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Zika Virus Induced Neurological Disorders And Impacts On Public Health, Alexandra Herman, Martha Zimmerman, Olivia Vanscoy, Olivia Henton, Lindsey Peters 2019 Ohio Northern University

Zika Virus Induced Neurological Disorders And Impacts On Public Health, Alexandra Herman, Martha Zimmerman, Olivia Vanscoy, Olivia Henton, Lindsey Peters

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Zika virus is a public health emergency of international concern. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is carried by the Aedes genus. Zika is spread through direct bite and nonvector transmission. Most individuals infected with Zika will be asymptomatic, but some may present nonspecific viral symptoms. A rising number of neurological disorders in newborns whose mothers were infected with ZIKV during pregnancy have been reported due to recent outbreaks. Neurological disorders affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems and can result from bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic infections of the nervous system or from the immune response ...


Zika Virus: Infectious Process And Public Health Response, Morgan Homan, Julia Dickman, Jenna Deininger, Austin Hopkins, Olivia Henton, Steven N. Leonard 2019 Ohio Northern University

Zika Virus: Infectious Process And Public Health Response, Morgan Homan, Julia Dickman, Jenna Deininger, Austin Hopkins, Olivia Henton, Steven N. Leonard

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The Zika virus has become a growing concern as a global pandemic. Since being identified in Uganda in 1947, the virus has spread around the world, recently emerging in South America with a great impact on Brazil. As of 2016, Zika has made its appearance in the United States and is now actively being transmitted in Florida. The virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus primarily transmitted by the Aedes mosquito which infects a human through biting. Transmission through sexual intercourse is also possible as well as transmission from a pregnant woman to her fetus. This latter form of transmission presents the ...


Laboratory Mutations Of H5n1 Confer Efficient Transmission In Animal Models And Generate International Debate Regarding Publication Of Dual Use Research, Morgan A. Belling, Kelly Dye, Joshua Ilenin, Jamie Amero, Andrew M. Roecker 2019 Ohio Northern University

Laboratory Mutations Of H5n1 Confer Efficient Transmission In Animal Models And Generate International Debate Regarding Publication Of Dual Use Research, Morgan A. Belling, Kelly Dye, Joshua Ilenin, Jamie Amero, Andrew M. Roecker

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

H5N1, a subtype of influenza A virus that originated in Hong Kong in 1997 and has since spread across Asia and Africa, features a reported case fatality rate of nearly 60 percent in humans. Although naturally-occurring H5N1 has not developed the ability to be efficiently transmitted from human to human, two independent research teams have recently mutated strains of the virus, resulting in facile transmission among laboratory ferrets, which are considered the most accurate models for humans in viral studies. As a consequence of the security and public health risks of such information, the U.S. National Science Advisory Board ...


Treatment Of Podoconiosis With Complicating Polyinfections Within Rural African Villages: A Case Study, Amanda R. Beering, Abigail R. Florence, Soon Bahrami MD 2019 University of Louisville School of Medicine

Treatment Of Podoconiosis With Complicating Polyinfections Within Rural African Villages: A Case Study, Amanda R. Beering, Abigail R. Florence, Soon Bahrami Md

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

This case study aims to provide a treatment plan for the treatment of podoconiosis with complicating polyinfections in a resource poor setting. A second objective is to help healthcare providers teach preventive measures to villagers in affected regions.


Eugenics In The 21st Century, Jessica Linn Chin 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Eugenics In The 21st Century, Jessica Linn Chin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Eugenics is the science of enhancing the human population through the management of breeding and hereditary traits. This thesis explores the history of eugenics and shows how eugenic practices continue in the 21st century with advancements in technology and positive eugenic goals that can result in adverse effects on the human body and society. When Sir Francis Galton coined the term eugenics in 1883, he intended to improve British society with the use of positive eugenics. Galton used positive eugenics to encourage people with good mental and physical qualities to produce more children. He avoided negative eugenics, which involved ...


