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Antidepressant Dosing In Major Depression: A Pharmacogenomic Approach, Morgan Homan, Haval Norman, Victoria Cho, Yousif Rojeab 2019 Ohio Northern University

Antidepressant Dosing In Major Depression: A Pharmacogenomic Approach, Morgan Homan, Haval Norman, Victoria Cho, Yousif Rojeab

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most predominant mental disorder in the United States, with serious and costly health risks if not successfully managed. Pharmacotherapy is a standard option for MDD treatment, but patients often require extensive therapy adjustments to find a suitable regimen. Pharmacogenomics may enable greater precision in antidepressant therapy. Genotypic variations in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 metabolic enzymes are reliable predictors of serum drug concentration, but the complex dose-response relationship of antidepressants prevents such variations from predicting therapy success. Additionally, ABCBl has been examined for its role in P-glycoprotein efflux of antidepressants in the brain, yet it is ...


Comparison Of Long-Term Oral Anticoagulation Therapies Including Newly Approved Reversal Agent For Dabigatran, Mackenzie DeVine, Natalie Lennartz, Michaela Wolford, Rebecca Worden, Joelle Farano, Erin Petersen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Comparison Of Long-Term Oral Anticoagulation Therapies Including Newly Approved Reversal Agent For Dabigatran, Mackenzie Devine, Natalie Lennartz, Michaela Wolford, Rebecca Worden, Joelle Farano, Erin Petersen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Anticoagulants are a well-known class of agents essential for the prevention of blood clots, which may further develop into deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or stroke. Individuals at a high risk of clotting, such as those with atrial fibrillation, multiple risk factors or recent hip/knee surgery, are in need of long-term anticoagulation therapy. The purpose of this review is to highlight the pros and cons for each available anticoagulant as well as discuss pivotal clinical trials that evaluated the safety and efficacy of these agents. Warfarin, the oldest anticoagulant, requires the patient to attend frequent appointments with a health ...


Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters 2019 Ohio Northern University

Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin that is produced by Clostridium botulinum. At one time, this toxin was only seen as a lethal substance, but now scientists have found many medical uses for it. There are eight distinctive toxins (A-H), but only A and B currently have clinical uses. Botulinum toxin A has three different versions that are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved: onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®). Botulinum toxin B is also FDA approved as rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc®). The toxins work by inducing reversible, local, dose-dependent chemodenervation by inhibiting acetylcholine release from presynaptic terminals. These drugs are ...


A Pharmacist's Role In Educating On The Health Risks Of Smoking During Pregnancy And Helping Patients With Smoking Cessation, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Brian Heilbronner, Brittany L. Long 2019 Ohio Northern University

A Pharmacist's Role In Educating On The Health Risks Of Smoking During Pregnancy And Helping Patients With Smoking Cessation, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Brian Heilbronner, Brittany L. Long

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

While many people know smoking causes cancer, heart disease and other major health problems, smoking during pregnancy causes additional fetal health complications including birth defects, premature birth and infant death. Cigarettes contain carbon monoxide and nicotine, both of which can cause a decrease in oxygen delivery to the fetus' developing tissues causing organs like the brain, lungs, kidneys and ears not to develop properly. If children are exposed to these toxins through secondhand smoke after birth, they are more likely to experience severe health problems such as ear infections, cataracts, lung cancer and heart disease. It is also known that ...


Prevention And Treatment Of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis, Mackenzie DeVine, Anh Dao Le, Julie Puvogel, Victoria Cho, Michelle Musser 2019 Ohio Northern University

Prevention And Treatment Of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis, Mackenzie Devine, Anh Dao Le, Julie Puvogel, Victoria Cho, Michelle Musser

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Osteoporosis is a disease state resulting in decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fracture, specifically of the vertebrae, spine and hip. Risk factors and high risk populations for developing osteoporosis include low BMD, long-term glucocorticoid therapy, genetics, diet, postmenopausal women and patients with inflammatory or chronic disease states. A variety of signaling pathways involving hormones, cytokines and other signaling molecules are involved in bone formation and are affected by long-term glucocorticoid therapy, leading to the development of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO).

There are a variety of drugs that work efficaciously to prevent and treat GIO. Alendronate is a ...


