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Inactivated Rabies Virus-Based Ebola Vaccine Preserved By Vaporization Is Heat-Stable And Immunogenic Against Ebola And Protects Against Rabies Challenge., Drishya Kurup, Christine R. Fisher, Todd G. Smith, Tiago Abreu-Mota, Yong Yang, Felix R. Jackson, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Richard Franka, Victor Bronshtein, Matthias J. Schnell 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Inactivated Rabies Virus-Based Ebola Vaccine Preserved By Vaporization Is Heat-Stable And Immunogenic Against Ebola And Protects Against Rabies Challenge., Drishya Kurup, Christine R. Fisher, Todd G. Smith, Tiago Abreu-Mota, Yong Yang, Felix R. Jackson, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Richard Franka, Victor Bronshtein, Matthias J. Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly lethal member of the Filoviridae family associated with human hemorrhagic disease. Despite being a sporadic disease, it caused a large outbreak in 2014-2016 in West Africa and another outbreak recently in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Several vaccine candidates are currently in preclinical and clinical studies but none are stable without cold chain storage.

METHODS: We used preservation by vaporization (PBV), a novel processing technology to heat-stabilize FiloRab1 (inactivated rabies-based Ebola vaccine), a candidate Ebola vaccine, and stored the vials at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 50°C for 10 days to ...


Heme And Hemoglobin Utilization By Mycobacterium Tuberculosis., Avishek Mitra, Ying-Hui Ko, Gino Cingolani, Michael Niederweis 2019 University of Alabama at Birmingham

Heme And Hemoglobin Utilization By Mycobacterium Tuberculosis., Avishek Mitra, Ying-Hui Ko, Gino Cingolani, Michael Niederweis

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Iron is essential for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but most iron in the human body is stored in heme within hemoglobin. Here, we demonstrate that the substrate-binding protein DppA of the inner membrane Dpp transporter is required for heme and hemoglobin utilization by Mtb. The 1.27 Å crystal structure of DppA shows a tetrapeptide bound in the protein core and a large solvent-exposed crevice for heme binding. Mutation of arginine 179 in this cleft eliminates heme binding to DppA and prevents heme utilization by Mtb. The outer membrane proteins PPE36 and PPE62 are also required for heme and ...


The Adjuvanticity Of An O. Volvulus-Derived Rov-Asp-1 Protein In Mice Using Sequential Vaccinations And In Non-Human Primates, Jing Wang, Nancy Trichoche, Lanying Du, Meredith Hunter, Bin Zhan, Gaddam Goud, Elizabeth S. Didier, Jing Liu, Lu Lu, Preston A. Marx, Shibo Jiang, Sara Lustigman 2019 New York Blood Bank, New York, NY

The Adjuvanticity Of An O. Volvulus-Derived Rov-Asp-1 Protein In Mice Using Sequential Vaccinations And In Non-Human Primates, Jing Wang, Nancy Trichoche, Lanying Du, Meredith Hunter, Bin Zhan, Gaddam Goud, Elizabeth S. Didier, Jing Liu, Lu Lu, Preston A. Marx, Shibo Jiang, Sara Lustigman

Lu Lu

Adjuvants potentiate antigen-specific protective immune responses and can be key elements promoting vaccine effectiveness. We previously reported that the Onchocerca volvulusrecombinant protein rOv-ASP-1 can induce activation and maturation of naïve human DCs and therefore could be used as an innate adjuvant to promote balanced Th1 and Th2 responses to bystander vaccine antigens in mice. With a few vaccine antigens, it also promoted a Th1-biased response based on pronounced induction of Th1-associated IgG2a and IgG2b antibody responses and the upregulated production of Th1 cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. However, because it is a protein, the r ...