Autoimmune Hepatitis In Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Mohamad Mubder, Mohamed Azab, Mahendran Jayaraj, Chad Cross, Daisy Lankarani, Banreet Dhindsa, Jen-Jung Pan, Gordon Ohning 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Autoimmune Hepatitis In Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Mohamad Mubder, Mohamed Azab, Mahendran Jayaraj, Chad Cross, Daisy Lankarani, Banreet Dhindsa, Jen-Jung Pan, Gordon Ohning

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Liver disease in patients with HIV is common and typically has complex and multifactorial presentations that represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is rarely reported in patient with HIV and the disease course and clinical outcomes for treatment have not been well characterized. We are aiming to determine the patient characteristics, disease prevalence, and treatment outcomes from published articles of patients with HIV and AIH. Method: A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar through February 20th, 2019 identified 15 studies that reported the outcomes of AIH in patients with HIV ...


The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus neoformans can cause fatal meningoencephalitis in patients with AIDS or other immune-compromising conditions. Current antifungals are suboptimal to treat this disease, therefore, novel targets and new therapies are needed. Previously, we have shown that chitosan is a critical component of the cryptococcal cell wall, is required for survival in the mammalian host, and that chitosan deficiency results in rapid clearance from the mammalian host. We had also identified several specific proteins that were required for chitosan biosynthesis, and we hypothesize that screening for compounds that inhibit chitosan biosynthesis would identify additional genes/proteins that influence chitosan biosynthesis.


Memory Cd4 T Cell-Derived Il-2 Synergizes With Viral Infection To Exacerbate Lung Inflammation, K. Kai McKinstry, Fahmida Alam, Valeria Flores-Malavet, Mate Z. Nagy, Stewart Sell, Andrea M. Cooper, Susan L. Swain, Tara M. Strutt 2019 University of Central Florida

Memory Cd4 T Cell-Derived Il-2 Synergizes With Viral Infection To Exacerbate Lung Inflammation, K. Kai Mckinstry, Fahmida Alam, Valeria Flores-Malavet, Mate Z. Nagy, Stewart Sell, Andrea M. Cooper, Susan L. Swain, Tara M. Strutt

Open Access Articles

Defining the most penetrating correlates of protective memory T cells is key for designing improved vaccines and T cell therapies. Here, we evaluate how interleukin (IL-2) production by memory CD4 T cells, a widely held indicator of their protective potential, impacts immune responses against murine influenza A virus (IAV). Unexpectedly, we show that IL-2-deficient memory CD4 T cells are more effective on a per cell basis at combating IAV than wild-type memory cells that produce IL-2. Improved outcomes orchestrated by IL-2-deficient cells include reduced weight loss and improved respiratory function that correlate with reduced levels of a broad array of ...


Automated Text Messaging With Patients In Department Of Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinics: Cluster Randomized Trial, Vera Yakovchenko, Timothy P. Hogan, Thomas K. Houston, Lorilei Richardson, Jessica Lipschitz, Beth Ann Petrakis, Chris Gillespie, D. Keith McInnes 2019 Department of Veterans Affairs

Automated Text Messaging With Patients In Department Of Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinics: Cluster Randomized Trial, Vera Yakovchenko, Timothy P. Hogan, Thomas K. Houston, Lorilei Richardson, Jessica Lipschitz, Beth Ann Petrakis, Chris Gillespie, D. Keith Mcinnes

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Acceptability of mobile phone text messaging as a means of asynchronous communication between health care systems and patients is growing. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has adopted an automated texting system (aTS) for national rollout. The aTS allows providers to develop clinical texting protocols to promote patient self-management and allows clinical teams to monitor patient progress between in-person visits. Texting-supported hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment has not been previously tested.

OBJECTIVE: Guided by the Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM), we developed an aTS HCV protocol and conducted a mixed methods, hybrid type 2 effectiveness implementation ...


