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Pharmacogenetics: Cyps, Nat2 And 5-Htt Related To Antidepressants, Molly Kulp, Armond Cosiano, Kevin Krivanek, Amanda Lanker, Taylor Roberson, David F. Kisor 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pharmacogenetics: Cyps, Nat2 And 5-Htt Related To Antidepressants, Molly Kulp, Armond Cosiano, Kevin Krivanek, Amanda Lanker, Taylor Roberson, David F. Kisor

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Pharmacogenetics (PGt), the study of a gene's influence on patient response to a drug, shows strong potential for explaining issues with efficacy related to antidepressant medications. Each year, antidepressants are one of the most commonly prescribed medications due to the millions of Americans affected by depression. Importantly, it is recognized that there is wide interpatient variability in drug response to antidepressants caused by genetic mutations, which can alter the pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of various drugs used to treat depression. Proteins that are mainly involved in how patients respond to medications include receptors, drug-targeted proteins, drug transport ...


New Cholesterol Guidelines: An Update For Pharmacists, Emily Limberg, Benjamin Finley, Stacy Henthorne, Sarah Kradel, David Bright 2019 Ohio Northern University

New Cholesterol Guidelines: An Update For Pharmacists, Emily Limberg, Benjamin Finley, Stacy Henthorne, Sarah Kradel, David Bright

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association published new blood cholesterol guidelines in November 2013. The new guidelines place an emphasis on evidence-based treatment of dyslipidemias and primarily use randomized controlled trials to create recommendations for health care providers. Major changes from the previous guidelines include eliminating low-density lipoprotein goals, the classification of statins by lipid-lowering potential and the creation of four major statin benefit groups. The new guidelines also establish the role of non-statins in dyslipidemias and use the Pooled Cohort Risk Assessment Equations to calculate patients' risk for cardiovascular events and the need for cholesterol-lowering medications ...


Crohn's Disease: Management, Emerging Therapies And The Role Of The Pharmacist, Sarah Turley, Tiffany Kneuss, Lydia Suchecki, Alison Steinbrunner, Kristen Timperman 2019 Ohio Northern University

Crohn's Disease: Management, Emerging Therapies And The Role Of The Pharmacist, Sarah Turley, Tiffany Kneuss, Lydia Suchecki, Alison Steinbrunner, Kristen Timperman

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Crohn's disease is a relapsing-remitting disorder of the gastrointestinal tract caused by a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Pharmacologic treatment of Crohn's disease is patient-specific, and regimens vary widely between individuals. Drug regimens are typically based on 5-aminosalicylate therapy and may include a combination of steroids, histamine 2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, immunomodulators, antibiotics, biologic agents and other medications aimed at symptom relief. A new medication, vedolizumab, is currently in phase III clinical trials awaiting U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use in Crohn's disease. Vedolizumab is an alpha-integrin inhibitor, which is ...


Advances In Treatment Of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (Hcv) Infection, Halle Orlinski, Kimberly Loughlin, Haley Armstrong, Emily Blum, Andrew M. Roecker 2019 Ohio Northern University

Advances In Treatment Of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (Hcv) Infection, Halle Orlinski, Kimberly Loughlin, Haley Armstrong, Emily Blum, Andrew M. Roecker

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a prominent cause of chronic liver disease and may lead to serious complications such as liver failure and need for a transplant. The virus is transmitted via exposure to blood and is classified into various genotypes based on genetic mutations in the virus. Current treatment options for HCV infection are not effective in all patients, and there are limited options for patients infected with a genotype other than genotype 1. Two new medications have been approved recently for treatment of HCV infection. Simeprevir (Olysio®) gained U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in ...


Lbrutinib (Lmbruvica™) For Treatment Of Mantle Cell Lymphoma, Brittany Crowe, Joy Hoffman, Hannah Stewart, Alison Steinbrunner, Mark E. Olah 2019 Ohio Northern University

Lbrutinib (Lmbruvica™) For Treatment Of Mantle Cell Lymphoma, Brittany Crowe, Joy Hoffman, Hannah Stewart, Alison Steinbrunner, Mark E. Olah

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and moderately aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that predominantly presents at an advanced stage in older males. Patients often present with multiple involvement in the lymph nodes, blood, spleen, bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Some patients may be asymptomatic in early stages or present with an incurable, indolent (slow progressing) form, while other patients display rapid growth of more aggressive lymphomas. Overall survival for patients diagnosed with MCL is four to five years and treatment should be initiated in those who are symptomatic. Mantle cell lymphoma responds well to first-line ...