Dmbt1 Inhibition Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Twitching Motility Involves Its N-Glycosylation And Cannot Be Conferred By The Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Bacteria-Binding Peptide Domain., Jianfang Li, Stephanie J Wan, Matteo M E Metruccio, Sophia Ma, Kamran Nazmi, Floris J Bikker, David J. Evans, Suzanne M J Fleiszig 2019 Touro University California

Dmbt1 Inhibition Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Twitching Motility Involves Its N-Glycosylation And Cannot Be Conferred By The Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Bacteria-Binding Peptide Domain., Jianfang Li, Stephanie J Wan, Matteo M E Metruccio, Sophia Ma, Kamran Nazmi, Floris J Bikker, David J. Evans, Suzanne M J Fleiszig

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

The scavenging capacity of glycoprotein DMBT1 helps defend mucosal epithelia against microbes. DMBT1 binding to multiple bacterial species involves its conserved Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich (SRCR) domains, localized to a 16-mer consensus sequence peptide, SRCRP2. Previously, we showed that DMBT1 bound Pseudomonas aeruginosa pili, and inhibited twitching motility, a pilus-mediated movement important for virulence. Here, we determined molecular characteristics required for twitching motility inhibition. Heat-denatured DMBT1 lost capacity to inhibit twitching motility and showed reduced pili binding (~40%). Size-exclusion chromatography of Lys-C-digested native DMBT1 showed that only high-Mw fractions retained activity, suggesting involvement of the N-terminal containing repeated SRCR domains with ...


Antibody Responses Against The Vaccine Antigens Ov-103 And Ov-Ral-2 Are Associated With Protective Immunity To Onchocerca Volvulus Infection In Both Mice And Humans., Parakkal Jovvian George, Jessica A. Hess, Sonia Jain, John B. Patton, Tingting Zhan, Nancy Tricoche, Bin Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Abraham, Sara Lustigman 2019 Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center

Antibody Responses Against The Vaccine Antigens Ov-103 And Ov-Ral-2 Are Associated With Protective Immunity To Onchocerca Volvulus Infection In Both Mice And Humans., Parakkal Jovvian George, Jessica A. Hess, Sonia Jain, John B. Patton, Tingting Zhan, Nancy Tricoche, Bin Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Abraham, Sara Lustigman

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The current strategy for the elimination of onchocerciasis is based on annual or bi-annual mass drug administration with ivermectin. However, due to several limiting factors there is a growing concern that elimination of onchocerciasis cannot be achieved solely through the current strategy. Additional tools are critically needed including a prophylactic vaccine. Presently Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 are the most promising vaccine candidates against an Onchocerca volvulus infection.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Protection induced by immunization of mice with the alum-adjuvanted Ov-103 or Ov-RAL-2 vaccines appeared to be antibody dependent since AID-/- mice that could not mount antigen-specific IgG antibody responses were ...


Cytoplasmic Daxx Drives Sqstm1/P62 Phase Condensation To Activate Nrf2-Mediated Stress Response., Yi Yang, Thea L. Willis, Robert W. Button, Conor J. Strang, Yuhua Fu, Xue Wen, Portia R.C. Grayson, Tracey Evans, Rebecca J. Sipthorpe, Sheridan L. Roberts, Bing Hu, Jianke Zhang, Boxun Lu, Shouqing Luo 2019 University of Plymouth

Cytoplasmic Daxx Drives Sqstm1/P62 Phase Condensation To Activate Nrf2-Mediated Stress Response., Yi Yang, Thea L. Willis, Robert W. Button, Conor J. Strang, Yuhua Fu, Xue Wen, Portia R.C. Grayson, Tracey Evans, Rebecca J. Sipthorpe, Sheridan L. Roberts, Bing Hu, Jianke Zhang, Boxun Lu, Shouqing Luo

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Autophagy cargo recognition and clearance are essential for intracellular protein quality control. SQSTM1/p62 sequesters intracellular aberrant proteins and mediates cargo delivery for their selective autophagic degradation. The formation of p62 non-membrane-bound liquid compartments is critical for its function as a cargo receptor. The regulation of p62 phase separation/condensation has yet been poorly characterised. Using an unbiased yeast two-hybrid screening and complementary approaches, we found that DAXX physically interacts with p62. Cytoplasmic DAXX promotes p62 puncta formation. We further elucidate that DAXX drives p62 liquid phase condensation by inducing p62 oligomerisation. This effect promotes p62 recruitment of Keap1 and ...


