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The Development Of Microfluidic Devices For The Production Of Safe And Effective Non-Viral Gene Delivery Vectors, Jason Matthew Absher 2018 University of Kentucky

The Development Of Microfluidic Devices For The Production Of Safe And Effective Non-Viral Gene Delivery Vectors, Jason Matthew Absher

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Including inherited genetic diseases, like lipoprotein lipase deficiency, and acquired diseases, such as cancer and HIV, gene therapy has the potential to treat or cure afflicted people by driving an affected cell to produce a therapeutic protein. Using primarily viral vectors, gene therapies are involved in a number of ongoing clinical trials and have already been approved by multiple international regulatory drug administrations for several diseases. However, viral vectors suffer from serious disadvantages including poor transduction of many cell types, immunogenicity, direct tissue toxicity and lack of targetability. Non-viral polymeric gene delivery vectors (polyplexes) provide an alternative solution but are ...


Design And Analysis Of Curcumin Conjugated Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Networks For Controlled Release In Oxidative Stress Environments, Carolyn T. Jordan 2018 University of Kentucky

Design And Analysis Of Curcumin Conjugated Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Networks For Controlled Release In Oxidative Stress Environments, Carolyn T. Jordan

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Oxidative stress, the imbalance of free radical generation with antioxidant defenses, leads to cellular inflammation, apoptosis and cell death. This compromised environment results in debilitating diseases, such as oral mucositis (OM), atherosclerosis, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Antioxidant therapeutics has been a proposed strategy to ameliorate these imbalances and maintain homeostatic environments. However, the success of these approaches, specifically curcumin, has been limited due to characteristics such as hydrophobicity and high reactivity when released as bolus doses to contest to oxidative stress induced diseases. The development of a controlled release system to aid in protection of the antioxidant capacity of curcumin ...


Detection And Quantification Of Glucuronidation Of Ursolic Acid (Ua) In Human Liver Microsomes (Hlms)., Kamola Tolliboeva, Philip M. Gerk 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Detection And Quantification Of Glucuronidation Of Ursolic Acid (Ua) In Human Liver Microsomes (Hlms)., Kamola Tolliboeva, Philip M. Gerk

Undergraduate Research Posters

No abstract provided.


Discovery Of New Antimicrobial Options And Evaluation Of Aminoglycoside Resistance Enzyme-Associated Resistance Epidemic, Selina Y. L. Holbrook 2018 University of Kentucky

Discovery Of New Antimicrobial Options And Evaluation Of Aminoglycoside Resistance Enzyme-Associated Resistance Epidemic, Selina Y. L. Holbrook

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The extensive and sometimes incorrect and noncompliant use of various types of antimicrobial agents has accelerated the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In fact, AMR has become one of the greatest global threat to human health in this era. The broad-spectrum antibiotics aminoglycosides (AGs) display excellent potency against most Gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, and some Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. The AG antibiotics amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin are still commonly prescribed in the U.S.A. for the treatment of serious infections. Unfortunately, bacteria evolve to acquire resistance to AGs via four different mechanisms: i) changing in membrane permeability ...


Elucidation Of Substrate Binding Interactions For Human Organic Cation Transporters 1 (Slc22a1) And 2 (Slc22a2) Using In Silico Homology Modeling In Conjunction With In Vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis And Kinetic Analysis, Raymond E. Lai 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Elucidation Of Substrate Binding Interactions For Human Organic Cation Transporters 1 (Slc22a1) And 2 (Slc22a2) Using In Silico Homology Modeling In Conjunction With In Vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis And Kinetic Analysis, Raymond E. Lai

Theses and Dissertations

The organic cation transporters (OCTs) play a critical role in the absorption, distribution and elimination of many drugs, hormones, herbal medicines, and environmental toxins. Given the broad substrate specificity of OCTs, they fall victim to the high susceptibility for contributing to harmful drug-drug interactions. Further defining how human (h)OCTs mechanistically bind to its broad array of substrates will provide significant insight to the understanding and prediction of drug-drug interactions in polypharmacy patients and the advancement of future rational drug design for therapeutics targeting OCTs. The goal of the current study was to elucidate the critical amino acid residues for ...