Latest Trends In The Heroin Epidemic And The Responsibility Of The Pharmacist In Controlling Heroin Abuse, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Sabrina Hamman, Manoranjan D'Souza 2019 Ohio Northern University

Latest Trends In The Heroin Epidemic And The Responsibility Of The Pharmacist In Controlling Heroin Abuse, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Sabrina Hamman, Manoranjan D'Souza

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Over the last few years, there has been an exponential increase in morbidity and mortality associated with heroin abuse. The current rise in heroin abuse and overdose is attributed to widespread use and abuse of prescription opioids, which can produce significant euphoric effects in humans. In fact, reports suggest that heroin abusers initially become addicted to prescription opioids but subsequently switch to heroin because it is cheaper and more easily available than prescription opioids. Over the years, the purity of heroin available for illicit use has been on the decline. Smugglers and heroin vendors have started mixing heroin with other ...


Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome From Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy, Elizabeth Kramer, Maria Patnella, Rachel Bulko, Allie Harrison, Hannah Lamb, Manoranjan D'Souza 2019 Ohio Northern University

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome From Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy, Elizabeth Kramer, Maria Patnella, Rachel Bulko, Allie Harrison, Hannah Lamb, Manoranjan D'Souza

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a concern for infants born to mothers receiving treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) throughout the pregnancy. The risk of NAS associated with SSRI use during pregnancy varies with the specific SSRI that is used by the patient during pregnancy. Common symptoms of NAS include premature delivery, gastrointestinal disturbances, irritability, low birth weight, short length and lack of response to various stimuli. Neonates that present with these symptoms can be scored using either the Finnegan or Lipsitz scoring tools. Neonates experiencing NAS can be calmed or treated using nonpharmacologic methods such as swaddling ...


The Effect Of Cyp3a5 Polymorphism On Kidney Transplant Recipients Given Tacrolimus, Samia Alam, Sunitha Johns, Haval Norman, Brian Heilbronner, Yousif Rojeab 2019 Ohio Northern University

The Effect Of Cyp3a5 Polymorphism On Kidney Transplant Recipients Given Tacrolimus, Samia Alam, Sunitha Johns, Haval Norman, Brian Heilbronner, Yousif Rojeab

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant agent indicated for organ transplants, is commonly administered to reduce the risk of renal graft rejection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to its narrow therapeutic index and high inter-patient variability, studies have suggested that CYP3A5-based dosing provides specialized regimens which may significantly improve the chances of achieving therapeutic concentrations. According to the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) recommendations, extensive (CYP3A5*1/*1) and intermediate metabolizers (CYP3A5*1/*3) require a higher initial dose while poor metabolizers (CYP3A5*3/*3) require a lower initial dose in order to achieve ...


Treatment Of Basal Cell Carcinoma With Vismodegib, Sunitha Johns, Katlyn Brown, Emily Loudermilk, Crystal Zheng, Anh Dao Le, Sophocles Chrissobolis 2019 Ohio Northern University

Treatment Of Basal Cell Carcinoma With Vismodegib, Sunitha Johns, Katlyn Brown, Emily Loudermilk, Crystal Zheng, Anh Dao Le, Sophocles Chrissobolis

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The most prevalent nonmelanoma skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (aBCC). Current, effective first-line treatments for BCC aim to remove and destroy cancerous skin cells through excision surgery, Mohs surgery, radiation therapy and cryotherapy, while treatment of aBCC remains limited. An emerging treatment option for aBCC that promotes tumor size reduction is vismodegib, a pharmaceutical product approved in 2012 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Vismodegib was approved for the treatment of aBCC, metastasized HCC (mBCC) or recurrent BCC after surgery as well as for use in adults who are ...


Triple Therapy Or Triple Threat: An Analysis Of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Compared To Dual Antiplatelet Therapy, Isabel E. Cwikla, Kara C. Horvath, Elaina Gollmar, Austin Hilverding, Erin Petersen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Triple Therapy Or Triple Threat: An Analysis Of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Compared To Dual Antiplatelet Therapy, Isabel E. Cwikla, Kara C. Horvath, Elaina Gollmar, Austin Hilverding, Erin Petersen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Triple antiplatelet therapy (TAPT, or triple therapy), is an oral medication regimen designed to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events. It consists of aspirin, clopidogrel or an alternative, and an oral anticoagulant (OAC). It differs from dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) due to inclusion of an OAC. Multiple clinical studies have indicated that triple therapy is more effective at clot prevention, when compared to aspirin monotherapy and DAPT, but is associated with a higher risk of major bleeding. Pharmacists have a key role in determining candidates for DAPT and TAPT regimens. Other opportunities for pharmacists include patient monitoring, counseling and ...


