photodissociation Of Valeric Acid, Erica Carrasco

Master's Theses

This thesis presents the combustion study of three furanic compounds using synchrotron radiation coupled with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry at 298 K. The experiments were performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 at the Advanced Light Source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The reactions of the three furanic compounds with methylidyne (CH) radicals were analyzed based on their photoionization spectra and kinetic profiles.

Additionally, the unimolecular dissociation of valeric acid was also studied and presented in this work using the double imaging photoelectron photoion spectrometry (i2PEPICO) coupled with synchrotron radiation from the VUV beamline. The experiments were ...


Development Of Bismuth Oxyhalide Photocatalysts For Environmental And Industrial Applications, Robert Arthur 2019 University of Maine

Development Of Bismuth Oxyhalide Photocatalysts For Environmental And Industrial Applications, Robert Arthur

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysis, of interest for water splitting and environmental remediation applications, uses light to drive reactions. Metal oxide and sulfide semiconductors have been previously studied but have limitations that include large band gap energies and high rates of recombination. Bismuth oxyhalides (BiOX) are an emerging class of photocatalysts with tunable band gaps and low rates of recombination due to their unique crystal structures. Studies of BiOX photocatalytic activity have largely focused on removal of azo dyes from aqueous solutions, with little attention paid to degradation byproducts. Furthermore, these catalysts have not been explored as a means to conduct organic ...


Fluoride Removal From Water Using A 3d Printed Calcium Carbonate Filter, Sophia Bakar, David Kahler, Benjamin S. Goldschmidt 2019 Duquesne University

Fluoride Removal From Water Using A 3d Printed Calcium Carbonate Filter, Sophia Bakar, David Kahler, Benjamin S. Goldschmidt

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Groundwater containing high concentrations of fluoride is the most common source of drinking water in rural areas in parts of east Africa, India, and China. The elevated levels of fluoride cause skeletal and dental fluorosis, which is the weakening and decay of bone structures due to the leeching of calcium from the body as calcium and fluoride bond by the process of adsorption. Over 150 million people are suffering from some form of fluorosis due to the consumption of groundwater. Calcium carbonate has been demonstrated to influence fluoride removal in several forms. To make fluoride removal a cost-effective and user-friendly ...


Development Of Granulated Adsorbent For Clean-Up Of Water Contaminated By Cesium, Esther Alorkpa 2019 East Tennessee State University

Development Of Granulated Adsorbent For Clean-Up Of Water Contaminated By Cesium, Esther Alorkpa

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A study was conducted on sol-gel synthesis of an adsorbent (phosphotungstic acid embedded in silica gel, H-PTA/SiO­2) of radioactive cesium. A novelty of this work is covalent bonding of PTA to the surface of solid support that prevents leaching from the surface of the material. The sample was granulated with a binder, aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3). Solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to confirm the presence of Keggin units of PTA in the bound materials. Thermal analysis of H-PTA/SiO­2 - γ-Al2O3 (50 %) showed that the water content in the bound material ...


Extraction Of Thorium Oxide From Monazite Ore, Makalee Ruch, Chloe Frame, Molly Landon, Ralph Laurel, Annabelle Large 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Extraction Of Thorium Oxide From Monazite Ore, Makalee Ruch, Chloe Frame, Molly Landon, Ralph Laurel, Annabelle Large

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Elemental Analysis Of Legacy Sediments At College Lake, Amelia Dalton 2019 University of Lynchburg

Elemental Analysis Of Legacy Sediments At College Lake, Amelia Dalton

Student Scholar Showcase

College Lake is a large reservoir located on the campus of the University of Lynchburg. College Lake’s ecosystem has degraded over the years due to the buildup of sediment, nutrients, and raw sewage. Increased urbanization in the area has also most likely contributed to the contaminants present within the system. Because of flooding issues during the summer of 2018, Lynchburg CIty officials drained College Lake, which caused sediment to be released downstream. To better understand the transport of heavy metals in the sediments released from College Lake, sediment core samples were taken from College Lake, Hollins Mill Park, and ...


Impacts Of Harmful Algal Blooms On Dissolved Organic Carbon In The Lower York River Estuary, Joshua Sacks, Mark J. Brush, Iris C. Anderson 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Impacts Of Harmful Algal Blooms On Dissolved Organic Carbon In The Lower York River Estuary, Joshua Sacks, Mark J. Brush, Iris C. Anderson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Estuaries are important sites of carbon cycling; however, the impact of increasingly prevalent harmful algal blooms (HABs) on cycling in these systems remains unclear. To examine the impact of two bloom species, Alexandrium monilatum and Margalefidinium polykrikoides on the quantity and composition of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) pools and rates of benthic and pelagic microbial respiration in the lower York River Estuary, VA, a series field samplings and laboratory incubations were performed. The two HAB species greatly increased the size of the DOC and CDOM pools and altered the character of the CDOM ...