Using The Qbest Equation To Evaluate Ellagic Acid Safety Data: Generating A Qnoael With Confidence Levels From Disparate Literature, Cynthia Rose Dickerson 2018 University of Kentucky

Using The Qbest Equation To Evaluate Ellagic Acid Safety Data: Generating A Qnoael With Confidence Levels From Disparate Literature, Cynthia Rose Dickerson

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

QBEST, a novel statistical method, can be applied to the problem of estimating the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL or QNOAEL) of a New Molecular Entity (NME) in order to anticipate a safe starting dose for beginning clinical trials. The NOAEL from QBEST (called the QNOAEL) can be calculated using multiple disparate studies in the literature and/or from the lab. The QNOAEL is similar in some ways to the Benchmark Dose Method (BMD) used widely in toxicological research, but is superior to the BMD in some ways. The QNOAEL simulation generates an intuitive curve that is comparable to ...


Evaluation Of A Drug Delivery System Based On Cyclodextrins For Cancer Therapy, Caroline Mendes 2018 Technological University Dublin

Evaluation Of A Drug Delivery System Based On Cyclodextrins For Cancer Therapy, Caroline Mendes

Doctoral

Due to the side-effects caused by regular chemotherapy, the development of drug delivery systems that can specifically target cancer cells and deliver the therapeutic dose is required. In this study, a folate-derivative of β-cyclodextrin has been studied as a vehicle for targeting folate receptors (FR) and delivering the chemotherapeutic drug methotrexate (MTX). FRs can be considered key cell membrane targets since they are commonly over-expressed in cancer cells and play an important role in cancer development and progression. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides with a unique structure that allows them to form inclusion complexes with guest molecules, increasing their aqueous ...


Clearance Concepts: Fundamentals And Application To Pharmacokinetic Behavior Of Drugs, Reza Mehvar 2018 Chapman University

Clearance Concepts: Fundamentals And Application To Pharmacokinetic Behavior Of Drugs, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Clearance concepts were introduced into the pharmacokinetics discipline in the 1970s and since then have played a major role in characterization of the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs. These concepts are based on the relationship between organ extraction ratio or clearance and physiologic parameters such as the organ blood flow and the intrinsic capability of the eliminating organ to remove the free (unbound) drug from the body. Several theoretical models have been developed, which define these relationships and may be used to predict the effects of changes in the physiological parameters on various pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs, such as drug clearance ...


Development And Validation Of A Semi-Physiological Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Model To Predict Systemic And Pulmonary Exposures After Intravenous, Oral Administration And Pulmonary Inhalation Of Selected Drugs, Budesonide, Tobramycin And Ciprofloxacin, In Humans, Bishoy Hanna 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development And Validation Of A Semi-Physiological Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Model To Predict Systemic And Pulmonary Exposures After Intravenous, Oral Administration And Pulmonary Inhalation Of Selected Drugs, Budesonide, Tobramycin And Ciprofloxacin, In Humans, Bishoy Hanna

Theses and Dissertations

Using a semi-PBPK modeling/quantitative meta-analysis approach, this project investigated what factors affect pulmonary and systemic exposures of Budesonide (BUD), Tobramycin (TOB), and Ciprofloxacin (CIP) after inhalation:

Three structurally different pulmonary disposition models were developed for each drug, including pulmonary absorption (all three), excretion (TOB and CIP) and sequestration (TOB) in a peripheral and central lung compartment. Systemic disposition parameters were estimated using available human mean plasma (cp(t)) and sputum (cs(t)) concentration profiles after IV administration, and GI absorption parameters were estimated from these profiles after oral administration. Pulmonary disposition parameters were estimated from cp ...


Scalable Feature Selection And Extraction With Applications In Kinase Polypharmacology, Derek Jones 2018 University of Kentucky

Scalable Feature Selection And Extraction With Applications In Kinase Polypharmacology, Derek Jones

Theses and Dissertations--Computer Science

In order to reduce the time associated with and the costs of drug discovery, machine learning is being used to automate much of the work in this process. However the size and complex nature of molecular data makes the application of machine learning especially challenging. Much work must go into the process of engineering features that are then used to train machine learning models, costing considerable amounts of time and requiring the knowledge of domain experts to be most effective. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate data driven approaches to perform the feature selection and extraction steps in ...


