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Influence Of Oncotype Dx® On Chemotherapy Prescribing In Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients: A Claims-Based Evaluation Of Utilization In The Real World, Kenneth Neil Kennedy 2012 University of Kentucky

Influence Of Oncotype Dx® On Chemotherapy Prescribing In Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients: A Claims-Based Evaluation Of Utilization In The Real World, Kenneth Neil Kennedy

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The decision for adjuvant therapy in women with early stage breast cancer (ESBC) has historically been guided by the presence or absence of specific biological markers (hormone and HER2 receptors), age, and extent of nodal involvement. Oncotype DX® is a validated assay that quantifies protein expression that can predict the risk of cancer recurrence. This study evaluates if the use of Oncotype DX® impacts chemotherapy prescribing in ESBC. This retrospective, cohort study identified patients with ESBC from a large commercially insured population from January 2007 through June 2009. Patients were identified as having ESBC by utilizing procedure and diagnosis codes ...


Nanocrystals Of Chemotherapeutic Agents For Cancer Theranostics: Development And In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation, Christin P. Hollis 2012 University of Kentucky

Nanocrystals Of Chemotherapeutic Agents For Cancer Theranostics: Development And In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation, Christin P. Hollis

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The majority of pharmacologically active chemotherapeutics are poorly water soluble. Solubilization enhancement by the utilization of organic solvents often leads to adverse side effects. Nanoparticle-based cancer therapy, which is passively targeted to the tumor tissue via the enhanced permeation and retention effect, has been vastly developed in recent years. Nanocrystals, which exist as crystalline and carry nearly 100% drug loading, has been explored for delivering antineoplastic agents. Additionally, the hybrid nanocrystal concept offers a novel and simple way to integrate imaging agents into the drug crystals, enabling the achievement of theranostics. The overall objective of this dissertation is to formulate ...


Cytomegalovirus Cc Chemokine Promotes Immune Cell Migration, Jennifer Totonchy, Michael Denton, Craig N. Kreklywich, Takeshi Andoh, Jessica M. Osborn, Daniel Chen, Ilhem Messaoudi, Susan L. Orloff, Daniel N. Streblow 2012 Chapman University

Cytomegalovirus Cc Chemokine Promotes Immune Cell Migration, Jennifer Totonchy, Michael Denton, Craig N. Kreklywich, Takeshi Andoh, Jessica M. Osborn, Daniel Chen, Ilhem Messaoudi, Susan L. Orloff, Daniel N. Streblow

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cytomegaloviruses manipulate the host chemokine/receptor axis by altering cellular chemokine expression and by encoding multiple chemokines and chemokine receptors. Similar to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) encodes multiple CC chemokine-analogous proteins, including r129 (HCMV UL128 homologue) and r131 (HCMV UL130 and MCMV m129/130 homologues). Although these proteins play a role in CMV entry, their function as chemotactic cytokines remains unknown. In the current study, we examined the role of the RCMV chemokine r129 in promoting cellular migration and in accelerating transplant vascular sclerosis (TVS) in our rat heart transplant model. We determined that r129 protein is released ...


Kshv Infection Of Endothelial Cells Manipulates Cxcr7-Mediated Signaling: Implications For Kaposi’S Sarcoma Progression And Intervention, Jennifer Totonchy, Lisa Clepper, Janet Douglas, Liron Pantanowitz, Klaus Fruh, Ashlee V. Moses 2012 Chapman University

Kshv Infection Of Endothelial Cells Manipulates Cxcr7-Mediated Signaling: Implications For Kaposi’S Sarcoma Progression And Intervention, Jennifer Totonchy, Lisa Clepper, Janet Douglas, Liron Pantanowitz, Klaus Fruh, Ashlee V. Moses

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

"CXCR7 was recently characterized as an alternative receptor for the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1, previously thought to bind and signal exclusively through CXCR4.We recently identified CXCR7 as a key cellular factor in the endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction associated with KSHV infection. CXCL12 signaling is critically associated with tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in several diverse tumors and is one of the most studied chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in cancer systems. The tumorigenic activity of the CXCL12 signaling axis offers an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in multiple cancers including Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS). However, most of the research to date ...


