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Rethinking Community Based Strategies To Tackle Health Inequities In South Asia, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Abhay Bang, Kaosar Afsana, Bishal Gyawali, Mohammed Shafiq Mirzazada, Renuka Jayatissa 2019 The Aga Khan University

Rethinking Community Based Strategies To Tackle Health Inequities In South Asia, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Abhay Bang, Kaosar Afsana, Bishal Gyawali, Mohammed Shafiq Mirzazada, Renuka Jayatissa

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

No abstract provided.


Targeting Dna Repair In Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (Mcrpc): Genomic Screening For A Clinical Trial Of Rucaparib, Alan Bryce, Mitchell E. Gross, Charles Redfern, Nicholas Vogelzang, Matthew Rettig, Thomas Stanton, Julie N. Graff, Sandhya Srinivas, Andrea Loehr, Wassim Abida 2019 Providence St. Joseph Health

Targeting Dna Repair In Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (Mcrpc): Genomic Screening For A Clinical Trial Of Rucaparib, Alan Bryce, Mitchell E. Gross, Charles Redfern, Nicholas Vogelzang, Matthew Rettig, Thomas Stanton, Julie N. Graff, Sandhya Srinivas, Andrea Loehr, Wassim Abida

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Objectives: The high prevalence of men with mCRPC carrying pathogenic mutations in DNA damage repair (DDR) genes may have implications for clinical treatment, as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, such as rucaparib, have shown preliminary evidence of activity in these patients. The ongoing phase 2 TRITON2 study (NCT02952534) is evaluating rucaparib in mCRPC patients harboring a deleterious germline or somatic mutation in BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, or other DDR gene. Here we present results from genomic screening of tissue and plasma samples from mCRPC patients.

Methods: Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed by Foundation Medicine, Inc., using FFPE tumor tissue and plasma ...


Poem Perceptions: A Survey Of Gastroenterologists And The Treatment Of Achalasia In The Philadelphia Region, Rebecca Loh, MD, Alexander Schlachterman, MD 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Poem Perceptions: A Survey Of Gastroenterologists And The Treatment Of Achalasia In The Philadelphia Region, Rebecca Loh, Md, Alexander Schlachterman, Md

Department of Medicine Posters

Introduction

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a relatively new innovate technique that has been shown to be an effective treatment for achalasia. Despite studies demonstrating its effectiveness as a less invasive therapy, POEM is still not as widely implemented as the traditional Heller myotomy for the treatment of achalasia. We aimed to explore the barriers that may impact implementation of POEM and to assess the regional perception of POEM amongst gastroenterologists in an urban setting.


Contraceptive Use Following Unintended Pregnancy Among Ugandan Women Living With Hiv, Jana Jarolimova, Jerome Kabakyenga, Kara Bennett, Winnie R. Muyindike, Annet Kembabazi, Jeffrey N. Martin, Peter W. Hunt, Yap Boum, Jessica E. Haberer, David Bangsberg, Angela Kaida, Lynn T. Matthews 2019 Massachusetts General Hospital

Contraceptive Use Following Unintended Pregnancy Among Ugandan Women Living With Hiv, Jana Jarolimova, Jerome Kabakyenga, Kara Bennett, Winnie R. Muyindike, Annet Kembabazi, Jeffrey N. Martin, Peter W. Hunt, Yap Boum, Jessica E. Haberer, David Bangsberg, Angela Kaida, Lynn T. Matthews

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Preventing unintended pregnancy is critical for women living with HIV (WLWH) to safely achieve their reproductive goals. Family planning services should support WLWH at risk of repeat unintended pregnancies. We examined the relationship between unintended pregnancy and subsequent contraception use among WLWH in Uganda.

Study design: This was a retrospective analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort of individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), restricted to women with pregnancy (confirmed via urine β-hcg testing) between 2011–2013. The exposure of interest was intended vs unintended pregnancy, and the outcome was self-report of modern contraceptive use (hormonal methods, intrauterine device, sterilization ...


Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Photodiagnoses In Surgical Oncology: A Historical Review Of Clinical Trials., Joseph F Georges, Amber Valeri, Huan Wang, Aaron Brooking, Michael Kakareka, Steve S Cho, Zein Al-Atrache, Michael Bamimore, Hany Osman, Joseph Ifrach, Si Yu, Carrie Li, Denah Appelt, John Y K Lee, Peter Nakaji, Kristin Brill, Steven S. Yocom 2019 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Photodiagnoses In Surgical Oncology: A Historical Review Of Clinical Trials., Joseph F Georges, Amber Valeri, Huan Wang, Aaron Brooking, Michael Kakareka, Steve S Cho, Zein Al-Atrache, Michael Bamimore, Hany Osman, Joseph Ifrach, Si Yu, Carrie Li, Denah Appelt, John Y K Lee, Peter Nakaji, Kristin Brill, Steven S. Yocom