Comparison Of Human Cytokine Array, Cytokine Bead Arrays, And Protein Elisa In Determining Cytokine Production In Media Supernatant From In Vitro Strain Of Human Dermal Fibroblasts, Aric Anloague, Jonathan W. Lowery Ph.D. 2019 Marian University - Indianapolis

Comparison Of Human Cytokine Array, Cytokine Bead Arrays, And Protein Elisa In Determining Cytokine Production In Media Supernatant From In Vitro Strain Of Human Dermal Fibroblasts, Aric Anloague, Jonathan W. Lowery Ph.D.

Student Publications and Research

This experiment analyzes three different techniques used in literature to detect cytokine release from cells in vitro: the Human Cytokine Array (HCA) by R&D Systems, the BD Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) assay, and protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The model used to test these assays was a human dermal fibroblast cell culture that was subjected to strain profiles by the Flexcell FX-6000 that include a repetitive motion injury, a profile with the injury strain as well as a strain representing myofascial release, and a control that was not strained. Each of these techniques analyzed the conditioned media of the ...


Using Shared Decision Making And Team-Based Care To Overcome Socioeconomic And Cultural Barriers To Colorectal Cancer Screenings, Amanda Powell, Debra Pyle, Kristin Rowse, Misty Weeman, Rachel Kidder, Internal Medicine/Pediatric Clinic, Ruth Hanselman, Suneela Nayak, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks 2019 Maine Medical Center

Using Shared Decision Making And Team-Based Care To Overcome Socioeconomic And Cultural Barriers To Colorectal Cancer Screenings, Amanda Powell, Debra Pyle, Kristin Rowse, Misty Weeman, Rachel Kidder, Internal Medicine/Pediatric Clinic, Ruth Hanselman, Suneela Nayak, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks

Operational Excellence

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. It disproportionally affects minorities and those in lower socioeconomic groups. The use of fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is a low barrier, low cost and low risk screening tool as compared to the traditional colonoscopy exam. The use of FIT offers the opportunity to overcome barriers such as cultural, economic and low health literacy.

As part of a large health care system, an internal medicine clinic wanted to increase the use and return of FIT in their clinic patients. A team developed a plan for implementing improvement ...


From Vaccine Vector To Oncomodulation: Understanding The Complex Interplay Between Cmv And Cancer., Nicole A. Wilski, Christopher M. Snyder 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

From Vaccine Vector To Oncomodulation: Understanding The Complex Interplay Between Cmv And Cancer., Nicole A. Wilski, Christopher M. Snyder

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpesvirus that establishes a persistent, but generally asymptomatic, infection in most people in the world. However, CMV drives and sustains extremely large numbers of antigen-specific T cells and is, therefore, emerging as an exciting platform for vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Indeed, pre-clinical data strongly suggest that CMV-based vaccines can sustain protective CD8+ T cell and antibody responses. In the context of vaccines for infectious diseases, substantial pre-clinical studies have elucidated the effcacy and protective mechanisms of CMV-based vaccines, including in non-human primate models of various infections. In the context of cancer vaccines, however, much ...


Alzheimer's Disease Microbiome Is Associated With Dysregulation Of The Anti-Inflammatory P-Glycoprotein Pathway, John P. Haran, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Sage Foley, Protiva Dutta, Doyle V. Ward, Vanni Bucci, Beth A. McCormick 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Alzheimer's Disease Microbiome Is Associated With Dysregulation Of The Anti-Inflammatory P-Glycoprotein Pathway, John P. Haran, Shakti K. Bhattarai, Sage Foley, Protiva Dutta, Doyle V. Ward, Vanni Bucci, Beth A. Mccormick

Open Access Articles

The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is poorly understood. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, has long been associated with bacterial infections and inflammation-causing immunosenescence. Recent studies examining the intestinal microbiota of AD patients revealed that their microbiome differs from that of subjects without dementia. In this work, we prospectively enrolled 108 nursing home elders and followed each for up to 5 months, collecting longitudinal stool samples from which we performed metagenomic sequencing and in vitro T84 intestinal epithelial cell functional assays for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, a critical mediator of intestinal homeostasis. Our ...