Melatonin Membrane Receptors In Peripheral Tissues: Distribution And Functions, Radomir M. Slominski, Russel J. Reiter, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevich, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Andrzej T. Slominski 2012 University of Tennessee

Melatonin Membrane Receptors In Peripheral Tissues: Distribution And Functions, Radomir M. Slominski, Russel J. Reiter, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevich, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Andrzej T. Slominski

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Many of melatonin’s actions are mediated through interaction with the G-protein coupled membrane bound melatonin receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2, respectively) or, indirectly with nuclear orphan receptors from the RORα/RZR family. Melatonin also binds to the quinone reductase II enzyme, previously defined the MT3 receptor. Melatonin receptors are widely distributed in the body; herein we summarize their expression and actions in non-neural tissues. Several controversies still exist regarding, for example, whether melatonin binds the RORα/RZR family. Studies of the peripheral distribution of melatonin receptors are important since they are attractive targets for immunomodulation ...


What Evidence Is Available On Apixaban For The Primary Prevention Of Stroke In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation?, Justin Dang, Laura Tsu 2012 Midwestern University

What Evidence Is Available On Apixaban For The Primary Prevention Of Stroke In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation?, Justin Dang, Laura Tsu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

This drug information question and answer sheet discusses the use of apixaban (Eliquis) for the primary prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.


Anti-Platelet Therapy In Acute Coronary Syndromes: Updates In Therapy After Stent Implantation, Ryan McKenzie, Andrew Park, Laura Tsu 2012 Midwestern University

Anti-Platelet Therapy In Acute Coronary Syndromes: Updates In Therapy After Stent Implantation, Ryan Mckenzie, Andrew Park, Laura Tsu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

This home-study CPE activity has been developed to educate pharmacists on updates in anti-platelet therapy after stent implantation.


Confounding Issues In Estimation Of Patient-Specific Pharmacokinetic Parameters And Dosage Individualization Of Aminoglycosides, Reza Mehvar 2012 Chapman University

Confounding Issues In Estimation Of Patient-Specific Pharmacokinetic Parameters And Dosage Individualization Of Aminoglycosides, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are usually administered by multiple short intravenous infusions at fixed intervals. Today, equations reported 35 years ago by Sawchuk and Zaske are still the cornerstone of methods used for determination of patient-specific pharmacokinetic parameters of aminoglycosides and individualization of drug dosage regimens in many clinical settings. Additionally, these methods are included in many clinical pharmacology curricula in pharmacy and other related fields. However, there are a few issues with regard to the application and/or modification of this method in clinical settings, which may result in some confusion among novice clinicians. For example, serum samples collected from different ...


Effects Of Simulations On The Learning Of Pharmacokinetic Concepts, Reza Mehvar 2012 Chapman University

Effects Of Simulations On The Learning Of Pharmacokinetic Concepts, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: Although the use of computer simulations in pharmacokinetics courses is not new, the data on the effects of simulation on student learning are scarce. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate the use of Web-based simulations on the learning of pharmacokinetic concepts by doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students.

Method: Six online modules were designed to allow the instructor and students to use “what-if” scenarios for understanding the effects of various dosage regimens and/or pharmacokinetic parameters on the plasma concentration-time courses of drugs. The designed modules were intravenous and oral pharmacokinetic concepts, bioavailability, intravenous infusion, multiple ...


Attenuation Of Corneal Myofibroblast Development Through Nanoparticle-Mediated Soluble Transforming Growth Factor-Β Type Ii Receptor (Stgfβrii) Gene Transfer, Ajay Sharma, Jason T. Rodier, Ashish Tandon, Alexander M. Klibanov, Rajiv R. Mohan 2012 Chapman University

Attenuation Of Corneal Myofibroblast Development Through Nanoparticle-Mediated Soluble Transforming Growth Factor-Β Type Ii Receptor (Stgfβrii) Gene Transfer, Ajay Sharma, Jason T. Rodier, Ashish Tandon, Alexander M. Klibanov, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: To explore (i) the potential of polyethylenimine (PEI)-DNA nanoparticles as a vector for delivering genes into human corneal fibroblasts, and (ii) whether the nanoparticle-mediated soluble extracellular domain of the transforming growth factor–β type II receptor (sTGFβRII) gene therapy could be used to reduce myofibroblasts and fibrosis in the cornea using an in vitro model.

Methods: PEI-DNA nanoparticles were prepared at a nitrogen-to-phosphate ratio of 30 by mixing linear PEI and a plasmid encoding sTGFβRII conjugated to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) portion of human immunoglobulin. The PEI-DNA polyplex formation was confirmed through gel retardation assay. Human corneal fibroblasts ...


