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Phase Retrieval Using A Genetic Algorithm On The Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment Test Bed, Jaime R. Taylor 2019 Marshall University

Phase Retrieval Using A Genetic Algorithm On The Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment Test Bed, Jaime R. Taylor

Dr. Jaime R. Taylor

NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center’s Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment (SIBOA) Testbed was developed to test phase retrieval algorithms and hardware techniques. Individuals working with the facility developed the idea of implementing phase retrieval by breaking the determination of the tip/tilt of each mirror apart from the piston motion (or translation) of each mirror. Presented in this report is an algorithm that determines the optimal phase correction associated only with the piston motion of the mirrors.


Kondo Signatures Of A Quantum Magnetic Impurity In Topological Superconductors, Rui Wang, Wei-Yi Su, Jian-Xin Zhu, Chin-Sen Ting, Hai Li, Changfeng Chen, Baigeng Wang, Xiaoqun Wang 2019 Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Kondo Signatures Of A Quantum Magnetic Impurity In Topological Superconductors, Rui Wang, Wei-Yi Su, Jian-Xin Zhu, Chin-Sen Ting, Hai Li, Changfeng Chen, Baigeng Wang, Xiaoqun Wang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We study the Kondo physics of a quantum magnetic impurity in two-dimensional topological superconductors (TSCs), either intrinsic or induced on the surface of a bulk topological insulator, using a numerical renormalization group technique. We show that, despite sharing the p+ip pairing symmetry, intrinsic and extrinsic TSCs host different physical processes that produce distinct Kondo signatures. Extrinsic TSCs harbor an unusual screening mechanism involving both electron and orbital degrees of freedom that produces rich and prominent Kondo phenomena, especially an intriguing pseudospin Kondo singlet state in the superconducting gap and a spatially anisotropic spin correlation. In sharp contrast, intrinsic TSCs ...


Comparison Of The Practical Applications And Limitations Of Insar And Structure From Motion Depictions Of Surface Elevation Flux For Academic Purposes, John Andrew Scherer 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Comparison Of The Practical Applications And Limitations Of Insar And Structure From Motion Depictions Of Surface Elevation Flux For Academic Purposes, John Andrew Scherer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper seeks to identify the strengths and weaknesses of two remote sensing methods used for determining surface elevation flux (the difference in land surface elevation heights over a given time period): Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Drone Imagery processed using Structure from Motion (SFM) Techniques. This goal was accomplished by processing imagery from both platforms separately, before conducting a study of the same area and comparing the two methods analytically. A time-series of interferograms was generated on the study area of the Climax Mine and Mill near Leadville, CO and multiple drone flights were flown over an additional ...


Improving Photometry And Astrophotography By Eliminating Dark Frames And Flat Fields, Tom C. Ireland 2019 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Improving Photometry And Astrophotography By Eliminating Dark Frames And Flat Fields, Tom C. Ireland

Honors Theses and Capstones

I report on the efforts to improve the dark frames and flat fielding procedure for the charged-coupled device (CCD) camera for the Celestron C14 telescope at the UNH observatory. Dark frames are images taken while the shutter of the camera is closed so that only electronic and dark noise and other internal inconsistencies are recorded. These are important because they allow astronomers to subtract out interference from dark current. Additionally, flat fields are images of the entire field of the telescope so that the brightness in the pixels of the telescope’s field of view is uniform. Flat fields are ...


Normalization Of Leadville Neutron Monitor To Climax Neutron Monitor, Brian J. O'Connor 2019 University of New Hampshire

Normalization Of Leadville Neutron Monitor To Climax Neutron Monitor, Brian J. O'Connor

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


Unh Observatory Exoplanet Transit Depth Limit, Nicholas R. Larose 2019 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Unh Observatory Exoplanet Transit Depth Limit, Nicholas R. Larose

Honors Theses and Capstones

Using the University of New Hampshire Observatory, we performed multiple exoplanet transits observations on a variety of systems. Of these transits, those performed with ideal weather conditions were chosen to do extensive analysis on. The transit chosen for initial analysis was HAT-P-56b. We then used Z-Score values, along with the average mean and standard deviation collected from multiple transits to determine a minimum possible transit depth of 7.4 +/- 0.6 mmag. This value will allow UNH to access exoplanet transit observation and / or confirm potential exoplanets, thus making the UNH Observatory more research capable. A follow up threshold transit ...


Observation Of High-Energy Gamma-Rays With The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (Calet) On-Board The International Space Station, Nicholas Wade Cannady 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Observation Of High-Energy Gamma-Rays With The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (Calet) On-Board The International Space Station, Nicholas Wade Cannady

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a multi-instrument high-energy astrophysics observatory deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in August 2015. The primary instrument is the calorimeter (CAL), which is intended for measurement of the cosmic ray electron flux in the energy range 10 GeV - 20 TeV. The CAL is also sensitive to gamma-rays in the energy range 1 GeV - 10 TeV and protons and nuclei up to PeV energies. Also present on the CALET payload are an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) for the fine determination of the pointing direction and the CALET Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM) for the observation ...