Dapagliflozin: A Newly Approved Sglt2 Inhibitor For The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Ann Marie Ruhe, Rachel Muhlenkamp, Austin Brown, Emily Blum, Sandra L. Hrometz 2019 Ohio Northern University

Dapagliflozin: A Newly Approved Sglt2 Inhibitor For The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Ann Marie Ruhe, Rachel Muhlenkamp, Austin Brown, Emily Blum, Sandra L. Hrometz

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease in which a hyperglycemic state is induced by insulin resistance. While there are numerous treatment options available to manage T2DM, many patients require changes in therapy throughout treatment, as well as multiple medications. The sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, offer a therapeutic alternative in T2DM management through the utilization of a unique mechanism of action to provide intensified glycemic control. This article will evaluate the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in the management ofT2DM.


Trametinib And Dabrafenib: New Agents For Advanced Stage Melanoma, Kelsey Weisenburger, Kevin Krivanek, Armond Cosiano, Kasie Bellmann, Mark E. Olah 2019 Ohio Northern University

Trametinib And Dabrafenib: New Agents For Advanced Stage Melanoma, Kelsey Weisenburger, Kevin Krivanek, Armond Cosiano, Kasie Bellmann, Mark E. Olah

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is caused primarily by exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Tumor formation occurs early in disease progression and can easily metastasize. The development of the disease can be described by one of four stages, characterized by tumor size and risk of spreading. The B-rafprotein plays an important role in cell proliferation and has the ability to develop a mutation for continuous activation, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. Sixty percent of melanomas possess a V600E mutation in the BRAF gene. Recently, drug developers have turned the focus of melanoma treatments toward preventing the activation of the ...


Phenoconversion: Drug-Drug-Gene Interactions, Molly Kulp, Emily Limberg, Brooke Marlowe, Taylor Roberson, David F. Kisor 2019 Ohio Northern University

Phenoconversion: Drug-Drug-Gene Interactions, Molly Kulp, Emily Limberg, Brooke Marlowe, Taylor Roberson, David F. Kisor

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Based on the extensive, poor, intermediate and ultrarapid phenotypes of patients, inferences may be made relative to drug metabolism, ultimately leading to changes in therapeutic drug choice or dosing. Phenoconversion is a phenomenon that occurs when an individual's drug metabolizing capacity is altered due to the combination of a drug-drug interaction and a drug-gene interaction. Phenoconversion can affect pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacodynamics. Some examples of phenoconversions include amiodarone-warfarin, duloxetine-codeine, rifampin-clopidogrel, and rifampinwarfarin. Pharmacists must consider phenoconversion in cases of multi-drug therapy.


A Review Of The Guidelines And Treatment Options For Major Depressive Disorder In Adolescents, Stacy Henthorne, Joy Hoffman, Albert Bui, Sarah Kradel, Suzanne M. Lifer, Mary Ellen Hethcox 2019 Ohio Northern University

A Review Of The Guidelines And Treatment Options For Major Depressive Disorder In Adolescents, Stacy Henthorne, Joy Hoffman, Albert Bui, Sarah Kradel, Suzanne M. Lifer, Mary Ellen Hethcox

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Major depressive disorder (MOD) is a disease often underdiagnosed in adolescents. For adolescents in particular, MOD can have far-reaching implications on developmental, social and emotional functioning. Unfortunately, few guidelines detail consistent means by which to evaluate and treat these patients; significantly more information exists that solely pertains to the adult population. Governing bodies such as the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) and Resource for Advancing Children's Health (REACH) recommend that primary care physicians be diligent in their psychiatric analyses and follow-ups with young patients who may be experiencing MOD. Both psychotherapy and medications, either as monotherapy ...


The Safety Of Artificial Sweeteners And Their Use In Pharmaceuticals, Kaila Bollinger, Maureen Moynihan, Adam Smith, Alison Steinbrunner, Karen Kier 2019 Ohio Northern University

The Safety Of Artificial Sweeteners And Their Use In Pharmaceuticals, Kaila Bollinger, Maureen Moynihan, Adam Smith, Alison Steinbrunner, Karen Kier

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Artificial sweeteners are sugar substitutes that add sweetness to foods and beverages without the extra calories found in sugar. These additives are used to help patients with diabetes avoid hyperglycemia and assist people in losing weight or avoiding weight gain by providing a replacement to higher calorie sugar-sweetened foods. Artificial sweeteners can be found in many sugar-free beverages, candies and gum, as well as pharmaceutical products. Although artificial sweeteners are often recommended over the sugar-sweetened alternatives in weight loss and diabetes prevention, the use of such products are not without risk. Studies have been conducted to assess artificial sweeteners involvement ...


