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Sunscreen Efficacy By Chemical Composition And Its Effect On Aquatic Life, Taylor Yates 2019 Rappahannock Community College

Sunscreen Efficacy By Chemical Composition And Its Effect On Aquatic Life, Taylor Yates

Student Writing

Sunscreen provides protection against skin cancer by reducing UV exposure to the skin. Active ingredients come in two basic forms, chemical and mineral; ongoing research indicates that some active ingredients in sunscreen are harmful to marine life. This study is an analysis of chemical and mineral SPF 30 sunscreens to determine which provides the highest efficacy for skin protection while also providing the lowest toxicity to aquatic organisms. Sunscreen efficacy was tested by exposing photoreactive chemical paper applied with chemical and mineral sunscreens to the sun. Results of the photo effect paper trial showed a wide variation in the efficacy ...


The Pharmabiotic For Phenylketonuria: Development Of A Novel Therapeutic, Chloé Elizabeth LeBegue 2019 University of South Carolina

The Pharmabiotic For Phenylketonuria: Development Of A Novel Therapeutic, Chloé Elizabeth Lebegue

Senior Theses

Phenylketonuria, now known as phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency, is a genetic disorder of metabolism affecting approximately one in every 15,000 infants born in the United States. Patients have nonfunctional PAH enzyme secondary to one or more genetic mutations. The enzyme deficit results in destructive supraphysiologic blood phenylalanine levels upon consumption of the essential dietary amino acid phenylalanine. Current standards of care mitigate signs and symptoms of the disorder, but do not approach a cure. The methods for creating a prototype pharmabiotic as an innovative treatment strategy for PAH deficiency are described herein.

DNA molecular cloning techniques were utilized to ...


The Impact Of Concomitant Empiric Cefepime On Patient Outcomes Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Bloodstream Infections Treated With Vancomycin, Evan J. Zasowski, Trang D. Trinh, Safana M. Atwan, Marina Merzlyakova, Abdalhamid M. Langf, Sahil Bhatia, Michael J. Rybak 2019 Touro University California

The Impact Of Concomitant Empiric Cefepime On Patient Outcomes Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Bloodstream Infections Treated With Vancomycin, Evan J. Zasowski, Trang D. Trinh, Safana M. Atwan, Marina Merzlyakova, Abdalhamid M. Langf, Sahil Bhatia, Michael J. Rybak

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Data suggest that vancomycin + β-lactam combinations improve clearance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs). However, it is unclear which specific β-lactams confer benefit. This analysis evaluates the impact of concomitant empiric cefepime on outcomes of MRSA BSIs treated with vancomycin.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adults with MRSA BSI from 2006 to 2017. Vancomycin + cefepime therapy was defined as ≥24 hours of cefepime during the first 72 hours of vancomycin. The primary outcome was microbiologic failure, defined as BSI duration ≥7 days and/or 60-day recurrence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between vancomycin ...


Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour 2019 American University of Health Sciences

Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour

Library Articles and Research

Objective:

The purpose of this article was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine compared with placebo or other interventions for psychosis in parkinsonism.

Methods:

Participants with a diagnosis of parkinsonism participated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine for psychotic symptoms within a defined follow-up period. The authors conducted searches on PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, and EMBASE for articles published from January 1991 to October 2017. Study methodology and patient- and treatment-level data were independently extracted and summarized by using descriptive statistics. Studies underwent quality assessment for risk of bias.

Results ...


Novel Flexible Heteroarotinoid, Sl-1-39, Inhibits Her2-Positive Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation By Promoting Lysosomal Degradation Of Her2., Hongye Zou, Mary B. Sevigny, Shengquan Liu, David T. Madden, Maggie C. Louie 2019 Touro University California

Novel Flexible Heteroarotinoid, Sl-1-39, Inhibits Her2-Positive Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation By Promoting Lysosomal Degradation Of Her2., Hongye Zou, Mary B. Sevigny, Shengquan Liu, David T. Madden, Maggie C. Louie

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

SL-1-39 [1-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)thiourea] is a new flexible heteroarotinoid (Flex-Het) analog derived from the parental compound, SHetA2, previously shown to inhibit cell growth across multiple cancer types. The current study aims to determine growth inhibitory effects of SL-1-39 across the different subtypes of breast cancer cells and delineate its molecular mechanism. Our results demonstrate that while SL-1-39 blocks cell proliferation of all breast cancer subtypes tested, it has the highest efficacy against HER2+ breast cancer cells. Molecular analyses suggest that SL-1-39 prevents S phase progression of HER2+ breast cancer cells (SKBR3 and MDA-MB-453), which is consistent with reduced ...