Research In Optics For Gravitational Wave Detection, Britney Biltz, Noura Ibrahim, Brennan Moore 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Research In Optics For Gravitational Wave Detection, Britney Biltz, Noura Ibrahim, Brennan Moore

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

B.Biltz uses a horizontal “Zollner style” pendulum to monitor changes in the local gravitational field. The pendulum is attracted to the moon and the Sun and so, as the Earth turns, the pendulum’s equilibrium point shifts within a 24-hour period. This is an experiment designed to test the limits of such a pendulum. This sort of system may be useful as a method of monitoring and correcting for gravity gradient noise in future gravitational wave detectors.

N.Ibrahim characterizes thermo-optic noise in high-performance mirror coatings of the type used in Advanced LIGO. To characterize thermo-optic noise, she measures ...


The Periglacial Landscape Of Mars: Insight Into The 'Decameter-Scale Rimmed Depressions' In Utopia Planitia, Arya Bina 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Periglacial Landscape Of Mars: Insight Into The 'Decameter-Scale Rimmed Depressions' In Utopia Planitia, Arya Bina

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Currently, Mars appears to be in a ‘frozen’ and ‘dry’ state, with the clear majority of the planet’s surface maintaining year-round sub-zero temperatures. However, the discovery of features consistent with landforms found in periglacial environments on Earth, suggests a climate history for Mars that may have involved freeze and thaw cycles. Such landforms include hummocky, polygonised, scalloped, and pitted terrains, as well as ice-rich deposits and gullies, along the mid- to high-latitude bands, typically with no lower than 20o N/S. The detection of near-surface and surface ice via the Phoenix lander, excavation of ice via recent impact cratering ...


High Dynamic Range Optical Devices And Applications., Elijah Robert Jensen 2018 University of Louisville

High Dynamic Range Optical Devices And Applications., Elijah Robert Jensen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Much of what we know about fundamental physical law and the universe derives from observations and measurements using optical methods. The passive use of the electromagnetic spectrum can be the best way of studying physical phenomenon in general with minimal disturbance of the system in the process. While for many applications ambient visible light is sufficient, light outside of the visible range may convey more information. The signals of interest are also often a small fraction of the background, and their changes occur on time scales so quickly that they are visually imperceptible. This thesis reports techniques and technologies developed ...


Automation And Enhancements To The Erau Oscom System Space Situational Awareness, Sergei Bilardi, Patrick Rupp, Yevgeniy Lischuk, Joseph Stroup 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Automation And Enhancements To The Erau Oscom System Space Situational Awareness, Sergei Bilardi, Patrick Rupp, Yevgeniy Lischuk, Joseph Stroup

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

OSCOM, Optical tracking and Spectral characterization of CubeSats for Operational Missions, is a system developed at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University to produce time-resolved photometry of small satellites using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware. OSCOM has been able to observe resident space objects (RSOs) as small as CubeSats using a Celestron 11” RASA and a CMOS machine vision camera from Allied Vision. By obtaining photometric measurements of satellites, a light curve can be constructed and used to help determine satellite characteristics such as spin rate, satellite state, and even satellite attitude. To enhance the OSCOM system’s ability to observe small satellites, there is ongoing ...


The Automation Of Analysis Procedures For The Citizen Cate Experiment Eclipse Data, Logan Jensen, Michael Pierce 2018 University of Wyoming

The Automation Of Analysis Procedures For The Citizen Cate Experiment Eclipse Data, Logan Jensen, Michael Pierce

Honors Theses AY 17/18

The Citizen Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse Experiment deployed 68 volunteer-operated telescope and camera systems across the United States to collect continuous data of the August 2017 solar eclipse. For any one location the eclipse lasted 2.5 minutes, but in total the nationwide CATE network collected data on the full 93 minutes of eclipse across America. The wealth of data collected contains more than 110,000 calibration and eclipse images and takes up 1.5 terabytes of memory. To become scientifically applicable, all these images needed to be corrected for systematic errors caused by the equipment and for human error. The ...


Spectral Mixture Modeling Using Principle Component Analysis, Joseph S. Makarewicz, Heather D. Makarewicz 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

Spectral Mixture Modeling Using Principle Component Analysis, Joseph S. Makarewicz, Heather D. Makarewicz

Scholar Week 2016 - present

A method for modeling mixtures between two end-member spectra using principle component analysis and linear regression was presented. The presentation included results from three binary mixture data sets including orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene, kaolinite-montmorillonite, and nontronite-ferrihydrite.