Discovery Of Natural Product Analogs Against Ethanol-Induced Cytotoxicity In Hippocampal Slice Cultures, Meredith A. Saunders-Mattingly 2018 University of Kentucky

Discovery Of Natural Product Analogs Against Ethanol-Induced Cytotoxicity In Hippocampal Slice Cultures, Meredith A. Saunders-Mattingly

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

An estimated 13.9% of Americans currently meet criteria for an alcohol (ethanol; EtOH) use disorder (AUD). While there are 4 medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat AUD, these treatments have demonstrated poor clinical efficacy. Our ongoing research program encompasses a multi-tiered screening of a natural product library and validation process to provide novel information about the mechanisms underlying EtOH-induced changes in neurobiology and to identify novel chemical scaffolds to be exploited in the development of pharmacological treatments for AUD in a rodent organotypic hippocampal slice culture model. Initial screens of several natural product compounds ...


Computational And Experimental Determination Of The Mixing Efficiency Of A Microfluidic Serpentine Micromixer, Siril Arockiam 2017 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Computational And Experimental Determination Of The Mixing Efficiency Of A Microfluidic Serpentine Micromixer, Siril Arockiam

Theses

In microfluidics, efficiency and mixing time are the greatest disadvantages. These parameters hinder the application of microfluidic devices for biochemical and immunological assays. However, once these disadvantages have been overcome by optimizing th


Comparative Analysis Of The Dissolution Performance Of Aspirin Tablets In The Usp Apparatus 2 And In A Minivessel Dissolution System, Annmarie C. Walker 2017 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Comparative Analysis Of The Dissolution Performance Of Aspirin Tablets In The Usp Apparatus 2 And In A Minivessel Dissolution System, Annmarie C. Walker

Theses

Dissolution testing is a critical component of quality control procedures in the pharmaceutical industry in order to ensure that the final solid dosage forms have consistent dissolution properties. Dissolution tests are also routinely conducted to eval


Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Matthew A. Ingersoll 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Matthew A. Ingersoll

Theses & Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most commonly diagnosed solid tumor and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in United States men. While androgen deprivation therapy is the current standard-of-care treatment for metastatic PCa, most patients eventually relapse and develop castration-resistant (CR) tumors, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Therefore, synthesis of novel therapeutic agents and identification of alternative target proteins are necessary to improve treatment. Herein, I investigate the efficacy of novel imidazopyridine and statin derivatives as alternative therapeutic compounds. These molecules not only inhibit androgen receptor signaling, but also block activation of the AKT axis ...


Synthesis Of 2,4,6-Substituted Pyrrolo[2,3-D]Pyrimidines As Potential Anticancer Agents, Si Yang 2017 Duquesne University

Synthesis Of 2,4,6-Substituted Pyrrolo[2,3-D]Pyrimidines As Potential Anticancer Agents, Si Yang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis mainly focuses on the introduction of the background and work have been done in the areas of antifolates development, such as folate function, its three uptake mechanisms inside human cells, antifolates’ role in chemotherapy, et. al. In addition, the Structure-Activity-Relationship design rationale for the series of antifolates will also be discussed. Nevertheless, the details of synthesizing these pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as potential antifolates have been described, including chemistry reviews on the pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold, and the challenges encountered and the solutions how to solve or improve in order to achieve better yield.


India And The Patent Wars: Pharmaceuticals In The New Intellectual Property Regime, Murphy Halliburton 2017 CUNY Queens College

India And The Patent Wars: Pharmaceuticals In The New Intellectual Property Regime, Murphy Halliburton

Book Samples

[Excerpt] India and the Patent Wars contributes to an international debate over the costs of medicine and restrictions on access under stringent patent laws showing how activists and drug companies in low-income countries seize agency and exert influence over these processes. Murphy Halliburton contributes to analyses of globalization within the fields of anthropology, sociology, law, and public health by drawing on interviews and ethnographic work with pharmaceutical producers in India and the United States.

India has been at the center of emerging controversies around patent rights related to pharmaceutical production and local medical knowledge. Halliburton shows that Big Pharma ...