The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman 2019 University of Kentucky

The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The sunlight photochemistry of the organic chromophore pyruvic acid (PA) in water generates ketyl and acetyl radicals that contribute to the production and processing of atmospheric aerosols. The photochemical mechanism is highly sensitive to dissolved oxygen content, [O2(aq)], among other environmental conditions. Thus, herein we investigate the photolysis (λ ≥ 305 nm) of 10–200 mM PA at pH 1.0 in water covering the relevant range 0 ≤ [O2(aq)] ≤ 1.3 mM. The rapid consumption of dissolved oxygen by the intermediate photolytic radicals is monitored in real time with a dissolved oxygen electrode. In addition, the rate ...


Purification And Characterization Of A Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 (Nsltp1) From Ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi) Seeds, Meshal Nazeer, Humera Waheed, Maria Saeed, Saman Yousuf ali, M. Iqbal Choudhary, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Aftab Ahmed 2019 Chapman University

Purification And Characterization Of A Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 (Nsltp1) From Ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi) Seeds, Meshal Nazeer, Humera Waheed, Maria Saeed, Saman Yousuf Ali, M. Iqbal Choudhary, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Aftab Ahmed

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) belongs to the family Umbelliferae, is commonly used in traditional, and folk medicine due to its carminative, stimulant, antiseptic, diuretic, antihypertensive, and hepatoprotective activities. Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) reported from various plants are known to be involved in transferring lipids between membranes and in plants defense response. Here, we describe the complete primary structure of a monomeric non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 (nsLTP1), with molecular weight of 9.66 kDa, from ajwain seeds. The nsLTP1 has been purified by combination of chromatographic techniques, and further characterized by mass spectrometry, and Edman degradation. The ajwain nsLTP1 is ...


Lake Sediment Analysis At Heron Haven Nature Center, Erik Lato 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Lake Sediment Analysis At Heron Haven Nature Center, Erik Lato

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Understanding the chemical composition of a wetland sanctuary lakebed can help us understand how recent developments may have changed the chemical composition. Due to recent dredging by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and previous research on water composition at Heron Haven, the goal of this project was to determine the chemical composition as a function of sediment depth. The concentration of seven different metals and nutrients were analyzed in terms of depth. The aluminum, iron, and phosphate concentrations had no real discernible concentration change as a function of depth. There is some hint of a steady increase of ...


Seasonal Origins Of Soil Water Used By Trees, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Gregory R. Goldsmith 2019 ETH Zurich

Seasonal Origins Of Soil Water Used By Trees, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Gregory R. Goldsmith

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Rain recharges soil water storages and either percolates downward into aquifers and streams or is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. Although it is commonly assumed that summer rainfall recharges plant-available water during the growing season, the seasonal origins of water used by plants have not been systematically explored. We characterize the seasonal origins of waters in soils and trees by comparing their midsummer isotopic signatures (δ2H) to seasonal isotopic cycles in precipitation, using a new seasonal origin index. Across 182 Swiss forest sites, xylem water isotopic signatures show that summer rain was not the predominant water source for ...


Viscosities, Diffusion Coefficients, And Mixing Times Of Intrinsic Fluorescent Organic Molecules In Brown Limonene Secondary Organic Aerosol And Tests Of The Stokes–Einstein Equation, Dagny A. Ullmann, Mallory L. Hinks, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Saeid Kamal, Allan K. Bertram 2019 University of British Columbia

Viscosities, Diffusion Coefficients, And Mixing Times Of Intrinsic Fluorescent Organic Molecules In Brown Limonene Secondary Organic Aerosol And Tests Of The Stokes–Einstein Equation, Dagny A. Ullmann, Mallory L. Hinks, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Saeid Kamal, Allan K. Bertram

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Viscosities and diffusion rates of organics within secondary organic aerosol (SOA) remain uncertain. Using the bead-mobility technique, we measured viscosities as a function of water activity (aw) of SOA generated by the ozonolysis of limonene followed by browning by exposure to NH3 (referred to as brown limonene SOA or brown LSOA). These measurements together with viscosity measurements reported in the literature show that the viscosity of brown LSOA increases by 3–5 orders of magnitude as the aw decreases from 0.9 to approximately 0.05. In addition, we measured diffusion coefficients of intrinsic fluorescent organic molecules within ...


Effect Of Dissolved Salts On The Physiochemical Properties Of Deep Eutectic Solvents, Eleanor Haeska, Megan Radtke 2019 South Dakota State University

Effect Of Dissolved Salts On The Physiochemical Properties Of Deep Eutectic Solvents, Eleanor Haeska, Megan Radtke

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Green chemistry seeks to make chemical procedures safer, improve reaction efficiency, and utilize environmentally safe reagents. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) have recently become of great interest due to their eco-friendly nature and functionality as solvent for various chemical processes. One key characteristic of DES is their conductive nature and depressed melting point. This project sought to determine the effect of the addition of aqueous solutions of halides on the conductivity of two selected types of DES. Also assessed were the polarity and viscosity of the DES. It can be concluded that aqueous halides had no measureable effect on the conductivity ...