Small Peptide Ligands For Targeting Egfr In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Hanieh Hossein-Nejad-Ariani, Emad Althagafi, Kamaljit Kaur 2019 Chapman University

Small Peptide Ligands For Targeting Egfr In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Hanieh Hossein-Nejad-Ariani, Emad Althagafi, Kamaljit Kaur

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The efficacy of chemotherapy for cancer treatment can be increased by targeted drug delivery to the cancer cells. This is particularly important for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) for which chemotherapy is a major form of treatment. Here we designed and screened a library of 30 peptides starting with a previously reported epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting peptide GE11 (YHWYGYTPQNVI). A direct peptide array-whole cell binding assay, where the peptides are conjugated to a cellulose membrane, was used to identify four peptides with enhanced binding to TNBC cells. Next, the four peptides were synthesized as FITC-labelled soluble peptides to ...


Synthesis, Biological Evaluation And Molecular Modeling Studies Of Novel Chromone/Aza-Chromone Fused Α-Aminophosphonates As Src Kinase Inhibitors, S. Bapat, N. Viswanadh, M. Mujahid, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, M. Karthikeyan, M. Muthukrishnan, Renu Vyas 2019 CSIR· National Chemical Laboratory

Synthesis, Biological Evaluation And Molecular Modeling Studies Of Novel Chromone/Aza-Chromone Fused Α-Aminophosphonates As Src Kinase Inhibitors, S. Bapat, N. Viswanadh, M. Mujahid, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, M. Karthikeyan, M. Muthukrishnan, Renu Vyas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A series of novel chromone/aza-chromone fused α-aminophosphonate derivatives were synthesized in good yields using silica chloride as the catalyst. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their c-Src kinase inhibitory activity. Aza-chromone compound showed Src kinase inhibition with an IC50 value of 15.8 µM. The compounds were subjected to molecular docking and dynamics simulations to study the atomic level interactions with an unphosphorylated proto-oncogenic tyrosine protein kinase Src (PDB code 1Y57) as well as phosphorylated tyrosine protein kinase Src (PDB code 2H8H). Docking and molecular dynamic results revealed phosphorylated Src tyrosine kinase protein better results than unphosphorylated tyrosine ...


Towards The Rational Design And Application Of Polymers For Gene Therapy: Internalization And Intracellular Fate, Landon Alexander Mott 2019 University of Kentucky

Towards The Rational Design And Application Of Polymers For Gene Therapy: Internalization And Intracellular Fate, Landon Alexander Mott

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Gene therapy is an approach for the treatment of acquired cancers, infectious disease, degenerative disease, and inherited genetic indications. Developments in the fields of immunotherapies and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing are revitalizing the efforts to move gene therapy to the forefront of modern medicine. However, slow progress and poor clinical outcomes have plagued the field due to regulatory and safety concerns associated with the flagship delivery vector, the recombinant virus. Immunogenicity and poor transduction in certain cell types severely limits the utility of viruses as a delivery agent of nucleic acids. As a result, significant efforts are being made to ...


Drug Repositioning Based On Bounded Nuclear Norm Regularization, Mengyun Yang, Huimin Lao, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang 2019 Old Dominion University

Drug Repositioning Based On Bounded Nuclear Norm Regularization, Mengyun Yang, Huimin Lao, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Motivation: Computational drug repositioning is a cost-effective strategy to identify novel indications for existing drugs. Drug repositioning is often modeled as a recommendation system problem. Taking advantage of the known drug–disease associations, the objective of the recommendation system is to identify new treatments by filling out the unknown entries in the drug–disease association matrix, which is known as matrix completion. Underpinned by the fact that common molecular pathways contribute to many different diseases, the recommendation system assumes that the underlying latent factors determining drug–disease associations are highly correlated. In other words, the drug–disease matrix to be ...


Car T Cells As A Patentable Therapeutic, McKenzie List 2019 Rollins College

Car T Cells As A Patentable Therapeutic, Mckenzie List

Honors Program Theses

The development of a therapeutic to treat a particular disease is a complicated process that incorporates numerous components such as drug discovery, clinical trials, FDA approval and patentability. In the last two decades, cancer research and development has shifted from identifying small molecule therapeutic agents to focusing research on a novel approach designated as immunotherapy. Today, immunotherapy has progressed from a twentieth century scientific theory into an innovative treatment to cancer. In particular, CAR T cells have demonstrated therapeutic properties for certain types of cancers, but these living cells are not compatible with the traditional therapeutic model. First, the drug ...