Overview Of Kalydeco® (Ivacaftor) For Treatment Of Cystic Fibrosis, Andrew Skouby, Kayti Kintner, Kimberly Loughlin, Emily Blum, Michael Rush 2019 Ohio Northern University

Overview Of Kalydeco® (Ivacaftor) For Treatment Of Cystic Fibrosis, Andrew Skouby, Kayti Kintner, Kimberly Loughlin, Emily Blum, Michael Rush

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease associated with specific gene mutations that presents with pulmonary inflammation and frequent lung infections, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, altered sweat composition and declining lung function. Ivacaftor (Kalydeco®) was approved for treatment of cystic fibrosis in patients 6 years of age and older with a G551D mutation on the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Ivacaftor is a CFTR potentiator and does not work in patients with a mutation of the F508del. Efficacy has been demonstrated in several trials with a primary outcome of improved FEV1, improvements in pulmonary exacerbations, patient-reported decrease in respiratory ...


Emergency Contraception: A Comparison Of Levonorgestrel And Ulipristal Acetate, Tara Tokar, Rachel Muhlenkamp, Kelsey Lindsley, Alison Steinbrunner, Michelle Musser 2019 Ohio Northern University

Emergency Contraception: A Comparison Of Levonorgestrel And Ulipristal Acetate, Tara Tokar, Rachel Muhlenkamp, Kelsey Lindsley, Alison Steinbrunner, Michelle Musser

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Emergency contraceptives (EC) are a birth control method that is available to minimize unintended pregnancies that might result from unprotected intercourse. Several products are on the market and largely contain levonorgestrel as the active component, including Plan B One-Step®, Next Choice®, Next Choice One Dose™ and My Way®. These are labeled as effective up to 72 hours after intercourse and are available without a prescription. Another product, Ella™, contains ulipristal acetate and can be effective up to 120 hours after intercourse, but does require a prescription. Legislative issues have surrounded these products. At this point in time only Plan B ...


Celiac Disease: Current And Investigational Therapies And The Role Of The Pharmacist, Sarah Turley, Gabriella Gegenheimer, Emily Blum, Erin Petersen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Celiac Disease: Current And Investigational Therapies And The Role Of The Pharmacist, Sarah Turley, Gabriella Gegenheimer, Emily Blum, Erin Petersen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Celiac disease is a genetically-linked autoimmune disease which affects the gastrointestinal tract. It is an inflammatory reaction to ingested gluten-containing substances that produces the most frequent symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating and intermittent or chronic diarrhea. Diagnosis can be made by blood testing for specific IgA autoantibodies and a confirmation duodenal biopsy to look for the characteristic scalloping and villous atrophy that occurs in response to the inflammation. A gluten-free diet, until recently, was the only treatment available and continues to be the mainstay of treatment. Newer adjunct therapies to dietary management include larazotide acetate, peptidases, the use of parasite ...


A Comparison Of Mipomersen (Kynamro®) And Lomitapide (Juxtapid®): Medications For The Treatment Of Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Ann Marie Ruhe, Austin Brown, Ginny Daniels, Kelsey Fink, David Bright 2019 Ohio Northern University

A Comparison Of Mipomersen (Kynamro®) And Lomitapide (Juxtapid®): Medications For The Treatment Of Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Ann Marie Ruhe, Austin Brown, Ginny Daniels, Kelsey Fink, David Bright

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare disease that involves mutations in the genes coding for low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, preventing the uptake of LDL cholesterol from the serum and resulting in extremely high cholesterol levels.1 Between December 2012, and January 2013, two orphan drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HoFH. Mipomersen (Kynamro®) is a subcutaneous injection that functions as an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor and ultimately prevents the translation of mRNA coding for apolipoprotein B (apoB)-100 which binds to LDL and very low density lipoprotein (vLDL) cholesterol ...


Signifor® Receives Fda Approvalfor The Management Of Cushing's Disease, Justin Steele, Ann Marie Ruhe, Andrew Skouby, Eric Stack, Sandra L. Hrometz 2019 Ohio Northern University

Signifor® Receives Fda Approvalfor The Management Of Cushing's Disease, Justin Steele, Ann Marie Ruhe, Andrew Skouby, Eric Stack, Sandra L. Hrometz

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Cushing's disease is a disorder characterized by supraphysiologic levels of circulating cortisol due to excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. Most often hypersecretion of ACTH is due to a pituitary adenoma, where surgical resection of the tumor is considered first-line treatment for the disease. Alternatively, the FDA has recently approved the somatostatin analogue, Signifor® (pasireotide), for the management of Cushing's disease in patients for whom surgery is not an option. In clinical trials, pasireotide has shown a statistically significant reduction in urinary free cortisol levels, as well as significant improvements in quality of life. Based on current data, pasireotide ...


Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine For Her2 Positive Breast Cancer, Kimberly Baucher, Taylor Beale, Maria Laikos, Eric Stack, Mary Ellen Hethcox 2019 Ohio Northern University

Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine For Her2 Positive Breast Cancer, Kimberly Baucher, Taylor Beale, Maria Laikos, Eric Stack, Mary Ellen Hethcox

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

No abstract provided.


Novel Oral Anticoagulants: A Comparative Study Of The Clinical Potential For Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, And Apixaban Versus Warfarin, Lindsay Mark, Joanne Tran, Zachary Jones, Jessica Beck, David Bright 2019 Ohio Northern University

Novel Oral Anticoagulants: A Comparative Study Of The Clinical Potential For Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, And Apixaban Versus Warfarin, Lindsay Mark, Joanne Tran, Zachary Jones, Jessica Beck, David Bright

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Although Coumadin® (warfarin) has been the standard outpatient anticoagulant for long-term prevention of thrombosis for many decades, it presents with significant challenges for both patients and health care providers in optimizing standards of care including dietary and drug restrictions, regular monitoring of the patient's International Normalized Ratio (INR), and difficulty maintaining therapeutic levels. Despite its unmistakable effectiveness, there has been an interest from the medical community in developing potential alternative drug therapies. As a result, within the past three years the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of three new oral anticoagulant drugs (dabigatran ...


Antidepressant Therapy: A Review Of Current Treatmentoptions And A Glance At The Future, Brittany Dye, Stacy Henthorne, Molly Kulp, Tristan Maiers, Zachary Crawford, Erin Petersen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Antidepressant Therapy: A Review Of Current Treatmentoptions And A Glance At The Future, Brittany Dye, Stacy Henthorne, Molly Kulp, Tristan Maiers, Zachary Crawford, Erin Petersen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Depression and anxiety disorders are two of the most common mental illnesses experienced by people within the United States, affecting 6.7 percent of the adult population per year. This article will focus on one specific type of depression, major depressive disorder (MDD), characterized by two or more weeks of depressed mood and/or decreased interest in normally enjoyed activities. Depression complicates treatment of other disease state(s), making successful treatment of depression essential in the management of a patient's overall health. This review will evaluate the pathophysiology, antidepressant treatment, and new approaches to treatment, specifically vortioxetine, for MDD.


Fda Approves New Tuberculosis Drug: Bedaquiline (Sirturo®), Megan Ruffner, Kent Wilin, Charles Hay, Zachary Crawford, Andrew Roecker 2019 Ohio Northern University

Fda Approves New Tuberculosis Drug: Bedaquiline (Sirturo®), Megan Ruffner, Kent Wilin, Charles Hay, Zachary Crawford, Andrew Roecker

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the acid-fast bacilli (AFB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an infectious disease that continues to greatly impact morbidity and mortality worldwide; in 2011 it caused 1.4 million deaths. Some strains of the bacteria have become resistant to current treatment regimens, resulting in multidrug-resistant (MOR) and extensively drugresistant (XOR) TB. The emergence of these resistant strains of bacteria calls for new treatment regimens that can quickly and effectively eradicate the organism. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved Sirturo® (bedaquiline) with the indication of MDR pulmonary TB. Bedaquiline introduces a novel mechanism of action via ...


Pharmacogenetic Implications Regarding Second Generation Antipsychotics Clozapine And Risperidone, Sarah E. Ginty, Amy Pasternak, Lauren Desko, Jamie Amero, David Kisor 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pharmacogenetic Implications Regarding Second Generation Antipsychotics Clozapine And Risperidone, Sarah E. Ginty, Amy Pasternak, Lauren Desko, Jamie Amero, David Kisor

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Pharmacogenomics is a growing area of pharmacy that has the potential to improve individualization of medication choices, dosing and predictability of side effects. Clozapine and risperidone are atypical antipsychotics whose metabolism, efficacy and side effects are influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a patient's genetic makeup. It has been shown that a polymorphism in the D3 dopamine receptor is associated with an increased risk in developing tardive dyskinesia as an adverse event while taking risperidone. Also, there is evidence that a patient with a homogenous C genotype in the gene coding for the 5-HTzc receptor has a higher ...


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