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Leucine Supplementation In Cuprizone-Induced Oligodendrocyte Toxicity, Michael Ley 2019 The University of Akron

Leucine Supplementation In Cuprizone-Induced Oligodendrocyte Toxicity, Michael Ley

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Cuprizone is a copper chelator that induces demyelination in the central nervous system when fed to mice. This compound is thought to target Complex IV and disrupt mitochondrial metabolism leading to loss of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. In this proposal, we further examine the chemical and toxicological properties of cuprizone. Immunofluorescence imaging and microarray data on MO3.13 cells treated with cuprizone revealed the possibility of alterations in lysosomal function, as well as mitochondrial disruption via mTOR and Electron Transport Chain (ETC) related pathways. Cell viability assays conducted suggest that addition of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, most commonly used from literature, leucine, can ...


Diets High In N-3 Fatty Acids Are Associated With Lower Arterial Stiffness In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Latent Profile Analysis, Richard J. Woodman, Leena R. Baghdadi, E Michael Shanahan, Inushi de Silva, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Arduino A. Mangoni 2019 Edith Cowan University

Diets High In N-3 Fatty Acids Are Associated With Lower Arterial Stiffness In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Latent Profile Analysis, Richard J. Woodman, Leena R. Baghdadi, E Michael Shanahan, Inushi De Silva, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Arduino A. Mangoni

ECU Publications Post 2013

Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids can influence inflammation and markers of arterial stiffness that are increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is unknown whether specific patterns of dietary fatty acid intake are similarly associated. In a longitudinal study, eighty-six RA patients reported their dietary intake and had arterial stiffness measured using the augmentation index (AIx) at baseline and 8 months. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was performed to characterise patterns of fatty acid intake using sixteen major fatty acids. Models for two to six profiles were compared using the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. Associations between AIx and ...


Obesity: Modern Medicine Vs. Lifestyle, Jenny Christianson 2019 University of North Dakota

Obesity: Modern Medicine Vs. Lifestyle, Jenny Christianson

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

• Obesity is a rising epidemic, and is one of the most common, costly and preventable health problems the world is experiencing today (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, [CDC], 2017).

• From this, it is important to establish an effective treatment plan that can be implemented across the nation for maximum patient benefit.

• Lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise are important to any health care plan and are equally necessary to reduce health risks. However, in certain patients, lifestyle changes are not enough due to the maladaptive biologic process in their brain. Thus, additional treatment options need to be available ...


Toll-Like Receptor-4 Disruption Suppresses Adipose Tissue Remodeling And Increases Survival In Cancer Cachexia Syndrome, Felipe Henriques, Magno A. Lopes, Felipe O. Franco, Pamela Knobl, Kaltinaitis B. Santos, Luana L. Bueno, Victor A. Correa, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Alexander Birbrair, Sidney B. Peres, Stephen R. Farmer, Miguel L. Batista Jr. 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Toll-Like Receptor-4 Disruption Suppresses Adipose Tissue Remodeling And Increases Survival In Cancer Cachexia Syndrome, Felipe Henriques, Magno A. Lopes, Felipe O. Franco, Pamela Knobl, Kaltinaitis B. Santos, Luana L. Bueno, Victor A. Correa, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Alexander Birbrair, Sidney B. Peres, Stephen R. Farmer, Miguel L. Batista Jr.

Open Access Articles

Cancer-induced cachexia, characterized by systemic inflammation, body weight loss, adipose tissue (AT) remodeling and muscle wasting, is a malignant metabolic syndrome with undefined etiology. Here, we show that both genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 were able to attenuate the main clinical markers of cachexia in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). AT remodelling was not found in LLC tumor-bearing (TB) TLR4(-/-) mice due to reduced macrophage infiltration and adipocyte atrophy. TLR4(-/-) mice were also resistant to cold-induced browning of subcutaneous AT (scAT). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 (Atorvastatin) reproduced the main protective effect against AT remodeling found in ...


Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Regulate Mammary Tumor Growth And Metastasis By Modulating Tissue Microenvironments, Saraswoti Khadge 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Regulate Mammary Tumor Growth And Metastasis By Modulating Tissue Microenvironments, Saraswoti Khadge

Theses & Dissertations

Omega (ω)-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids (FAs) and the precursors of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators respectively. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of breast cancer (BC) in the countries where long-chain (LC)-ω-3FAs consumption is higher; however, the role of ω-3FAs in BC growth and metastasis is poorly understood. We used isocaloric, isolipidic ω-6 and ω-3 (contains LC-ω-3FAs) diets and a pair-fed model to evaluate the effects of dietary PUFAs in mammary tumor metastasis. Our studies have resulted in several novel observations including that dietary LC-ω-3FAs modulate mammary gland (MG) microenvironments in ...