Identification Of Anaerobes In Clinical Specimens Comparison Between The Rapid Ana Ii System And The Bruker Maldi-Tof Ms System Utilized In The Clinical Laboratory, Raymond Chow 2019 Dominican University of California

Identification Of Anaerobes In Clinical Specimens Comparison Between The Rapid Ana Ii System And The Bruker Maldi-Tof Ms System Utilized In The Clinical Laboratory, Raymond Chow

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Clinical Laboratory Sciences Culminating Projects

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been revealed as an invaluable platform for identifying anaerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory over traditional methods such as the RapID ANA II System.

A qualitative comparison is made, through the analysis of methodologies and specifications, to determine whether the RapID ANA II system or Bruker MALDI-TOF MS is more suitable for identifying anaerobic organism in the clinical laboratory. Based on the data reviewed, the MALDI-TOF MS is a more intuitive platform within the clinical laboratory due to its increased specificity, cost-effectiveness, and shorten turnaround time for the identification ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee 2019 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The NLRC4 inflammasome is a crucial part of the innate immune response against bacterial infections. We found that NLRC4 inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) is greatly dependent on interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8). NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and subsequent production of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and cell death were impaired in IRF8-deficient cells. IRF8 mediated the transcription of genes encoding NAIPs, the receptors for NLRC4 inflammasome, which recognize bacterial flagellin and type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins. IRF8 was critical for host survival following infection with Salmonella Typhimurium or Burkholderia thailandensis. Furthermore, mice deficient in IRF8 were ...


Potential Role Of Extracellular Atp Released By Bacteria In Bladder Infection And Contractility, Behnam Abbasian 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Potential Role Of Extracellular Atp Released By Bacteria In Bladder Infection And Contractility, Behnam Abbasian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), the result of conditions such as overactive bladder (OAB), could potentially be influenced by both commensal and urinary tract infection-associated bacteria. The sensing of bladder filling involves interplay between various parts of the nervous system eventually resulting in contraction of the detrusor muscle during micturition. Here we model host responses to various urogenital bacteria, firstly by using urothelial bladder cell lines and then with myofibroblast contraction assays. To measure responses, we examined calcium influx, gene expression and alpha smooth muscle actin deposition assays. We found that organisms such as Escherichia coli IA2 and Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC ...


Rabies-Based Vaccine Induces Potent Immune Responses Against Nipah Virus., Rohan Keshwara, Thomas Shiels, Elena Postnikova, Drishya Kurup, Christoph Wirblich, Reed F. Johnson, Matthias J. Schnell 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Rabies-Based Vaccine Induces Potent Immune Responses Against Nipah Virus., Rohan Keshwara, Thomas Shiels, Elena Postnikova, Drishya Kurup, Christoph Wirblich, Reed F. Johnson, Matthias J. Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Nipah Virus (NiV) is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen in the genus Henipavirus of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses. NiV is endemic to Bangladesh and Malaysia and is highly fatal to both livestock and humans (human case fatality rate = 74.5%). Currently, there is no approved vaccine against NiV on the market. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant RABV vector expressing NiV glycoprotein (NiV G) to develop a bivalent candidate vaccine against NiV disease and rabies virus (RABV) disease, which is also a significant health burden in the regions where NiV is endemic. The rabies vector is ...