Steven S. Yocom

Fluorescence imaging is an emerging clinical technique for real-time intraoperative visualization of tumors and their boundaries. Though multiple fluorescent contrast agents are available in the basic sciences, few fluorescence agents are available for clinical use. Of the clinical fluorophores, delta aminolevulinic acid (5ALA) is unique for generating visible wavelength tumor-specific fluorescence. In 2017, 5ALA was FDA-approved for glioma surgery in the United States. Additionally, clinical studies suggest this agent may have utility in surgical subspecialties outside of neurosurgery. Data from dermatology, OB/GYN, urology, cardiothoracic surgery, and gastrointestinal surgery show 5ALA is helpful for intraoperative visualization of malignant tissues in ...


Comparison Of Long-Term Oral Anticoagulation Therapies Including Newly Approved Reversal Agent For Dabigatran, Mackenzie DeVine, Natalie Lennartz, Michaela Wolford, Rebecca Worden, Joelle Farano, Erin Petersen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Comparison Of Long-Term Oral Anticoagulation Therapies Including Newly Approved Reversal Agent For Dabigatran, Mackenzie Devine, Natalie Lennartz, Michaela Wolford, Rebecca Worden, Joelle Farano, Erin Petersen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Anticoagulants are a well-known class of agents essential for the prevention of blood clots, which may further develop into deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or stroke. Individuals at a high risk of clotting, such as those with atrial fibrillation, multiple risk factors or recent hip/knee surgery, are in need of long-term anticoagulation therapy. The purpose of this review is to highlight the pros and cons for each available anticoagulant as well as discuss pivotal clinical trials that evaluated the safety and efficacy of these agents. Warfarin, the oldest anticoagulant, requires the patient to attend frequent appointments with a health ...


Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters 2019 Ohio Northern University

Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin that is produced by Clostridium botulinum. At one time, this toxin was only seen as a lethal substance, but now scientists have found many medical uses for it. There are eight distinctive toxins (A-H), but only A and B currently have clinical uses. Botulinum toxin A has three different versions that are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved: onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®). Botulinum toxin B is also FDA approved as rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc®). The toxins work by inducing reversible, local, dose-dependent chemodenervation by inhibiting acetylcholine release from presynaptic terminals. These drugs are ...


Hormonal Therapy And Preventive Care Of Transgender Patients, Angela Chu, Jana Randolph, Austin Hopkins, Victoria Cho, Sophocles Chrissobolis 2019 Ohio Northern University

Hormonal Therapy And Preventive Care Of Transgender Patients, Angela Chu, Jana Randolph, Austin Hopkins, Victoria Cho, Sophocles Chrissobolis

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Transgenderism occurs when an individual's gender identity conflicts with the individual's biological sex. A variety of methods may be used in order to reconcile this disparity in transgender individuals including psychological counseling, cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery. The most important role for pharmacists in the treatment of transgender patients is in dispensing hormonal medications for cross-sex treatment. Hormone therapy may be used to suppress characteristics of the patient's biological sex as well as to induce development of characteristics that correlate with the patient's gender identity. In male-to-female (MtF) transgender patients, the most commonly used ...


Pharmacologic And Nonpharmacologic Approaches To Palliative Care In Oncology, Daniel Powell, Sunitha Johns, Samia Alam, Isabel E. Cwikla, Brendan Rasor, David W. Koh 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pharmacologic And Nonpharmacologic Approaches To Palliative Care In Oncology, Daniel Powell, Sunitha Johns, Samia Alam, Isabel E. Cwikla, Brendan Rasor, David W. Koh

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

In recent decades, few fields have changed as drastically as oncology. A wide variety of approaches must be taken in order to best care for cancer patients. With the globalization of health care and modern society, nontraditional management of cancer symptoms is once again increasing in popularity. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has also recently updated their palliative care guidelines. These guidelines provide a detailed approach for the care of a wide range of cancer patients but largely focus on traditional pharmacotherapy. An increasing number of studies are being conducted on nonpharmacologic approaches to care for patients with cancer ...


Antibiotic Stewardship And Overcoming Antibiotic Resistance In Upper Respiratory Tract Infections, Katherine Elsass, Austin Hilverding, Steve Blake, Brendan Rasor, Steven N. Leonard 2019 Ohio Northern University

Antibiotic Stewardship And Overcoming Antibiotic Resistance In Upper Respiratory Tract Infections, Katherine Elsass, Austin Hilverding, Steve Blake, Brendan Rasor, Steven N. Leonard

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Antibiotic resistance has rapidly become one of the most significant challenges facing modern health care. Despite widespread public education efforts by the national government and health organizations worldwide, there remains a significant lack of public understanding of antibiotic resistance, how to prevent it and the implications if the science and health care communities fail to find a solution. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American College of Physicians (ACP) recently published updated guidelines for appropriate antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections. These guidelines include several key recommendations for acute bronchitis, pharyngitis and acute rhinosinusitis (including ...