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Inhibition By Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contributes To Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (Nafld)., Josiah Hardesty 2018 University of Louisville

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Inhibition By Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contributes To Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (Nafld)., Josiah Hardesty

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes how poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exacerbate the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While PCBs were banned in 1979, they still persist in contaminated biota, including food, and are detected in human plasma and adipose. The body burden of PCBs is associated with elevation of liver enzymes and necrosis markers in humans, characteristic of NAFLD. PCB exposure in high-fat diet fed mice leads to steatohepatitis that recapitulate the findings seen in exposed humans. The global estimate of people diagnosed with NAFLD is up to 1 in 4 people, unrelated to dietary or genetic factors. The hepatic mechanisms ...


Early Oral Feeding After Bowel Resection, Jennifer Strang 2018 University of the Incarnate Word

Early Oral Feeding After Bowel Resection, Jennifer Strang

Theses & Dissertations

Research Focus: The primary purpose of this project was to determine if there was an association of factors with time to first solid meal in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery patients and the impact solid diet has on length of stay (LOS) in the hospital, GI symptoms, and incidence of post-operative ileus (POI). A secondary purpose was to observe and describe when an oral diet was started and the progression of diet after GI surgery.

Research Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, retrospective chart review of a convenience sample in a multi-centered hospital system conducted in 84 GI resection patients who were ...


Concentrations Of Purine Metabolites Are Elevated In Human Fluids From Adults And Infants And In Livers From Mice Fed Diets Depleted Of Bovine Milk Exosomes And Their Rna Cargos, Ana Aguilar Lozano 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Concentrations Of Purine Metabolites Are Elevated In Human Fluids From Adults And Infants And In Livers From Mice Fed Diets Depleted Of Bovine Milk Exosomes And Their Rna Cargos, Ana Aguilar Lozano

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Since miRNAs discovery, evidence keeps accumulating on their role in human physiology for homeostasis and implications during disease development. Upon the discovery that miRNAs could be encapsulated in exosomes and provide protection, evidence keeps accumulating on the possibility for miRNAs to be transferred between distant cells and elicit gene expression changes, and clinical trials are being developed to identify miRNAs in body fluids that could predict disease outcomes based on miRNA encapsulation in exosomes making them stable in body fluids. Recently, studies have shown that dietary miRNAs encapsulated in exosomes can be absorbed in mice and humans, and on the ...


Stress-Responsive And Metabolic Gene Regulation Are Altered In Low S-Adenosylmethionine, Wei Ding, Daniel P. Higgins, Dilip K. Yadav, Adwait A. Godbole, Read Pukkila-Worley, Amy K. Walker 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Stress-Responsive And Metabolic Gene Regulation Are Altered In Low S-Adenosylmethionine, Wei Ding, Daniel P. Higgins, Dilip K. Yadav, Adwait A. Godbole, Read Pukkila-Worley, Amy K. Walker

Open Access Articles

S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a donor which provides the methyl groups for histone or nucleic acid modification and phosphatidylcholine production. SAM is hypothesized to link metabolism and chromatin modification, however, its role in acute gene regulation is poorly understood. We recently found that Caenorhabditis elegans with reduced SAM had deficiencies in H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) at pathogen-response genes, decreasing their expression and limiting pathogen resistance. We hypothesized that SAM may be generally required for stress-responsive transcription. Here, using genetic assays, we show that transcriptional responses to bacterial or xenotoxic stress fail in C. elegans with low SAM, but that expression of heat ...


Mitochondrial Metabolism In Major Neurological Diseases, Zhengqiu Zhou, Grant L. Austin, Lyndsay E. A. Young, Lance A. Johnson, Ramon Sun 2018 University of Kentucky

Mitochondrial Metabolism In Major Neurological Diseases, Zhengqiu Zhou, Grant L. Austin, Lyndsay E. A. Young, Lance A. Johnson, Ramon Sun

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Mitochondria are bilayer sub-cellular organelles that are an integral part of normal cellular physiology. They are responsible for producing the majority of a cell’s ATP, thus supplying energy for a variety of key cellular processes, especially in the brain. Although energy production is a key aspect of mitochondrial metabolism, its role extends far beyond energy production to cell signaling and epigenetic regulation–functions that contribute to cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and autophagy. Recent research on neurological disorders suggest a major metabolic component in disease pathophysiology, and mitochondria have been shown to be in the center of metabolic dysregulation ...