Programmed Death Pathway Inhibition: Emerging Therapeutic Options For Treatment Of Advanced Or Refractory Cancers, Katherine Elsass, Morgan Homan, Jana Randolph, Brendan Rasor, David Kinder 2019 Ohio Northern University

Programmed Death Pathway Inhibition: Emerging Therapeutic Options For Treatment Of Advanced Or Refractory Cancers, Katherine Elsass, Morgan Homan, Jana Randolph, Brendan Rasor, David Kinder

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway has a significant role in the promotion of immune tolerance. The PD-1 receptor ligands are normally expressed on various inactive immune cells. When cancer cells express these ligands, they are able to interact with active T and B lymphocytes to induce this tolerance. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are two recently approved agents that act to disrupt this binding and facilitate an immune response against cancer cells. Numerous trials, including KEYNOTE-002 and CheckMate 063, have demonstrated the superior safety and efficacy of these drugs in patients with advanced or refractory cancers. Initially approved for the treatment of ...


Pcsk9 Inhibitors: A Novel Class Of Pharmacotherapy For Hypercholesterolemia, Angela Chu, Austin Hilverding, Elizabeth Kramer, Brendan Rasor, Boyd Rorabaugh 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pcsk9 Inhibitors: A Novel Class Of Pharmacotherapy For Hypercholesterolemia, Angela Chu, Austin Hilverding, Elizabeth Kramer, Brendan Rasor, Boyd Rorabaugh

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of two new drugs, alirocumab (Praluent®) and evolocumab (Repatha®) is a breakthrough in the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia. These drugs are a part of a new class called the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors that act by increasing the number of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDL-R) recycled to hepatocyte membranes. The increased density of LDL-R facilitates greater clearance of low density lipoproteins from the blood. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of these agents, particularly for patients in whom standard cholesterol-lowering therapy is insufficient. However, data ...


Belsomra®: A Novel Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist For The Treatment Of Insomnia, Shane Bogusz, Steven Blake, Michaela Wolford, Victoria Cho, Manoranjan D'Souza 2019 Ohio Northern University

Belsomra®: A Novel Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist For The Treatment Of Insomnia, Shane Bogusz, Steven Blake, Michaela Wolford, Victoria Cho, Manoranjan D'Souza

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Insomnia is a disease state characterized by a persistent difficulty in falling asleep, and results in enormous health-related and economic costs to both the individual and society. Several medications are currently available for the treatment of insomnia; however, these medications are associated with several limitations including anterograde amnesia, dependence, withdrawal symptoms upon stopping the medication and rebound insomnia. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved suvorexant (Belsomra®) as a treatment for insomnia. Suvorexant is a first-in-class dual orexin receptor antagonist for the treatment of insomnia. This review will first describe the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ...


Proceedings Of The 3rd International Evolutionary Health Conference, lynda frassetto, Pedro Bastos, filipe brito, Emily C. Deans MD, Dan Pardi, Angelo Rossiello 2019 UCSF

Proceedings Of The 3rd International Evolutionary Health Conference, Lynda Frassetto, Pedro Bastos, Filipe Brito, Emily C. Deans Md, Dan Pardi, Angelo Rossiello

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Pain Management In Dementia Patients In Nursing Homes, Tiffany Kneuss, Kelsey Weisenburger, Hannah Stewart, Kelly Reilly Kroustos 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pain Management In Dementia Patients In Nursing Homes, Tiffany Kneuss, Kelsey Weisenburger, Hannah Stewart, Kelly Reilly Kroustos

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Pain in the elderly, especially those with dementia, is often undertreated and misdiagnosed by health care professionals in the long-term care setting. Communication barriers in patients with cognitive impairment force pain assessment to rely heavily on subjective interpretation of behavioral factors due to the inability of patients to self-report pain symptoms. It is important for clinicians to develop a standard method of identifying and assessing signs of pain in patients with dementia in order to appropriately treat those experiencing discomfort. Patients with dementia who present with a sudden onset of behavioral changes should receive a comprehensive evaluation that includes a ...