Design And Evaluation Of 3d-Printed Filar Micrometer, Emily Rull 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

Design And Evaluation Of 3d-Printed Filar Micrometer, Emily Rull

Scholar Week 2016 - present

This project sought to design and 3D-print a filar micrometer for double star measurements that amateur astronomers could produce cost effectively.

Double stars are celestial objects that allow the mass of stars to be calculated by assessing their orbits. Stellar mass affects every current model of stellar evolution, but the most accurate double star orbits can take decades to record. As a result of the long-term nature of such observations and lack of groundbreaking research in double star studies, professional astronomers are no longer focused on making these measurements. This allows amateur astronomers to pick up where professionals have left ...


Near Earth Space Object Detection Utilizing Parallax As Multi-Hypothesis Test Criterion, Joseph C. Tompkins 2018 Air Force Institute of Technology

Near Earth Space Object Detection Utilizing Parallax As Multi-Hypothesis Test Criterion, Joseph C. Tompkins

Theses and Dissertations

The US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) operated Space Surveillance Network (SSN) is tasked with Space Situational Awareness (SSA) for the US military. This system is made up of Electro-Optic sensors such as the Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) and Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) as well as RADAR based sensors such as the Space Fence. While Lockheed Martin’s Space Fence is very adept at detecting & tracking objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) below 3000 Km in height [1], gaps remain in the tracking of Resident Space Objects (RSO’s) in Geosynchronous Orbits (GEO) due to limitations associated with the implementation of the SST and GEODSS systems. This thesis explores a reliable, ground-based technique to quickly determine the altitude of a RSO from a single or limited set of observations; implementation of such sensors into the SSN would mitigate GEO SSA performance gaps. The research entails a method to distinguish between the point spread function (PSF) observed by a star and the PSF observed from ...


Using An Astrophysical Model To Characterize Nuclear Dust, Anita N. Dunsmore 2018 Air Force Institute of Technology

Using An Astrophysical Model To Characterize Nuclear Dust, Anita N. Dunsmore

Theses and Dissertations

Dust clouds resulting from nuclear explosions are complex phenomena, and knowledge on how they form is lacking. Noting the similarities between supernovae and nuclear explosions led to the concept of modeling a nuclear dust cloud using a supernova simulation. MOCASSIN uses a Monte Carlo approach to model photons traveling through a dust cloud, allowing the cloud's characteristics to be discovered by comparing an observed spectrum to a calculated one and then changing input values to make the spectra match. Data files describing two nuclear fireballs of varying yields were created and analyzed using MOCASSIN, but yielded zero energy spectra ...


Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna 2018 Wesleyan University

Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna

Melissa Luna

No abstract provided.


Magnetic Field Design To Reduce Systematic Effects In Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Measurements, James Ryan Dadisman 2018 University of Kentucky

Magnetic Field Design To Reduce Systematic Effects In Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Measurements, James Ryan Dadisman

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

Charge-Conjugation (C) and Charge-Conjugation-Parity (CP) Violation is one of the three Sakharov conditions to explain via baryogenesis the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe (BAU). The Standard Model of particle physics (SM) contains sources of CP violation, but cannot explain the BAU. This motivates searches for new physics beyond the standard model (BSM) which address the Sakharov criteria, including high-precision searches for new sources of CPV in systems for which the SM contribution is small, but larger effects may be present in BSM theories. A promising example is the search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM), which ...


The Earth's Magnetosphere, Soren Ormseth 2018 University of Montana

The Earth's Magnetosphere, Soren Ormseth

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is an Earth orbiting satellite launched in 2008; designed to map the boundary of our Solar System. In this presentation, we focus on how data collected by the IBEX-Hi sensor can be used to map the distribution of hot ions within the Earth's magnetosphere. As opposed to other satellites, IBEX images the magnetosphere from afar rather than by going through it. An improvement on the previous imaging techniques was developed, and we compare the new results to the old.


Methods For Characterizing Thin Film Reflective Mirror Coatings For Next-Generation Astronomical Instruments, Jimmy Wiley 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Methods For Characterizing Thin Film Reflective Mirror Coatings For Next-Generation Astronomical Instruments, Jimmy Wiley

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis presents the design, theory of use, and calibration of a semi-automated vacuum ultraviolet reflectivity chamber. This chamber will be used to establish the initial reflectivity and track the degradation of enhanced lithium fluoride (eLiF) protected aluminum mirror coatings. LiF provides the highest throughput of heritage dielectric coatings in the Lyman UV (912-1216 \AA{}). Due to the hygroscopicity of LiF and the absorption of UV light by water, we have developed a means of capping the eLiF with another dielectric layer so thin that it protects the eLiF from degrading without adversely affecting the LUV reflectivity. These protected eLiF ...


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