Microtubule Acetylation Is Required For Mechanosensation In Drosophila, Connie Yan, Fei Wang, Yang Xiang, Stephen L. Rogers, Jay Z. Parrish 2018 University of Washington

Microtubule Acetylation Is Required For Mechanosensation In Drosophila, Connie Yan, Fei Wang, Yang Xiang, Stephen L. Rogers, Jay Z. Parrish

Open Access Articles

At the cellular level, alpha-tubulin acetylation alters the structure of microtubules to render them mechanically resistant to compressive forces. How this biochemical property of microtubule acetylation relates to mechanosensation remains unknown, although prior studies have shown that microtubule acetylation influences touch perception. Here, we identify the major Drosophila alpha-tubulin acetylase (dTAT) and show that it plays key roles in several forms of mechanosensation. dTAT is highly expressed in the larval peripheral nervous system (PNS), but it is largely dispensable for neuronal morphogenesis. Mutation of the acetylase gene or the K40 acetylation site in alpha-tubulin impairs mechanical sensitivity in sensory neurons ...


Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined by low birth weight and contributes to a variety of adult-onset diseases with different severities between males and females. However, the effects of FGR on the pulmonary surfactant are not fully elucidated. In this thesis, first, we investigated the FGR effects on the lung function and the surfactant system at the early postnatal life. It was hypothesized that FGR contributes to alterations of lung mechanics and the surfactant system during the neonatal period. Second, we assessed the FGR effects on the surfactant system in response to sepsis in adulthood. It was hypothesized that FGR ...


Fxr And Tgr5 Agonists Ameliorate Liver Injury, Steatosis, And Inflammation After Binge Or Prolonged Alcohol Feeding In Mice, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Charles D. Calenda, Jan Petrasek, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Luciano Adorini, Gyongyi Szabo 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Fxr And Tgr5 Agonists Ameliorate Liver Injury, Steatosis, And Inflammation After Binge Or Prolonged Alcohol Feeding In Mice, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Charles D. Calenda, Jan Petrasek, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Luciano Adorini, Gyongyi Szabo

Open Access Articles

Bile acids (BAs) activate various dedicated receptors, including the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5). The FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) is licensed for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis and has shown promising results in NASH patients, whereas TGR5 agonists target inflammation and metabolism. We hypothesized that FXR and/or TGR5 agonists may be therapeutic in early alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in mice, in which hepatic inflammation plays a major role. OCA, INT-777, and INT-767 are BA derivatives with selective agonist properties for FXR, TGR5, or both, respectively. These compounds were tested in ...


Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walther 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walther

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The factors that govern assembly of the gut microbiota are insufficiently understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that inter-individual microbiota variation can arise solely from differences in the order and timing by which the gut is colonized early in life. Experiments in which mice were inoculated in sequence either with two complex seed communities or a cocktail of four bacterial strains and a seed community revealed that colonization order influenced both the outcome of community assembly and the ecological success of individual colonizers. Historical contingency and priority effects also occurred in Rag1-/- mice, suggesting that the adaptive immune system is ...


Glutathione De Novo Synthesis But Not Recycling Process Coordinates With Glutamine Catabolism To Control Redox Homeostasis And Directs Murine T Cell Differentiation, Gaojian Lian, J. N. Rashida Gnanaprakasam, Tingting Wang, Ruohan Wu, Xuyong Chen, Lingling Liu, Yuqing Shen, Mao Yang, Jun Yang, Ying Chen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Teresa A. Cassel, Douglas R. Green, Yusen Liu, Teresa W. -M. Fan, Ruoning Wang 2018 The Ohio State University

Glutathione De Novo Synthesis But Not Recycling Process Coordinates With Glutamine Catabolism To Control Redox Homeostasis And Directs Murine T Cell Differentiation, Gaojian Lian, J. N. Rashida Gnanaprakasam, Tingting Wang, Ruohan Wu, Xuyong Chen, Lingling Liu, Yuqing Shen, Mao Yang, Jun Yang, Ying Chen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Teresa A. Cassel, Douglas R. Green, Yusen Liu, Teresa W. -M. Fan, Ruoning Wang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Upon antigen stimulation, T lymphocytes undergo dramatic changes in metabolism to fulfill the bioenergetic, biosynthetic and redox demands of proliferation and differentiation. Glutathione (GSH) plays an essential role in controlling redox balance and cell fate. While GSH can be recycled from Glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the inhibition of this recycling pathway does not impact GSH content and murine T cell fate. By contrast, the inhibition of the de novo synthesis of GSH, by deleting either the catalytic (Gclc) or the modifier (Gclm) subunit of glutamate–cysteine ligase (Gcl), dampens intracellular GSH, increases ROS, and impact T cell differentiation. Moreover, the inhibition ...


