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The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Use Of Processing Fluid Samples For Longitudinal Monitoring Of Prrs Virus In Herds Undergoing Virus Elimination, Giovani Trevisan, Eva Jablonski, Jose Angulo, Will A. Lopez, Daniel C. L. Linhares 2019 Iowa State University

Use Of Processing Fluid Samples For Longitudinal Monitoring Of Prrs Virus In Herds Undergoing Virus Elimination, Giovani Trevisan, Eva Jablonski, Jose Angulo, Will A. Lopez, Daniel C. L. Linhares

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

This was an observational study that prospectively followed 29 breeding herds for 65 weeks in the U.S.A. that became infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv). The herds operated in a four-week batch farrowing system and adopted a load-close-expose strategy using a modified-live virus vaccine to achieve PRRSv stability. The purpose of this study was to describe time to stability (TTS) based on RT-qPCR testing for PRRSv RNA on processing fluid samples in herds undergoing PRRSv elimination, after implementing herd closure and mass exposure to a PRRS modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine. For the purpose of this ...


The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha DeGroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff 2019 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff

Jason Holderieath

BACKGROUND: Blackbird (Icteridae) damage to ripening sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been a persistent economic issue in the USA for the last five decades. To quantify losses, we surveyed blackbird damage from 2001 to 2013 (excluding 2004) to physiologically mature sunflower in eight states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, Kansas, and Vermont.

RESULTS:We pooled data gathered during the most recent 5 years (2009 to 2013) of the survey and found losses averaged $US2.5 million and $US11.3 million for confectionery and oilseed hybrids, respectively. Three states, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, had sufficient acreage ...


Physiological And Behavioural Evaluation Of Common Anaesthesia Practices In The Rainbow Trout, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Physiological And Behavioural Evaluation Of Common Anaesthesia Practices In The Rainbow Trout, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Anaesthetic drugs are commonly administered to fish in aquaculture, research and veterinary contexts. Anaesthesia causes temporary absence of consciousness and may reduce the stress and/or pain associated with handling and certain invasive procedures. The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a widely-used model species with relevance to both aquaculture and natural ecosystems. This study sought to establish the relative acute impact of commonly used anaesthetics on rainbow trout when used for anaesthesia or euthanasia by exploring their effects on aversion behaviour and stress physiology. Five widely used anaesthetics were investigated at two concentrations reflective of common laboratory practises: MS-222, benzocaine ...


Reduction In Activity By Noxious Chemical Stimulation Is Ameliorated By Immersion In Analgesic Drugs In Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Reduction In Activity By Noxious Chemical Stimulation Is Ameliorated By Immersion In Analgesic Drugs In Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Research has recently demonstrated that larval zebrafish show similar molecular responses to nociception to those of adults. Our study explored whether unprotected larval zebrafish exhibited altered behaviour after exposure to noxious chemicals and screened a range of analgesic drugs to determine their efficacy to reduce these responses. This approach aimed to validate larval zebrafish as a reliable replacement for adults as well as providing a high-throughput means of analysing behavioural responses. Zebrafish at 5 days postfertilization were exposed to known noxious stimuli: acetic acid (0.01%, 0.1% and 0.25%) and citric acid (0.1%, 1% and 5%). The ...


Veterinary Ethics And Production Diseases, Bernard E. Rollin 2019 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Veterinary Ethics And Production Diseases, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

An animal's welfare should be governed by five freedoms, namely, freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior and freedom from fear and distress. If the essence of veterinary medicine is to act like a physician for animals then the profession must be vocal in opposition to production diseases, which can be prevented by changing the system of production.


Endoglin Protein Interactome Profiling Identifies Trim21 And Galectin-3 As New Binding Partners, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Juan Casado-Vela, María J. Ruiz-Rodríguez, Natalia López-Andrés, Asit K. Pattnaik, Miguel Quintanilla 2019 CSIC & CIBERER

Endoglin Protein Interactome Profiling Identifies Trim21 And Galectin-3 As New Binding Partners, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Juan Casado-Vela, María J. Ruiz-Rodríguez, Natalia López-Andrés, Asit K. Pattnaik, Miguel Quintanilla

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause herediatry hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular disease that presents with nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin and mucosa telangiectase, and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. A circulating form of endoglin (alias soluble endoglin, sEng), proteolytically released from the membrane-bound protein, has been observed in several inflammation-related pathological conditions and appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cancer development through unknown mechanisms. Membrane-bound endoglin is an auxiliary component of the TGF-B receptor complex and ...