Providers' And Key Opinion Leaders' Attitudes, Beliefs, And Practices Regarding Emergency Contraception In Nigeria, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, Salisu Mohammed Ishaku, Araoyinbo Idowu, Ayodeji Oginni 2012 Population Council

Providers' And Key Opinion Leaders' Attitudes, Beliefs, And Practices Regarding Emergency Contraception In Nigeria, Babatunde A.O. Ahonsi, Salisu Mohammed Ishaku, Araoyinbo Idowu, Ayodeji Oginni

Reproductive Health

Despite significant progress in product development, procurement, and distribution in the past few decades, emergency contraception’s (EC) capacity to benefit many women in countries such as Nigeria is hampered by a number of potential barriers, that are not well understood. The Population Council, with support from the International Consortium for Emergency Contraception, documented EC-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among providers in Nigeria as well as perceptions of key opinion leaders who help shape the policy environment for EC and family planning in general. Findings suggest significant gaps in Nigeria, potentially necessitating continuous training and re-training to help dispel misperceptions ...


Reliability And Credibility Of Progress Test Criteria, Developed By Alumni, Faculty, And Mixed Alumni-Faculty Judge Panels, H. Glenn Anderson PharmD, Arthur A. Nelson PhD 2011 Marshall University

Reliability And Credibility Of Progress Test Criteria, Developed By Alumni, Faculty, And Mixed Alumni-Faculty Judge Panels, H. Glenn Anderson Pharmd, Arthur A. Nelson Phd

Pharmacy Practice & Administration

Objective. To compare the reliability and credibility of Angoff-based, absolute criteria derived by faculty, alumni, and a combination of alumni and faculty judge panels.

Methods. Independently, faculty, alumni, and mixed faculty-alumni judge panels developed pass/fail criteria for an 86-item test. Generalizability and decision studies were performed. Root mean square errors (RMSE) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for reliability and credibility assessment. School graduate performance upon the North American Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) was the comparator for credibility assessment.

Results. RMSEs were 1.06%, 1.42%, and 2.32% for the alumni, faculty, and mixed judge panels respectively. The school ...


Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation Of Na/K-Atpase Regulates Fibrosis And Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling, Jiang Liu, David J. Kennedy, Yanling Yan, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2011 Marshall University

Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation Of Na/K-Atpase Regulates Fibrosis And Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling, Jiang Liu, David J. Kennedy, Yanling Yan, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Pharmaceutical Science and Research

The Na/K-ATPase is the primary force regulating renal sodium handling and plays a key role in both ion homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Recently, cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling has been shown to regulate fibrosis, renal proximal tubule (RPT) sodium reabsorption, and experimental Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension in response to a high-salt diet. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important modulator of nephron ion transport. As there is limited knowledge regarding the role of ROS-mediated fibrosis and RPT sodium reabsorption through the Na/K-ATPase, the focus of this review is to examine the possible role of ROS in ...


Bioequivalence Of Oral Products And The Biopharmaceutics Classification System: Science, Regulation, And Public Policy, Kevin S. Amidon, P. Langguth, H. Lennernas, L. Yu, G.L. Amidon 2011 Iowa State University

Bioequivalence Of Oral Products And The Biopharmaceutics Classification System: Science, Regulation, And Public Policy, Kevin S. Amidon, P. Langguth, H. Lennernas, L. Yu, G.L. Amidon

World Languages and Cultures Publications

The demonstration of bioequivalence (BE) is an essential requirement for ensuring that patients receive a product that performs as indicated by the label. The BE standard for a particular product is set by its innovator, and this standard must subsequently be matched by generic drug products. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) sets a scientific basis for an improved BE standard for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms. In this paper, we discuss BE and the BCS, as well as the issues that are currently relevant to BE as a pharmaceutical product standard.


Nanofabrication Of Halloysite-Pcl Composite Scaffolds And Functionalization Of Titanium For Tissue Regeneration, Shraddha Parshottambhai Patel 2011 Louisiana Tech University

Nanofabrication Of Halloysite-Pcl Composite Scaffolds And Functionalization Of Titanium For Tissue Regeneration, Shraddha Parshottambhai Patel

Doctoral Dissertations

Major medical needs may be achieved through regenerative medicine. Nanotechnology has triggered a research revolution in many important areas such as the biomedical sciences and bioengineering at the molecular level which has grown significantly due to the availability of new analytical applications and tools based on nanotechnology. Clinical conditions and diseases being targeted by nanotechnology research include burns, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, implant failure, improved wound healing, birth defects, osteoporosis and congestive heart defects. Therapeutic use of growth factors and drugs to stimulate the production and/or function of endogenous cells represents a key area of regenerative medicine ...