Role Of Ribosome Recycling Factor As A Ribosome Releasing Factor, Yoshio Inokuchi, Fabio Quaglia, Akikazu Hirashima, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Hideko Kaji, A. Kaji 2019 Teikyo University

Role Of Ribosome Recycling Factor As A Ribosome Releasing Factor, Yoshio Inokuchi, Fabio Quaglia, Akikazu Hirashima, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Hideko Kaji, A. Kaji

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Posters

The objective of this presentation is to study the in vivo actions of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and compare them with those found in vitro. RRF is known to catalyze three separate reactions: release of tRNA and mRNA from the post-termination complex (PoTC), and splitting of the ribosome of the PoTC. To study the mechanism of RRF reaction in vivo, we used E. coli harboring temperature sensitive (ts) RRF and assayed by following downstream reading of translationally coupled ORF. At the non-permissive temperature, ribosomes remain on the termination codon of the junction sequence of coupled ORFs and translate downstream ORF ...


Dynamic Molecular Changes During The First Week Of Human Life Follow A Robust Developmental Trajectory., Amy H. Lee, Casey P. Shannon, Nelly Amenyogbe, Tue B. Bennike, Joann Diray-Arce, Olubukola T. Idoko, Erin E. Gill, Rym Ben-Othman, William S. Pomat, Simon D. van Haren, Kim-Anh Lê Cao, Momoudou Cox, Alansana Darboe, Reza Falsafi, Davide Ferrari, Daniel J. Harbeson, Daniel He, Cai Bing, Samuel J. Hinshaw, Jorjoh Ndure, Jainaba Njie-Jobe, Matthew A. Pettengill, Peter C. Richmond, Rebecca Ford, Gerard Saleu, Geraldine Masiria, John Paul Matlam, Wendy Kirarock, Elishia Roberts, Mehrnoush Malek, Guzmán Sanchez-Schmitz, Amrit Singh, Asimenia Angelidou, Kinga K. Smolen, Diana Vo, Ken Kraft, Kerry McEnaney, Sofia Vignolo, Arnaud Marchant, Ryan R. Brinkman, Al Ozonoff, Robert E.W. Hancock, Anita H.J. van den Biggelaar, Hanno Steen, Scott J. Tebbutt, Beate Kampmann, Ofer Levy, Tobias R. Kollmann 2019 University of British Columbia

Dynamic Molecular Changes During The First Week Of Human Life Follow A Robust Developmental Trajectory., Amy H. Lee, Casey P. Shannon, Nelly Amenyogbe, Tue B. Bennike, Joann Diray-Arce, Olubukola T. Idoko, Erin E. Gill, Rym Ben-Othman, William S. Pomat, Simon D. Van Haren, Kim-Anh Lê Cao, Momoudou Cox, Alansana Darboe, Reza Falsafi, Davide Ferrari, Daniel J. Harbeson, Daniel He, Cai Bing, Samuel J. Hinshaw, Jorjoh Ndure, Jainaba Njie-Jobe, Matthew A. Pettengill, Peter C. Richmond, Rebecca Ford, Gerard Saleu, Geraldine Masiria, John Paul Matlam, Wendy Kirarock, Elishia Roberts, Mehrnoush Malek, Guzmán Sanchez-Schmitz, Amrit Singh, Asimenia Angelidou, Kinga K. Smolen, Diana Vo, Ken Kraft, Kerry Mcenaney, Sofia Vignolo, Arnaud Marchant, Ryan R. Brinkman, Al Ozonoff, Robert E.W. Hancock, Anita H.J. Van Den Biggelaar, Hanno Steen, Scott J. Tebbutt, Beate Kampmann, Ofer Levy, Tobias R. Kollmann

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Systems biology can unravel complex biology but has not been extensively applied to human newborns, a group highly vulnerable to a wide range of diseases. We optimized methods to extract transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, cytokine/chemokine, and single cell immune phenotyping data fromblood, a volume readily obtained from newborns. Indexing to baseline and applying innovative integrative computational methods reveals dramatic changes along a remarkably stable developmental trajectory over the first week of life. This is most evident in changes of interferon and complement pathways, as well as neutrophil-associated signaling. Validated across two independent cohorts of newborns from West Africa and Australasia ...


Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2019 Marshall University

Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Muhammad Chaudhry

Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice ...


Ripk1 Can Mediate Apoptosis In Addition To Necroptosis During Embryonic Development., Xuhua Zhang, John P. Dowling, Jianke Zhang 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Ripk1 Can Mediate Apoptosis In Addition To Necroptosis During Embryonic Development., Xuhua Zhang, John P. Dowling, Jianke Zhang

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

RIPK1 has emerged as a key effector in programmed necrosis or necroptosis. This function of RIPK1 is mediated by its protein serine/threonine kinase activity and through the downstream kinase RIPK3. Deletion of RIPK1 prevents embryonic lethality in mice lacking FADD, a signaling adaptor protein required for activation of Caspase 8 in extrinsic apoptotic pathways. This indicates that FADD-mediated apoptosis inhibits RIPK1-dependent necroptosis to ensure successful embryogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism for this critical regulation remains unclear. In the current study, a novel mouse model has been generated, by disrupting a potential caspase cleavage site at aspartic residue (D)324 ...


Wave 2 Strains Of Atypical Vibrio Cholerae El Tor Caused The 2009-2011 Cholera Outbreak In Papua New Guinea, Andrew R. Greenhill, Ankur Mutreja, Dieter Bulach, Matthew J. Belousoff, Marinjho H. Jonduo, Deirdre A. Collins, Monalisa P. Kas, Johanna Wapling, Torsten Seemann, Alice Lafana, Gordon Dougan, Mark V. Brown, Paul F. Horwood 2019 Edith Cowan University

Wave 2 Strains Of Atypical Vibrio Cholerae El Tor Caused The 2009-2011 Cholera Outbreak In Papua New Guinea, Andrew R. Greenhill, Ankur Mutreja, Dieter Bulach, Matthew J. Belousoff, Marinjho H. Jonduo, Deirdre A. Collins, Monalisa P. Kas, Johanna Wapling, Torsten Seemann, Alice Lafana, Gordon Dougan, Mark V. Brown, Paul F. Horwood

ECU Publications Post 2013

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a globally important human disease for at least 200 years. In 2009-2011, the first recorded cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea (PNG) occurred. We conducted genetic and phenotypic characterization of 21 isolates of V. cholerae, with whole-genome sequencing conducted on 2 representative isolates. The PNG outbreak was caused by an atypical El Tor strain harbouring a tandem repeat of the CTX prophage on chromosome II. Whole-genome sequence data, prophage structural analysis and the absence of the SXT integrative conjugative element was indicative that the PNG isolates were most closely related to strains ...


Osteoblasts Are "Educated" By Crosstalk With Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells In The Bone Tumor Microenvironment., Alexus D. Kolb, Alison B. Shupp, Dimpi Mukhopadhyay, Frank C. Marini, Karen M. Bussard 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Osteoblasts Are "Educated" By Crosstalk With Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells In The Bone Tumor Microenvironment., Alexus D. Kolb, Alison B. Shupp, Dimpi Mukhopadhyay, Frank C. Marini, Karen M. Bussard

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

INTRODUCTION: In a cancer-free environment in the adult, the skeleton continuously undergoes remodeling. Bone-resorbing osteoclasts excavate erosion cavities, and bone-depositing osteoblasts synthesize osteoid matrix that forms new bone, with no net bone gain or loss. When metastatic breast cancer cells invade the bone, this balance is disrupted. Patients with bone metastatic breast cancer frequently suffer from osteolytic bone lesions that elicit severe bone pain and fractures. Bisphosphonate treatments are not curative. Under ideal circumstances, osteoblasts would synthesize new matrix to fill in erosion cavities caused by osteoclasts, but this is not what occurs. Our prior evidence demonstrated that osteoblasts are ...


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