Evaluation Of Epas1 Variants For Association With Bovine Congestive Heart Failure [Version 1; Peer Review: 2 Approved], Michael P. Heaton, Adam S. Bassett, Katherine J. Whitman, Greta M. Krafsur, Sang M. Lee, Jaden M. Carlson, Halden J. Clark, Helen R. Smith, Madeline C. Pelster, Veronica Basnayake, Dale M. Grotelueschen, B. Vander Ley 2019 U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Evaluation Of Epas1 Variants For Association With Bovine Congestive Heart Failure [Version 1; Peer Review: 2 Approved], Michael P. Heaton, Adam S. Bassett, Katherine J. Whitman, Greta M. Krafsur, Sang M. Lee, Jaden M. Carlson, Halden J. Clark, Helen R. Smith, Madeline C. Pelster, Veronica Basnayake, Dale M. Grotelueschen, B. Vander Ley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Bovine congestive heart failure (BCHF) has become increasingly prevalent in feedlot cattle in the Western Great Plains of North America. BCHF is an untreatable complex condition involving pulmonary hypertension that culminates in right ventricular failure and death. A protein variant of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF2α, encoded by the endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene, EPAS1) was previously reported to be associated with pulmonary hypertension at altitudes exceeding 2,000 m. Our aim was to evaluate EPAS1 haplotypes for association with BCHF in feedlot cattle raised at moderate altitudes (1,200 m).

Methods: Paired samples of clinical cases and ...


Bourbon Virus In Wild And Domestic Animals, Missouri, Usa, 2012–2013, Katelin C. Jackson, Thomas Gidlewski, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, R. Ryan Lash, Jessica R. Harmon, Aaron C. Brault, Nicholas A. Panella, William L. Nicholson, Nicholas Komar 2019 Washington State University

Bourbon Virus In Wild And Domestic Animals, Missouri, Usa, 2012–2013, Katelin C. Jackson, Thomas Gidlewski, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, R. Ryan Lash, Jessica R. Harmon, Aaron C. Brault, Nicholas A. Panella, William L. Nicholson, Nicholas Komar

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Bourbon virus (BRBV) was first isolated from a febrile patient with a history of tick bites in Bourbon County, Kansas, USA; the patient later died from severe illness in 2014 (1). Several additional human BRBV infections were reported subsequently from the midwestern and southern United States (2). BRBV belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Thogotovirus, which is distributed worldwide and includes Araguari, Aransas Bay, Dhori, Jos, Thogoto, and Upolu viruses (1,3). Thogoto and Dhori viruses have been associated with human disease (4–6). Viruses within the genus Thogotovirus have been associated with hard or soft ticks (7). Recent studies ...


At The Intersection Of Industry, Academia, And Government: How Do We Facilitate Productive Precision Livestock Farming In Practice?, Brett C. Ramirez, Hongwei Xin, Patrick G. Halbur, Donald H. Beermann, Stephanie L. Hansen, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Joshua M. Peschel, Christopher J. Rademacher, James M. Reecy, Jason W. Ross, Timothy A. Shepherd, James E. Koltes 2019 Iowa State University

At The Intersection Of Industry, Academia, And Government: How Do We Facilitate Productive Precision Livestock Farming In Practice?, Brett C. Ramirez, Hongwei Xin, Patrick G. Halbur, Donald H. Beermann, Stephanie L. Hansen, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Joshua M. Peschel, Christopher J. Rademacher, James M. Reecy, Jason W. Ross, Timothy A. Shepherd, James E. Koltes

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

This commentary is a comprehensive synthesis of ideas generated from a workshop, hosted by Iowa State University, encompassing precision livestock farming (PLF) research and applications for industry–academia. The goal of this workshop was to demonstrate existing institution research and strategically propel further PLF development and industry adoption. Six key thematic areas were identified from participant discussion: sensors and algorithms, implementation, economic feasibility, data, rural and societal impacts, and education and training. These themes were used to focus discussion on identifying the new knowledge needed to drive implementation and examine current and future challenges of implementing PLF. At the convergence ...


Extracellular Vesicles At The Fetal-Maternal Interface In Cattle, Heloisa M. Rutigliano 2019 Utah State University

Extracellular Vesicles At The Fetal-Maternal Interface In Cattle, Heloisa M. Rutigliano

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Assessment Of Dog Owner Concern Regarding Peri-Operative Nausea And Vomiting And Willingness To Pay For Anti-Emetic Treatment, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus, Callie Cazlan 2019 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Dog Owner Concern Regarding Peri-Operative Nausea And Vomiting And Willingness To Pay For Anti-Emetic Treatment, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus, Callie Cazlan

Bonnie Hay Kraus

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dog owners' concern regarding peri-operative nausea and vomiting, and their willingness to pay for treatment.