Mechanisms And Thermodynamics Of The Influence Of Solution-State Interactions Between Hpmc And Surfactants On Mixed Adsorption Onto Model Nanoparticles, Salin Gupta Patel 2019 University of Kentucky

Mechanisms And Thermodynamics Of The Influence Of Solution-State Interactions Between Hpmc And Surfactants On Mixed Adsorption Onto Model Nanoparticles, Salin Gupta Patel

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (NDDS) such as nanocrystals, nanosuspensions, solid-lipid nanoparticles often formulated for the bioavailability enhancement of poorly soluble drug candidates are stabilized by a mixture of excipients including surfactants and polymers. Most literature studies have focused on the interaction of excipients with the NDDS surfaces while ignoring the interaction of excipients in solution and the extent to which the solution-state interactions influence the affinity and capacity of adsorption. Mechanisms by which excipients stabilize NDDS and how this information can be utilized by formulators a priori to make a rational selection of excipients is not known.

The goals of ...


Phase Behavior Of Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Miscibility And Molecular Interactions, Kanika Sarpal 2019 University of Kentucky

Phase Behavior Of Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Miscibility And Molecular Interactions, Kanika Sarpal

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Over the past few decades, amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) have been of great interest to pharmaceutical scientists to address bioavailability issues associated with poorly water-soluble drugs. ASDs consist of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) that is typically dispersed in an inert polymeric matrix. Despite promising advantages, a major concern that has resulted in limited marketed formulations is the physical instability of these complex formulations. Physical instability is often manifested as phase heterogeneity, where the drug and carrier migrate and generate distinct phases, which can be a prelude to recrystallization. One important factor that dictates the physical stability of ASDs is ...


Modulation Of Hypoxia-Induced Chemoresistance To Polymeric Micellar Cisplatin: The Effect Of Ligand Modification Of Micellar Carrier Versus Inhibition Of The Mediators Of Drug Resistance, Hoda Soleymani Abyaneh, Amir Hassan Soleimani, Mohammad Reza Vakili, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Francesco Cuda, Ali Tavassoli, Afsaneh Lavasanifar 2018 University of Alberta

Modulation Of Hypoxia-Induced Chemoresistance To Polymeric Micellar Cisplatin: The Effect Of Ligand Modification Of Micellar Carrier Versus Inhibition Of The Mediators Of Drug Resistance, Hoda Soleymani Abyaneh, Amir Hassan Soleimani, Mohammad Reza Vakili, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Francesco Cuda, Ali Tavassoli, Afsaneh Lavasanifar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Hypoxia can induce chemoresistance, which is a significant clinical obstacle in cancer therapy. Here, we assessed development of hypoxia-induced chemoresistance (HICR) against free versus polymeric cisplatin micelles in a triple negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. We then explored two strategies for the modulation of HICR against cisplatin micelles: a) the development of actively targeted micelles; and b) combination therapy with modulators of HICR in MDA-MB-231 cells. Actively targeted cisplatin micelles were prepared through surface modification of acetal-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(-carboxyl-"-caprolactone) (acetal-PEO-PCCL) micelles with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting peptide, GE11 (YHWYGYTPQNVI). Our results showed that hypoxia ...


Structure-Activity Profiling Of Alkaloid Natural Product Pharmacophores Against A Schistosoma Serotonin Receptor, Jonathan S. Marchant, Wayne W. Harding, John D. Chan 2018 Medical College of Wisconsin

Structure-Activity Profiling Of Alkaloid Natural Product Pharmacophores Against A Schistosoma Serotonin Receptor, Jonathan S. Marchant, Wayne W. Harding, John D. Chan

Publications and Research

Serotonin (5-HT) is an important regulator of numerous aspects of flatworm biology, ranging from neuromuscularfunctionto sexualmaturationandegglaying. Intheparasiticblood flukeSchistosomamansoni,5-HTtargets several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), one of which has been demonstrated to couple to cAMP and regulate parasite movement. This receptor, Sm.5HTRL, has been successfully co-expressed in mammalian cells alongside a luminescent cAMP-biosensor, enabling pharmacological profiling for candidate anti-schistosomal drugs. Here, we have utilized this assay to perform structure-activity investigations of 143 compounds containing previously identified alkaloid natural product pharmacophores (tryptamines, aporphines and protoberberines) shown to regulate Sm.5HTRL. These experiments mapped regions of the tryptamine pharmacophore amenable and intolerant ...