The Effects Of Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use And Withdrawal In The Elderly, Lydia Suchecki, Hannah Granger, Jamie Kellner, Mary Ellen Hethcox 2019 Ohio Northern University

The Effects Of Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use And Withdrawal In The Elderly, Lydia Suchecki, Hannah Granger, Jamie Kellner, Mary Ellen Hethcox

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Benzodiazepines remain a commonly prescribed medication in the United States, and the high usage of this drug class is especially a concern in the elderly population for several reasons. First, elderly patients metabolize drugs differently, leading to varying responses. Age-related changes also have a significant impact on the effects of benzodiazepines. Second, elderly patients are more likely to be taking multiple centrally-acting drugs, which can further exacerbate negative effects. In regard to long-term benzodiazepine use, elderly patients experience an increased risk of cognitive impairment, motor vehicle accidents, decline in physical performance, falls and subsequent fractures, and sleep disturbances. Withdrawal is ...


Current Trials And Therapies For The Treatment Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Dementia, Adam Smith, Angela Chu, Lucy Wagala, Hannah Stewart, Lindsey Peters 2019 Ohio Northern University

Current Trials And Therapies For The Treatment Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Dementia, Adam Smith, Angela Chu, Lucy Wagala, Hannah Stewart, Lindsey Peters

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

An area of health care that provides many more questions than answers includes neurodegenerative disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease, and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are both diseases about which we know very little. However, ALS and FTD affect nearly 30,000 and 60,000 Americans respectively. Currently, there is not a cure for ALS or FTD and treatment options are aimed toward symptom management. Much of the pathophysiology of these diseases is unknown, but we do know there are genetic implications, specifically in SOD1, TARDBP and c90RF72. These mutations lead to cognitive deficits, muscle ...


Testosterone Replacement Therapy In Aging Males, Alexandra Dimit, Joelle Farano, Haley Armstrong, Michelle Musser 2019 Ohio Northern University

Testosterone Replacement Therapy In Aging Males, Alexandra Dimit, Joelle Farano, Haley Armstrong, Michelle Musser

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cautions health care providers and patients regarding the use of testosterone replacement therapy products for the aging process, including a decrease in muscle strength, muscle mass, and lack of energy or sexual desire, due to an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. Testosterone replacement therapy products are indicated for genetic defects, chemotherapy damage, or damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, where testosterone is produced. A patient and his team of health care professionals must seriously consider the risks and benefits when using these products for other indications. Use of testosterone ...


Combined Neprilysin And Angiotensin Inhibitor For The Treatment Of Heart Failure, Albert Bui, Victoria Cho, Rebecca Worden, Haley Armstrong, Rachel Pucel, Lindsey Peters 2019 Ohio Northern University

Combined Neprilysin And Angiotensin Inhibitor For The Treatment Of Heart Failure, Albert Bui, Victoria Cho, Rebecca Worden, Haley Armstrong, Rachel Pucel, Lindsey Peters

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Heart failure (HF) is a highly prevalent disease state worldwide that can progress into a disabling condition. It is pertinent to have a treatment regimen that is effective in lowering the number of HF exacerbations and, therefore, hospital readmission rates. A novel medication currently in clinical trials, LCZ696, blocks both neprilysin and angiotensin type I receptors. The overall effects are an inhibition of the breakdown of natriuretic peptides which leads to a decrease in renin and aldosterone release. This, combined with the antagonization of angiotensin type I receptors, leads to a decrease in blood pressure, blood volume and systemic vascular ...


Potential Use Of Dopamine And Dopamine Agonists As Angiogenesisinhibitors In The Treatment Of Cancer, Benjamin Finley, Katherine Liu, Daniel Powell, Jamie Kellner, David H. Kinder 2019 Ohio Northern University

Potential Use Of Dopamine And Dopamine Agonists As Angiogenesisinhibitors In The Treatment Of Cancer, Benjamin Finley, Katherine Liu, Daniel Powell, Jamie Kellner, David H. Kinder

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

In recent years, there have been numerous developments in monoclonal antibodies used as anticancer drugs with a focus on reducing the ability of cancers to metastasize and produce new vasculature. These agents are called angiogenesis inhibitors and although these agents have been proven effective in treating certain types of cancers, production and administration of monoclonal antibodies comes at a steep cost with a severe side effect profile. Under normal physiologic conditions, angiogenesis is an important mechanism to create new blood vessels from preexisting vessels, usually occurring in adults. Tumor cells can hijack the angiogenesis pathway to produce new distant tumors ...


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