Nitro-Fatty Acids Are Formed In Response To Virus Infection And Are Potent Inhibitors Of Sting Palmitoylation And Signaling, Anne Louise Hansen, Mona Motwani, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Christian K. Holm 2018 Aarhus University

Nitro-Fatty Acids Are Formed In Response To Virus Infection And Are Potent Inhibitors Of Sting Palmitoylation And Signaling, Anne Louise Hansen, Mona Motwani, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Christian K. Holm

Open Access Articles

The adaptor molecule stimulator of IFN genes (STING) is central to production of type I IFNs in response to infection with DNA viruses and to presence of host DNA in the cytosol. Excessive release of type I IFNs through STING-dependent mechanisms has emerged as a central driver of several interferonopathies, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS), and stimulator of IFN genes-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). The involvement of STING in these diseases points to an unmet need for the development of agents that inhibit STING signaling. Here, we report that endogenously formed nitro-fatty acids can covalently ...


Autotaxin-Lpa Signaling Contributes To Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance In Muscle And Impairs Mitochondrial Metabolism, Kenneth D'Souza, Carine Nzirorera, Andrew M. Cowie, Geena P. Varghese, Purvi Trivedi, Thomas O. Eichmann, Dipsikha Biswas, Mohamed Touaibia, Andrew J. Morris, Vassilis Aidinis, Daniel A. Kane, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Petra C. Kienesberger 2018 Dalhousie University, Canada

Autotaxin-Lpa Signaling Contributes To Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance In Muscle And Impairs Mitochondrial Metabolism, Kenneth D'Souza, Carine Nzirorera, Andrew M. Cowie, Geena P. Varghese, Purvi Trivedi, Thomas O. Eichmann, Dipsikha Biswas, Mohamed Touaibia, Andrew J. Morris, Vassilis Aidinis, Daniel A. Kane, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Petra C. Kienesberger

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Autotaxin (ATX) is an adipokine that generates the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX-LPA signaling has been implicated in diet-induced obesity and systemic insulin resistance. However, it remains unclear whether the ATX-LPA pathway influences insulin function and energy metabolism in target tissues, particularly skeletal muscle, the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. The objective of this study was to test whether the ATX-LPA pathway impacts tissue insulin signaling and mitochondrial metabolism in skeletal muscle during obesity. Male mice with heterozygous ATX deficiency (ATX+/−) were protected from obesity, systemic insulin resistance, and cardiomyocyte dysfunction following high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) feeding. HFHS-fed ATX ...


Overexpression Of Cyb5r3 And Nqo1, Two Nad+-Producing Enzymes, Mimics Aspects Of Caloric Restriction, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Michael Lanasa, Joseph Garcia, Hector Mora, Frances Fan, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Andrea Di Francesco, Miguel Calvo-Rubio, Andrea Salvador-Pascual, Miguel A. Aon, Kenneth W. Fishbein, Kevin J. Pearson, Jose Manuel Villalba, Placido Navas, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo 2018 National Institute on Aging

Overexpression Of Cyb5r3 And Nqo1, Two Nad+-Producing Enzymes, Mimics Aspects Of Caloric Restriction, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Michael Lanasa, Joseph Garcia, Hector Mora, Frances Fan, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Andrea Di Francesco, Miguel Calvo-Rubio, Andrea Salvador-Pascual, Miguel A. Aon, Kenneth W. Fishbein, Kevin J. Pearson, Jose Manuel Villalba, Placido Navas, Michel Bernier, Rafael De Cabo

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most robust means to improve health and survival in model organisms. CR imposes a metabolic program that leads to increased stress resistance and delayed onset of chronic diseases, including cancer. In rodents, CR induces the upregulation of two NADH‐dehydrogenases, namely NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (Cyb5r3), which provide electrons for energy metabolism. It has been proposed that this upregulation may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of CR, and defects in their activity are linked to aging and several age‐associated diseases ...


Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle 2018 University of Louisville

Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...


Alpha-Amino Methylation And Acetylation Are Novel Regulators Of Myl9 Function., Christopher David Nevitt 2018 University of Louisville

Alpha-Amino Methylation And Acetylation Are Novel Regulators Of Myl9 Function., Christopher David Nevitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dysregulation of alpha-amino post-translational modifications (Nα-PTMs) is found in multiple cancers and developmental disorders. However, the exact roles Nα-PTMs play in regulating protein function remain poorly understood. I sought to clarify the role of Nα-methylation and Nα-acetylation in the regulation of Myosin Regulatory Light Chain 9 (MYL9). MYL9 is a key cytoskeletal regulator and transcription factor and is the first protein confirmed to undergo both Nα-methylation and Nα-acetylation. Through this work I revealed novel regulatory features of MYL9, while also presenting a framework by which to understand the coordinated regulation of proteins by Nα-methylation and Nα-acetylation. Nα-PTM selective mutants of ...


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