Recombinant Human Proteoglycan-4 Reduces Phagocytosis Of Urate Crystals And Downstream Nuclear Factor Kappa B And Inflammasome Activation And Production Of Cytokines And Chemokines In Human And Murine Macrophages, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Wendy Wong, Anthony M. Reginato, Changqi Sun, Tannin A. Schmidt 2018 Chapman University

Recombinant Human Proteoglycan-4 Reduces Phagocytosis Of Urate Crystals And Downstream Nuclear Factor Kappa B And Inflammasome Activation And Production Of Cytokines And Chemokines In Human And Murine Macrophages, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Wendy Wong, Anthony M. Reginato, Changqi Sun, Tannin A. Schmidt

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Microbial biofilms are organized communities of cells that are associated with a wide spectrum of resistant and chronic infections that lead to the treatment failure. Accordingly, there is an urgent demand to create novel effective therapeutic drugs that can inhibit biofilm formation with new mechanisms of action to surmount the current escalating resistance. In this study, in silico hybrid model was utilized to develop three novel short linear peptides (4, 5, and 6) with potential biofilm inhibiting activities (scores > 1.0). The peptides were composed of cationic and hydrophobic residues. They were synthesized using solid-phase strategy. Synthesized peptides were purified ...


Astromimetics: The Dawn Of A New Era For (Bio)Materials Science?, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu 2018 Chapman University

Astromimetics: The Dawn Of A New Era For (Bio)Materials Science?, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Composite, multifunctional fine particles are likely to be at the frontier of materials science in the foreseeable future. Here we present a submicron composite particle that mimics the stratified structure of the Earth by having a zero-valent iron core, a silicate/silicide mantle, and a thin carbonaceous crust resembling the biosphere and its biotic deposits. Particles were formulated in a stable colloidal form and made to interact with various types of healthy and cancer cells in vitro. A selective anticancer activity was observed, promising from the point of view of the intended use of the particles for tumor targeting across ...


Self-Assembling Bioaffinity Hydrogels For Localized Antibody Delivery, Wen Liu 2018 Duquesne University

Self-Assembling Bioaffinity Hydrogels For Localized Antibody Delivery, Wen Liu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The scope of illnesses that are being treated using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been expanding from cancers to autoimmune diseases due to their high specificity to their molecular target. Because many of the new mAbs are aimed to modulate the immune system, an emerging concern is that patients with chronic illnesses are subjected to immune-related Adverse Events (irAEs). Loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens or increased susceptibility to infections have been documented in some mAb treatments. Localized sustained release of mAb at disease sites might mitigate the risk of such toxicities. Antibody drugs are formulated typically for parenteral delivery because ...


Understanding The Impact Of Bcrp And Pgp Efflux Transporters On The Disposition Of Their Endogenous, Xenobiotic And Dietary Substrates, Samit Ganguly 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Understanding The Impact Of Bcrp And Pgp Efflux Transporters On The Disposition Of Their Endogenous, Xenobiotic And Dietary Substrates, Samit Ganguly

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Breast Cancer Resistant Protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (PGP) are membrane-bound efflux transporters that transport multiple chemical classes of compounds and act as barriers to tissue permeability, thereby regulating tissue exposure of their substrates. The role of these transporters in therapeutic resistance of their xenobiotic substrates due to their expression and efflux function at target organs/tissues, especially in brain and intestine, is well established, which has fueled investigation toward identification of their inhibitors. Multiple clinically used drugs and dietary chemicals have been reported to inhibit these transporters and potentially increase the exposure of concomitantly administered BCRP and/or PGP substrates ...


Evaluating Feasibility Of Blockchain Application For Dscsa Compliance, Tracie Scott, Armand L. Post, Johnny Quick, Sohail Rafiqi 2018 Southern Methodist University

Evaluating Feasibility Of Blockchain Application For Dscsa Compliance, Tracie Scott, Armand L. Post, Johnny Quick, Sohail Rafiqi

SMU Data Science Review

Abstract. We evaluated the feasibility of using a blockchain technology to create a traceability solution for pharmaceutical drugs that would promote compliance with recent legislation. Counterfeit and other illegitimate pharmaceutical drugs threaten patient safety, drug efficacy, and patient trust. The purpose of the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA) is to greatly reduce distribution of illegitimate drugs by requiring all pharmaceuticals to be serialized and traceable from the manufacturer through the supply chain to the dispenser. A software application to serialize and track pharmaceuticals must overcome numerous obstacles. In particular, the solution must provide a high degree of trust while ...


The Development Of Hydrogels And Nanoparticles For Drug And Cell Delivery To The Distal Airways, Christina Payne 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

The Development Of Hydrogels And Nanoparticles For Drug And Cell Delivery To The Distal Airways, Christina Payne

PhD theses

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major public health issue, affecting 64 million people globally. COPD is defined as a lung disease characterised by chronic obstruction of lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible. This obstruction is due to a combination of airway and parenchymal damage, associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response to noxious particles present in tobacco smoke. Despite the significant evolution of medical treatment options for COPD in the last two decades, it is still an incurable disease. Current interventions include pharmacological agents, which primarily aim for symptomatic control, and lung ...


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