Design: Descriptive survey.

Sample: A survey was administered to 104 dog owning clients with non-emergent surgical (52) or non-surgical (52) appointments at a University teaching hospital.

Procedure: Descriptive statistics were calculated. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect differences between clients expecting their pet to undergo elective general anesthesia and those that did not. A Spearman's Rank Co-efficient was used to correlate predictive data.

Results: Ninety-seven (93%) dog owners had at least some worry ...


Assessment Of Dog Owner Concern Regarding Peri-Operative Nausea And Vomiting And Willingness To Pay For Anti-Emetic Treatment, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus, Callie Cazlan 2019 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Dog Owner Concern Regarding Peri-Operative Nausea And Vomiting And Willingness To Pay For Anti-Emetic Treatment, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus, Callie Cazlan

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dog owners' concern regarding peri-operative nausea and vomiting, and their willingness to pay for treatment.

Design: Descriptive survey.

Sample: A survey was administered to 104 dog owning clients with non-emergent surgical (52) or non-surgical (52) appointments at a University teaching hospital.

Procedure: Descriptive statistics were calculated. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect differences between clients expecting their pet to undergo elective general anesthesia and those that did not. A Spearman's Rank Co-efficient was used to correlate predictive data.

Results: Ninety-seven (93%) dog owners had at least some worry ...


Equine Or Porcine Synovial Fluid As A Novel Ex Vivo Model For The Study Of Bacterial Free-Floating Biofilms That Form In Human Joint Infections, Jessica M. Gilbertie, Lauren V. Schnabel, Noreen J. Hickok, Megan E. Jacob, Brian P. Conlon, Irving Shapiro, Javad Parvizi, Thomas P. Schaer 2019 North Carolina State University; University of Pennsylvania

Equine Or Porcine Synovial Fluid As A Novel Ex Vivo Model For The Study Of Bacterial Free-Floating Biofilms That Form In Human Joint Infections, Jessica M. Gilbertie, Lauren V. Schnabel, Noreen J. Hickok, Megan E. Jacob, Brian P. Conlon, Irving Shapiro, Javad Parvizi, Thomas P. Schaer

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

Bacterial invasion of synovial joints, as in infectious or septic arthritis, can be difficult to treat in both veterinary and human clinical practice. Biofilms, in the form of free-floating clumps or aggregates, are involved with the pathogenesis of infectious arthritis and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Infection of a joint containing an orthopedic implant can additionally complicate these infections due to the presence of adherent biofilms. Because of these biofilm phenotypes, bacteria within these infected joints show increased antimicrobial tolerance even at high antibiotic concentrations. To date, animal models of PJI or infectious arthritis have been limited to small animals such ...


Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Four Drug Combinations For Immobilization Of Wild Pigs, Christine K. Ellis, Morgan E. Wehtje, Lisa L. Wolfe, Peregrine L. Wolff, Clayton D. Hilton, Mark C. Fisher, Shari Green, Michael P. Glow, Joeseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Eric H. VanNatta, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, William R. Lance, Pauline Nol 2019 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Four Drug Combinations For Immobilization Of Wild Pigs, Christine K. Ellis, Morgan E. Wehtje, Lisa L. Wolfe, Peregrine L. Wolff, Clayton D. Hilton, Mark C. Fisher, Shari Green, Michael P. Glow, Joeseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Eric H. Vannatta, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, William R. Lance, Pauline Nol

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Field immobilization of native or invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is challenging. Drug combinations commonly used often result in unsatisfactory immobilization, poor recovery, and adverse side effects, leading to unsafe handling conditions for both animals and humans. We compared four chemical immobilization combinations, medetomidine–midazolam–butorphanol (MMB), butorphanol–azaperone–medetomidine (BAM™), nalbuphine–medetomidine–azaperone (NalMed-A), and tiletamine– zolazepam–xylazine (TZX), to determine which drug combinations might provide better chemical immobilization of wild pigs. We achieved adequate immobilization with no post-recovery morbidity withMMB. Adequate immobilization was achieved with BAM™; however, we observed post-recovery morbidity. Both MMB and BAM™ produced more optimal ...