Legionnaires' Disease, A Rising Occurrence In The United States, Jennifer Harklerode, Olivia Henton, Myranda Smith, Rebecca Worden, Andrew Roecker 2019 Ohio Northern University

Legionnaires' Disease, A Rising Occurrence In The United States, Jennifer Harklerode, Olivia Henton, Myranda Smith, Rebecca Worden, Andrew Roecker

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Legionella pneumophila, a microscopic bacterium usually responsible for a number of illnesses and fatalities, can eliminate a local population, a region or even a nation. In 1976, L. pneumophila was first discovered due to a number of cases presenting with pneumonia-like symptoms. These cases occurred in an isolated population attending an American Legion convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, therefore lending to the name Legionella. Usually found in aquatic environments such as lakes, streams, cooling towers, air conditioning systems and hot tubs, its ability to thrive in artificial and natural environments makes it an ideal bacterium. L. pneumophila can be transmitted via ...


Evaluating The Role Of Fecal Microbiota Transplant In The Treatment Of Clostridium Difficile Infection, Anh Dao Le, Olivia Henton, Shane Bogusz, Brian Heilbronner, Jessica Hinson 2019 Ohio Northern University

Evaluating The Role Of Fecal Microbiota Transplant In The Treatment Of Clostridium Difficile Infection, Anh Dao Le, Olivia Henton, Shane Bogusz, Brian Heilbronner, Jessica Hinson

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) therapy is an increasingly prevalent treatment option for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Clostridium difficile infection is an aggressive and potentially fatal disease state, and antibiotic therapy often fails to resolve the disease state effectively. Clostridium difficile infection occurs most commonly subsequent to the use of antimicrobial agents that disrupt the natural bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Since disease state pathophysiology operates in this way, researchers have experimented with ways to restore GI flora to a natural state in which nonpathogenic bacteria can proliferate. Probiotic agents do not impose an acute enough response to recreate ...


Prevention And Treatment Of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis, Mackenzie DeVine, Anh Dao Le, Julie Puvogel, Victoria Cho, Michelle Musser 2019 Ohio Northern University

Prevention And Treatment Of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis, Mackenzie Devine, Anh Dao Le, Julie Puvogel, Victoria Cho, Michelle Musser

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Osteoporosis is a disease state resulting in decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fracture, specifically of the vertebrae, spine and hip. Risk factors and high risk populations for developing osteoporosis include low BMD, long-term glucocorticoid therapy, genetics, diet, postmenopausal women and patients with inflammatory or chronic disease states. A variety of signaling pathways involving hormones, cytokines and other signaling molecules are involved in bone formation and are affected by long-term glucocorticoid therapy, leading to the development of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO).

There are a variety of drugs that work efficaciously to prevent and treat GIO. Alendronate is a ...


Treatment Of Basal Cell Carcinoma With Vismodegib, Sunitha Johns, Katlyn Brown, Emily Loudermilk, Crystal Zheng, Anh Dao Le, Sophocles Chrissobolis 2019 Ohio Northern University

Treatment Of Basal Cell Carcinoma With Vismodegib, Sunitha Johns, Katlyn Brown, Emily Loudermilk, Crystal Zheng, Anh Dao Le, Sophocles Chrissobolis

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The most prevalent nonmelanoma skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (aBCC). Current, effective first-line treatments for BCC aim to remove and destroy cancerous skin cells through excision surgery, Mohs surgery, radiation therapy and cryotherapy, while treatment of aBCC remains limited. An emerging treatment option for aBCC that promotes tumor size reduction is vismodegib, a pharmaceutical product approved in 2012 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Vismodegib was approved for the treatment of aBCC, metastasized HCC (mBCC) or recurrent BCC after surgery as well as for use in adults who are ...


Improving Healthcare Costs And Patient Outcomes Across Healthcare Professions, Hannah Lamb, Jourdan Ujlaki, Paige Torbet, Isabel Cwikla, Rebecca Worden, Michael Rush 2019 Ohio Northern University

Improving Healthcare Costs And Patient Outcomes Across Healthcare Professions, Hannah Lamb, Jourdan Ujlaki, Paige Torbet, Isabel Cwikla, Rebecca Worden, Michael Rush

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Healthcare professionals must be aware of the importance of preventive medicine and the responsibility they have in contributing to it. There are three levels of preventive medicine that a healthcare professional can provide based on the patient population that is receiving care and the goals of the particular service. Preventive medicine has the ability to improve both overall healthcare costs and have a positive impact on a patient's quality of life. All healthcare professionals have the potential to fulfill a role in each level of preventive medicine, and should understand the role of each member of the healthcare team ...