Antivirulence Potential Of Tr-700 And Clindamycin On Clinical Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus Producing Phenol-Soluble Modulins, Jason Yamaki, Timothy Synold, Annie Wong-Beringer 2011 Chapman University

Antivirulence Potential Of Tr-700 And Clindamycin On Clinical Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus Producing Phenol-Soluble Modulins, Jason Yamaki, Timothy Synold, Annie Wong-Beringer

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Staphylococcus aureus strains (n = 50) causing complicated skin and skin structure infections produced various levels of phenol-soluble modulin alpha-type (PSMα) peptides; some produced more than twice that produced by the control strain (LAC USA300). TR-700 (oxazolidinone) and clindamycin strongly inhibited PSM production at one-half the MIC but exhibited weak to modest induction at one-fourth and one-eighth the MICs, primarily in low producers. Adequate dosing of these agents is emphasized to minimize the potential for paradoxical induction of virulence.


Over The Counter (Otc) Analgesics: A Knowledge And Usage Assessment In College Students, Nicole Patel 2011 University of Rhode Island

Over The Counter (Otc) Analgesics: A Knowledge And Usage Assessment In College Students, Nicole Patel

Senior Honors Projects

This project was designed to assess the general understanding of OTC pain relievers and their management via a survey in a college student population. From this data, an educational program was developed in conjunction with the College of Pharmacy and Health Services to educate college students on the dangers of OTC analgesic misuse.

164 college students aged 18 years and older were recruited in-person to participate in a brief survey. This 12 question survey was developed to assess the general understanding and current usage of OTC analgesics. Specifically, health majors were compared to non-health majors in relation to the answers ...


Service, Education, And Advocacy Within A Student-Run Pharmacy: An Evaluation Of The Butler University Community Outreach Pharmacy, Eliza Anne Dy 2011 Butler University

Service, Education, And Advocacy Within A Student-Run Pharmacy: An Evaluation Of The Butler University Community Outreach Pharmacy, Eliza Anne Dy

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Objective To investigate three domains of the student-run Butler University Community Outreach Pharmacy’s (BUCOP) mission statement. Methods This multi-phase, survey-based study evaluated the execution of BUCOP’s mission statement in the areas of service, education, and advocacy. Results The service survey found that the majority (~78%) of patients were satisfied with most aspects of BUCOP’s care; however, patients were most displeased with hours of operation and wait time. The education survey results demonstrated BUCOP’s role as an early confidence-building experience; however, noteworthy clinical interactions with medical students were limited. The advocacy survey revealed that 96% of community ...


Ultrasonic Assisted Layer-By-Layer Assembly For Stable Nanocolloids Of Curcumin And Paclitaxel, Zhiguo Zheng 2011 Louisiana Tech University

Ultrasonic Assisted Layer-By-Layer Assembly For Stable Nanocolloids Of Curcumin And Paclitaxel, Zhiguo Zheng

Doctoral Dissertations

Researchers have been trying to fight cancer with synthesis of new bioactive compounds but many of these novel drugs have low solubility in water and it is difficult to deliver them into a patient's body. One way of solving this particular problem is to use nanoscale drug delivery systems. In this dissertation, we describe using an ultrasonic assisted layer-by-layer encapsulation process to prepare anti-cancer drugs with 50∼200 nm particle size with designed coating to achieve sustained release and target delivery.

Two methods for systematic manufacture of low solubility anti-cancer drug nanoparticles were proposed: I) Top-down approach to breakdown ...


Assessment Of The Validity Of Reported Antibiotic Allergic Reactions In Pediatric Patients, Lauren E. Miller, Chad A. Knoderer, Elaine G. Cox, Martin B. Kleinman 2011 Butler University

Assessment Of The Validity Of Reported Antibiotic Allergic Reactions In Pediatric Patients, Lauren E. Miller, Chad A. Knoderer, Elaine G. Cox, Martin B. Kleinman

Scholarship and Professional Work – COPHS

Study Objective. To determine whether a reported antibiotic allergy was likely to have been immunologically mediated.

Design. Questionnaire-based study.

Setting. Tertiary care, freestanding children's hospital.

Patients. One hundred patients aged 1 month-18 years for whom guardians reported an allergy to an antibiotic at the time of hospital admission between October 2009 and March 2010.

Intervention. Guardians of the patients were interviewed by using a standardized allergy assessment questionnaire.

Measurements and Main Results. Based on answers to the questionnaire, the reported allergic reactions were categorized to determine if they were true allergies or adverse reactions. Among the 100 patients, reported ...


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