“I Don’T Want To Look Sick Skinny”: Perceptions Of Body Image And Weight Loss In Hispanics Living With Hiv In South Texas, Jordan W. Abel, Omar Allen, Delia Bullock, Erin Finley, Elizabeth Walter, Phillip Schnarrs, Barbara S. Taylor 2019 University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio

“I Don’T Want To Look Sick Skinny”: Perceptions Of Body Image And Weight Loss In Hispanics Living With Hiv In South Texas, Jordan W. Abel, Omar Allen, Delia Bullock, Erin Finley, Elizabeth Walter, Phillip Schnarrs, Barbara S. Taylor

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Objective: Obesity is rising in people with HIV (PLWH) and Hispanics. Both HIV and obesity are associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Our goal is to understand perceptions of body image and lifestyle in Hispanics with HIV to adapt interventions appropriately.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 Hispanic PLWH and 6 providers. Purposive sampling selected patient participants across weights and genders. Interviews were coded and analyzed using grounded theory, comparing perspectives between patients with and without obesity, and patients and providers.

Results: Participants felt obesity and diabetes were “normal” in the community. Patients exhibited understanding of healthy diet ...


Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur ...


Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang 2019 Duke University

Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) orchestrates host antiviral innate immune response to RNA virus infection. However, how MAVS signaling is controlled to eradicate virus while preventing self-destructive inflammation remains obscure. Here, we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, limits MAVS-mediated immune signaling by targeting Rho family small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1 into the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) at the mitochondria-ER junction. Protein geranylgeranylation and subsequent palmitoylation promote Rac1 translocation into MAMs upon viral infection. MAM-localized Rac1 limits MAVS' interaction with E3 ligase Trim31 and hence inhibits MAVS ubiquitination, aggregation, and activation. Rac1 also facilitates ...


Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet 2019 University of Western Ontario

Role Of Gp120 Glycosylation In Sexual Transmission Of Hiv, Yingxue Sun, Adam Meadows, Najwa Zebian, Eric Arts, Carole Creuzenet

Western Research Forum

Background:

In chronic HIV patients, the viral populations are genetically diverse due to mutations introduced by the viral reverse transcriptase during HIV replication. However, more than 80% new infections result from single transmission founder (TF) viruses; therefore, targeting the TFs is key to control AIDS worldwide.

Gp120 is a glycosylated envelope protein required for HIV infection, propagation, and transmission. Glycans on gp120 influence HIV infectivity through their interactions with lectins, the carbohydrate-binding immune proteins in the host mucosa. To transmit sexually, viruses must overcome the lectin traps to access more target T cells.

Hypothesis:

TF viruses are less likely to ...


An Application Of The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem: Optimizing Cluster Method Parameters To Produce Predictive Data For Hiv Outbreaks, Connor J. Chato, Art FY Poon 2019 Western University

An Application Of The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem: Optimizing Cluster Method Parameters To Produce Predictive Data For Hiv Outbreaks, Connor J. Chato, Art Fy Poon

Western Research Forum

Background

A popular approach to study HIV outbreaks is to cluster cases based on genetic similarity. However, there is no widely-used statistical criterion which optimizes the parameters for sequence-based clustering methods. The relationship between a cluster-defining similarity threshold and it’s associated set of clusters can be analogized to the aggregation level in the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP).

Hypothesis

Based on the selection of aggregation level for study partitions in MAUP, we present a statistical framework to optimize the similarity threshold for pairwise distance algorithm TN93 (http://github.com/veg/tn93). We hypothesize that defining this threshold includes case ...


The Effect Of Disclosure On Adherence To Antiretroviral Therapy Among Adults Living With Hiv In Ethiopia: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis., Getenet Dessie, Fasil Wagnew, Henok Mulugeta, Dessalegn Amare, Dube Jara, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Ayenew Negesse, Swati Rayasam, Sahai Burrowes 2019 Touro University California

The Effect Of Disclosure On Adherence To Antiretroviral Therapy Among Adults Living With Hiv In Ethiopia: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis., Getenet Dessie, Fasil Wagnew, Henok Mulugeta, Dessalegn Amare, Dube Jara, Cheru Tesema Leshargie, Ayenew Negesse, Swati Rayasam, Sahai Burrowes

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

BACKGROUND: Several factors have been identified as being associated with increased adherence to antiretroviral therapy, including sero-status disclosure; however, studies examining the effect of disclosure on ART adherence in Ethiopia have had inconsistent findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis therefore aims to estimate the pooled effect of disclosure on adherence to ART among adults living with HIV in Ethiopia.