Ensemble-Based Modeling And Rigidity Decomposition Of Allosteric Interaction Networks And Communication Pathways In Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Differentiating Kinase Clients Of The Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone, Gabrielle Stetz, Amanda Tse, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2017 Chapman University

Ensemble-Based Modeling And Rigidity Decomposition Of Allosteric Interaction Networks And Communication Pathways In Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Differentiating Kinase Clients Of The Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone, Gabrielle Stetz, Amanda Tse, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The overarching goal of delineating molecular principles underlying differentiation of protein kinase clients and chaperone-based modulation of kinase activity is fundamental to understanding activity of many oncogenic kinases that require chaperoning of Hsp70 and Hsp90 systems to attain a functionally competent active form. Despite structural similarities and common activation mechanisms shared by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) proteins, members of this family can exhibit vastly different chaperone preferences. The molecular determinants underlying chaperone dependencies of protein kinases are not fully understood as structurally similar kinases may often elicit distinct regulatory responses to the chaperone. The regulatory divergences observed for members of CDK ...


Development And Validation Of Triticum Phytobiological Method As An Alternative Procedure For Investigating In Vivo Acute Toxicity On Mice, Emil Ştefănescu, Aurelia N. Cristea, Cornel Chiriță, Octavian Olaru, Adriana Anghel, Mihaela Dinu 2017 Carol Davila University, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

Development And Validation Of Triticum Phytobiological Method As An Alternative Procedure For Investigating In Vivo Acute Toxicity On Mice, Emil Ştefănescu, Aurelia N. Cristea, Cornel Chiriță, Octavian Olaru, Adriana Anghel, Mihaela Dinu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The goal of this study was to validate an alternative method for determining in vivo acute toxicity using vegetal material instead of laboratory animals, starting from the phytobiological method known also as the Triticum technique. We set out to demonstrate that vegetal cells have similar sensitivity to some toxic agents as animal cells, in which case a statistical correlation could be established. A series of new compounds synthesized by the Romanian National Institute for Chemical Pharmaceutical Research and Development as potential β3 adrenergic receptors agonists were tested for their acute toxicity using classic animal exposure models, before investigating possible anti-diabetic ...


A Mathematical Analysis Of Drug Dissolution In The Usp Flow Through Apparatus, David McDonnell, Deirdre M. D'Arcy, Lawrence J. Crane, Brendan Redmond 2017 Technological University Dublin

A Mathematical Analysis Of Drug Dissolution In The Usp Flow Through Apparatus, David Mcdonnell, Deirdre M. D'Arcy, Lawrence J. Crane, Brendan Redmond

Articles

This paper applies boundary layer theory to the process of drug dissolution in the USP (United States Pharmacopeia) Flow Through Apparatus. The mass transfer rate from the vertical planar surface of a compact within the device is examined. The theoretical results obtained are then compared with those of experiment. The paper also examines the effect on the dissolution process caused by the interaction between natural and forced convection within the apparatus and the introduction of additional boundaries.


The Influence Of A Kdt501, A Novel Isohumulone, On Adipocyte Function In Humans, Brian S. Finlin, Beibei Zhu, Bernard P. Kok, Cristina Godio, Philip M. Westgate, Neile Grayson, Robert Sims, Jeffrey S. Bland, Enrique Saez, Philip A. Kern 2017 University of Kentucky

The Influence Of A Kdt501, A Novel Isohumulone, On Adipocyte Function In Humans, Brian S. Finlin, Beibei Zhu, Bernard P. Kok, Cristina Godio, Philip M. Westgate, Neile Grayson, Robert Sims, Jeffrey S. Bland, Enrique Saez, Philip A. Kern

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Objective: In a phase II clinical trial in nine obese, insulin-resistant humans, we observed that treatment with KDT501, a novel isohumulone drug, increased total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in plasma. The objective was to determine whether KDT501 increased adiponectin secretion from subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SC WAT) and the underlying mechanism(s).

Methods: Nine obese participants with either prediabetes or with normal glucose tolerance plus three features of metabolic syndrome were part of the study. SC WAT biopsies were performed before and after 28 days of KDT501 treatment in a clinical research setting. In addition, a cold stimulus was ...


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