A Latent Spatial Piecewise Exponential Model For Interval-Censored Disease Surveillance Data With Time-Varying Covariates And Misclassification, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, William Q. Meeker, Max Morris, Marisa L. Rotolo, Jeffery Zimmerman 2019 Iowa State University

A Latent Spatial Piecewise Exponential Model For Interval-Censored Disease Surveillance Data With Time-Varying Covariates And Misclassification, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, William Q. Meeker, Max Morris, Marisa L. Rotolo, Jeffery Zimmerman

William Q Meeker

Understanding the dynamics of disease spread is critical to achieving effective animal disease surveillance. A major challenge in modeling disease spread is the fact that the true disease status cannot be known with certainty due to the imperfect diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the tests used to generate the disease surveillance data. Other challenges in modeling such data include interval censoring, relating disease spread to distance between units, and incorporating time-varying covariates, which are the unobserved disease statuses. We propose a latent spatial piecewise exponential model (PEX) with misclassification of events to address the challenges in modeling such disease surveillance ...


Vision In An Abundant North American Bird: The Red-Winged Blackbird, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Patrice E. Baumhardt, Luke P. Tyrrell, Amanda Elmore, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Scott J. Werner 2019 Purdue University

Vision In An Abundant North American Bird: The Red-Winged Blackbird, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Patrice E. Baumhardt, Luke P. Tyrrell, Amanda Elmore, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Scott J. Werner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Avian vision is fundamentally different from human vision; however, even within birds there are substantial between species differences in visual perception in terms of visual acuity, visual coverage, and color vision. However, there are not many species that have all these visual traits described, which can constrain our ability to study the evolution of visual systems in birds. To start addressing this gap, we characterized multiple traits of the visual system (visual coverage, visual acuity, centers of acute vision, and color vision) of the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), one of the most abundant and studied birds in North America. We ...


Fluorophotometric Assessment Of Tear Volume And Turnover Rate In Healthy Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Rita F. Wehrman, Lisa Uhl, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Thomas Chen, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Fluorophotometric Assessment Of Tear Volume And Turnover Rate In Healthy Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Rita F. Wehrman, Lisa Uhl, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Thomas Chen, Jonathan P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

Purpose: The study establishes normative data of tear volume (TV) and tear turnover rate (TTR) in healthy dogs and cats, 2 species commonly used for translational research in ophthalmology.

Methods: Thirty-six dogs and 24 cats were enrolled, encompassing a variety of breeds with diverse skull conformations (brachycephalic, mesocephalic, and dolichocephalic). Two microliters of 10% fluorescein were instilled onto the upper bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes, followed by tear collection with 2-μL capillary tubes at 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 20 min. Fluorescein concentrations were measured with a computerized scanning ocular fluorophotometer. The TV and TTR were estimated based ...


Fluorophotometric Assessment Of Tear Volume And Turnover Rate In Healthy Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Rita F. Wehrman, Lisa Uhl, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Thomas Chen, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Fluorophotometric Assessment Of Tear Volume And Turnover Rate In Healthy Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Rita F. Wehrman, Lisa Uhl, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Thomas Chen, Jonathan P. Mochel

Lionel Sebbag

Purpose: The study establishes normative data of tear volume (TV) and tear turnover rate (TTR) in healthy dogs and cats, 2 species commonly used for translational research in ophthalmology.

Methods: Thirty-six dogs and 24 cats were enrolled, encompassing a variety of breeds with diverse skull conformations (brachycephalic, mesocephalic, and dolichocephalic). Two microliters of 10% fluorescein were instilled onto the upper bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes, followed by tear collection with 2-μL capillary tubes at 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 20 min. Fluorescein concentrations were measured with a computerized scanning ocular fluorophotometer. The TV and TTR were estimated based ...


Reporting And Analysis Of Repeated Measurements In Preclinical Animals Experiments, Jing Zhao, Chong Wang, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah N. Cullen, Annette M. O'Connor 2019 Iowa State University

Reporting And Analysis Of Repeated Measurements In Preclinical Animals Experiments, Jing Zhao, Chong Wang, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah N. Cullen, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A common feature of preclinical animal experiments is repeated measurement of the outcome, e.g., body weight measured in mice pups weekly for 20 weeks. Separate time point analysis or repeated measures analysis approaches can be used to analyze such data. Each approach requires assumptions about the underlying data and violations of these assumptions have implications for estimation of precision, and type I and type II error rates. Given the ethical responsibilities to maximize valid results obtained from animals used in research, our objective was to evaluate approaches to reporting repeated measures design used by investigators and to assess how ...


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