METHODS: We performed a systematic search for articles reporting on peer-reviewed, quantitative, English-language observational studies of reporting the association between self sero-status disclosure and good ART adherence in adults living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia during published from 2010 to 2015 ...


The Association Between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Reactivation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Andrew Allee 2019 Lincoln University, Jefferson City Missouri

The Association Between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Reactivation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Andrew Allee

BIO 410 Spring 2019 Research Papers

This review will focus on the interaction of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and its causative role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) noting specifically, the epidemiological relevance of addressing this problem, as well as the molecular pathways associated. HSV-1 reactivation tends to be one of the primary causative events that is responsible for many of the pathologies associated with AD, such as: amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation caused by malfunctioning cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. HSV-1 reactivation is a primary causative event in downstream dysfunction and is also shown to be directed ...


Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein H Is Indispensable For Infection Of Epithelial, Endothelial, And Fibroblast Cell Types, Murali Muniraju, Lorraine Z. Mutsvunguma, Joslyn Foley, Gabriela M. Escalante, Esther Rodriguez, Romina Nabiee, Jennifer Totonchy, David H. Mulama, Joshua Nyagol, Felix Wussow, Anne K. Barasa, Michael A. Brehm, Javier Gordon Ogembo 2019 Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope

Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein H Is Indispensable For Infection Of Epithelial, Endothelial, And Fibroblast Cell Types, Murali Muniraju, Lorraine Z. Mutsvunguma, Joslyn Foley, Gabriela M. Escalante, Esther Rodriguez, Romina Nabiee, Jennifer Totonchy, David H. Mulama, Joshua Nyagol, Felix Wussow, Anne K. Barasa, Michael A. Brehm, Javier Gordon Ogembo

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an emerging pathogen and is the causative infectious agent of Kaposi sarcoma and two malignancies of B cell origin. To date, there is no licensed KSHV vaccine. Development of an effective vaccine against KSHV continues to be limited by a poor understanding of how the virus initiates acute primary infection in vivo in diverse human cell types. The role of glycoprotein H (gH) in herpesvirus entry mechanisms remains largely unresolved. To characterize the requirement for KSHV gH in the viral life cycle and in determination of cell tropism, we generated and characterized a mutant KSHV ...


Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang 2019 Duke University

Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang

Open Access Articles

The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) orchestrates host antiviral innate immune response to RNA virus infection. However, how MAVS signaling is controlled to eradicate virus while preventing self-destructive inflammation remains obscure. Here, we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, limits MAVS-mediated immune signaling by targeting Rho family small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1 into the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) at the mitochondria-ER junction. Protein geranylgeranylation and subsequent palmitoylation promote Rac1 translocation into MAMs upon viral infection. MAM-localized Rac1 limits MAVS' interaction with E3 ligase Trim31 and hence inhibits MAVS ubiquitination, aggregation, and activation. Rac1 also facilitates ...


The Effects Of Autophagy On The Replication Of Zika Virus, Mohammed Marghani 2019 Touro College and University System

The Effects Of Autophagy On The Replication Of Zika Virus, Mohammed Marghani

NYMC Student Theses and Dissertations

Zika virus is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. The Zika virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family of viruses that was discovered to infect humans in 1952. The Flavivirus envelope is decorated by many copies of two membrane proteins that facilitate viral entry. The virus is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites. Another method by which Zika virus could be transmitted is through sexual contact with Zika infected partners or from an infected pregnant woman to fetus known as congenital transmission. Infected patients suffer from self-limiting febrile illness including headaches, skin rash myalgia, and conjunctivitis. Zika ...


Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson 2019 University of Connecticut

Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson

Honors Scholar Theses

Ecosystems are increasingly being exposed to anthropogenic stressors that could make animals and thus populations more susceptible to disease. For example, the application of deicing salts to roads is increasing in the northeastern United States. Chronic stress that larval amphibians experience when living in vernal pools with high salinity may alter their susceptibility to ranavirus, a pathogen responsible for mass mortality events worldwide. This project quantifies the effects of road salts and ranavirus exposure on larval wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) growth and survival. Using outdoor mesocsoms, we raised wood frog tadpoles in salt treatments and then exposed them to the ...


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