Increased Perchlorate In The Environment Following The 1600 C.E. Huaynaputina Volcanic Eruption, Joseph Gibson, Amanda Shea 2019 South Dakota State University

Increased Perchlorate In The Environment Following The 1600 C.E. Huaynaputina Volcanic Eruption, Joseph Gibson, Amanda Shea

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant that can have adverse health effects on humans. Although our knowledge about how natural perchlorate is formed is very limited, volcanic eruptions are believed to play an important role. An ice core obtained from Summit Station, Greenland was used to study the effects of the Huaynaputina eruption on the amount of perchlorate in the environment. The section of ice core sampled was determined to span the years 1594 through 1610. The results indicate that the Huaynaputina eruption caused a temporary but significant increase in the amount of perchlorate in the atmosphere.


Molecular Characterization Of Free Tropospheric Organic Aerosol And The Development Of Computational Tools For Molecular Formula Assignment, Simeon Schum 2019 Michigan Technological University

Molecular Characterization Of Free Tropospheric Organic Aerosol And The Development Of Computational Tools For Molecular Formula Assignment, Simeon Schum

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Organic aerosol affects human health and climate. These effects are largely determined by the composition of the organic aerosol, which is a complex mixture of species. Understanding the complexity of organic aerosol is critical to determining its effect on human health and climate. In this study, long range transported organic aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory was analyzed using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Organic aerosol transported in the free troposphere had an overall lower extent of oxidation than aerosol transported in the boundary layer. It was hypothesized that the lower oxidation was related to a more viscous phase state ...


Method Considerations For Compound Identification In Complex Mixtures Using Electrospray Ionization Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Tyler Leverton 2019 Michigan Technological University

Method Considerations For Compound Identification In Complex Mixtures Using Electrospray Ionization Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Tyler Leverton

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Biomass burning aerosols are highly complex organic mixtures of thousands of components with consequences for global climate. Complex mixture component identification requires accurate mass measurement capability to separate components on a milli-Dalton scale, frequently using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. Certain sample preparations and the ionization process may introduce artifacts that obscure the composition of the sample. Two method considerations were explored using isotopically labeled 15NH4OH and MeOH-d3 to track artifact formation in biomass burning samples. Informatics techniques and a custom molecular formula assignment software were used to identify the isotopic atoms in artifact ...


Phosgene In The Upper Troposphere And Lower Stratosphere: A Marker For Product Gas Injection Due To Chlorine-Containing Very Short Lived Substances, Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ryan Hossaini, Christopher D. Boone, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, Peter F. Bernath 2019 Old Dominion University

Phosgene In The Upper Troposphere And Lower Stratosphere: A Marker For Product Gas Injection Due To Chlorine-Containing Very Short Lived Substances, Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ryan Hossaini, Christopher D. Boone, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, Peter F. Bernath

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Abstract: Phosgene in the atmosphere is produced via the degradation of carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and a number of chlorine‐containing very short lived substances (VSLS). These VSLS are not regulated by the Montreal Protocol even though they contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion. While observations of VSLS can quantify direct stratospheric source gas injection, observations of phosgene in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere can be used as a marker of product gas injection of chlorine‐containing VSLS. In this work we report upper troposphere/lower stratosphere measurements of phosgene made by the ACE‐FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer ...


Recent Trends In Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short‐Lived Substances, Ryan Hossaini, Elliot Atlas, Sandip S. Dhomse, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Peter F. Bernath, Anton M. Fernando, Jens Mühle, Amber A. Leeson, Stephen A. Montzka, Wuhu Feng 2019 Old Dominion University

Recent Trends In Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short‐Lived Substances, Ryan Hossaini, Elliot Atlas, Sandip S. Dhomse, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Peter F. Bernath, Anton M. Fernando, Jens Mühle, Amber A. Leeson, Stephen A. Montzka, Wuhu Feng

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Very short‐lived substances (VSLS), including dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), chloroform (CHCl3), perchloroethylene (C2Cl4), and 1,2‐dichloroethane (C2H4Cl2), are a stratospheric chlorine source and therefore contribute to ozone depletion. We quantify stratospheric chlorine trends from these VSLS (VSLCltot) using a chemical transport model and atmospheric measurements, including novel high‐altitude aircraft data from the NASA VIRGAS (2015) and POSIDON (2016) missions. We estimate VSLCltot increased from 69 (±14) parts per trillion (ppt) Cl in 2000 to 111 (±22) ppt Cl in 2017, with >80% delivered to the ...


Detecting Cyanobacteria Toxins: The Human Health Impact Of An Environmental Problem, Lillian E. Naimie 2019 Colby College

Detecting Cyanobacteria Toxins: The Human Health Impact Of An Environmental Problem, Lillian E. Naimie

Honors Theses

Cyanobacteria blooms are a growing concern in the world, as they can form a dense and sometimes toxin scum on water bodies. This paper will outline and discuss the environmental conditions that produce cyanobacteria bloom with a focus on the toxins produced by blooms and specifically the detection of these toxins through two analytical methods. Of the various toxins cyanobacteria are capable of producing, this paper will focus on microcystins and BMAA, a family of hepatotoxins and a specific neurotoxin respectively. The two analytical methods discussed are liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry and ELISA kit techniques. The advantages and drawbacks ...


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