Triple Therapy Or Triple Threat: An Analysis Of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Compared To Dual Antiplatelet Therapy, Isabel E. Cwikla, Kara C. Horvath, Elaina Gollmar, Austin Hilverding, Erin Petersen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Triple Therapy Or Triple Threat: An Analysis Of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Compared To Dual Antiplatelet Therapy, Isabel E. Cwikla, Kara C. Horvath, Elaina Gollmar, Austin Hilverding, Erin Petersen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Triple antiplatelet therapy (TAPT, or triple therapy), is an oral medication regimen designed to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events. It consists of aspirin, clopidogrel or an alternative, and an oral anticoagulant (OAC). It differs from dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) due to inclusion of an OAC. Multiple clinical studies have indicated that triple therapy is more effective at clot prevention, when compared to aspirin monotherapy and DAPT, but is associated with a higher risk of major bleeding. Pharmacists have a key role in determining candidates for DAPT and TAPT regimens. Other opportunities for pharmacists include patient monitoring, counseling and ...


Programmed Death Pathway Inhibition: Emerging Therapeutic Options For Treatment Of Advanced Or Refractory Cancers, Katherine Elsass, Morgan Homan, Jana Randolph, Brendan Rasor, David Kinder 2019 Ohio Northern University

Programmed Death Pathway Inhibition: Emerging Therapeutic Options For Treatment Of Advanced Or Refractory Cancers, Katherine Elsass, Morgan Homan, Jana Randolph, Brendan Rasor, David Kinder

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway has a significant role in the promotion of immune tolerance. The PD-1 receptor ligands are normally expressed on various inactive immune cells. When cancer cells express these ligands, they are able to interact with active T and B lymphocytes to induce this tolerance. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are two recently approved agents that act to disrupt this binding and facilitate an immune response against cancer cells. Numerous trials, including KEYNOTE-002 and CheckMate 063, have demonstrated the superior safety and efficacy of these drugs in patients with advanced or refractory cancers. Initially approved for the treatment of ...


Zika Virus Induced Neurological Disorders And Impacts On Public Health, Alexandra Herman, Martha Zimmerman, Olivia Vanscoy, Olivia Henton, Lindsey Peters 2019 Ohio Northern University

Zika Virus Induced Neurological Disorders And Impacts On Public Health, Alexandra Herman, Martha Zimmerman, Olivia Vanscoy, Olivia Henton, Lindsey Peters

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Zika virus is a public health emergency of international concern. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is carried by the Aedes genus. Zika is spread through direct bite and nonvector transmission. Most individuals infected with Zika will be asymptomatic, but some may present nonspecific viral symptoms. A rising number of neurological disorders in newborns whose mothers were infected with ZIKV during pregnancy have been reported due to recent outbreaks. Neurological disorders affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems and can result from bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic infections of the nervous system or from the immune response ...


Pcsk9 Inhibitors: A Novel Class Of Pharmacotherapy For Hypercholesterolemia, Angela Chu, Austin Hilverding, Elizabeth Kramer, Brendan Rasor, Boyd Rorabaugh 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pcsk9 Inhibitors: A Novel Class Of Pharmacotherapy For Hypercholesterolemia, Angela Chu, Austin Hilverding, Elizabeth Kramer, Brendan Rasor, Boyd Rorabaugh

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of two new drugs, alirocumab (Praluent®) and evolocumab (Repatha®) is a breakthrough in the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia. These drugs are a part of a new class called the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors that act by increasing the number of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDL-R) recycled to hepatocyte membranes. The increased density of LDL-R facilitates greater clearance of low density lipoproteins from the blood. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of these agents, particularly for patients in whom standard cholesterol-lowering therapy is insufficient. However, data ...


Zika Virus: Infectious Process And Public Health Response, Morgan Homan, Julia Dickman, Jenna Deininger, Austin Hopkins, Olivia Henton, Steven N. Leonard 2019 Ohio Northern University

Zika Virus: Infectious Process And Public Health Response, Morgan Homan, Julia Dickman, Jenna Deininger, Austin Hopkins, Olivia Henton, Steven N. Leonard

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The Zika virus has become a growing concern as a global pandemic. Since being identified in Uganda in 1947, the virus has spread around the world, recently emerging in South America with a great impact on Brazil. As of 2016, Zika has made its appearance in the United States and is now actively being transmitted in Florida. The virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus primarily transmitted by the Aedes mosquito which infects a human through biting. Transmission through sexual intercourse is also possible as well as transmission from a pregnant woman to her fetus. This latter form of transmission presents the ...


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