Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

272 Full-Text Articles 869 Authors 36,418 Downloads 47 Institutions

All Articles in Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms

Faceted Search

272 full-text articles. Page 1 of 13.

Sarcopenia In Lung Cancer: Could Chest Imaging Help?, Jennifer Baima, Elke Sarah Schipani, Wasih Kamran, John M. Varlotto, Lacey J. McIntosh, Karl Uy, Isabel Emmerick, Mathew J. Most 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sarcopenia In Lung Cancer: Could Chest Imaging Help?, Jennifer Baima, Elke Sarah Schipani, Wasih Kamran, John M. Varlotto, Lacey J. Mcintosh, Karl Uy, Isabel Emmerick, Mathew J. Most

Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications and Presentations

Introduction: Fifteen to seventy percent of cancer patients demonstrate sarcopenia.1-6,[i],[ii],[iii],[iv],[v],[vi],[vii],[viii],[ix],[x],[xi],[xii],[xiii] Analysis of iliopsoas cross-sectional area, a non-invasive surrogate measure for sarcopenia in patients with cancer has been associated with survival.[xiv],[xv],[xvi],[xvii] The pectoralis muscle may be a more accessible target for measuring sarcopenia in lung cancer patients,[xviii] but it is not known if it this correlates with iliopsoas cross-sectional area. Since measurements vary, it is most accurate to use internal controls. We attempted to examine the cross-sectional area of the two muscles ...


Improvement In Mental Health Following Total Hip Arthroplasty: The Role Of Pain And Function, Uyen-Sa D. T. Nguyen, Thomas Perneger, Patricia D. Franklin, Christophe Barea, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Anne Lubbeke 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Improvement In Mental Health Following Total Hip Arthroplasty: The Role Of Pain And Function, Uyen-Sa D. T. Nguyen, Thomas Perneger, Patricia D. Franklin, Christophe Barea, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Anne Lubbeke

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Mental health has been shown to improve after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Little is known about the role of pain and function in this context. We assessed whether change in mental health was associated with improvement in pain and function 1 year post-surgery.

METHODS: This prospective study included patients enrolled in a THA registry from 2010 to 2014. We examined the mental component score (MCS) before and 1 year post-surgery, and 1-year change, in association with Western Ontario McMaster Universities (WOMAC) pain and function scores. All scores were normalized, ranging from 0 to 100 (larger score indicating better outcome ...


Gene Expression Signature Of Atypical Breast Hyperplasia And Regulation By Sfrp1, Kelly J. Gregory, Giovanna M. Crisi, Brooke A. Bentley, Grace Makari-Judson, Holly S. Mason, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Karl J. Simin, Jacob P. S. Johnson, Ashraf Khan, Sallie S. Schneider, D. Joseph Jerry 2019 Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute

Gene Expression Signature Of Atypical Breast Hyperplasia And Regulation By Sfrp1, Kelly J. Gregory, Giovanna M. Crisi, Brooke A. Bentley, Grace Makari-Judson, Holly S. Mason, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Karl J. Simin, Jacob P. S. Johnson, Ashraf Khan, Sallie S. Schneider, D. Joseph Jerry

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Atypical breast hyperplasias (AH) have a 10-year risk of progression to invasive cancer estimated at 4-7%, with the overall risk of developing breast cancer increased by ~ 4-fold. AH lesions are estrogen receptor alpha positive (ERalpha+) and represent risk indicators and/or precursor lesions to low grade ERalpha+ tumors. Therefore, molecular profiles of AH lesions offer insights into the earliest changes in the breast epithelium, rendering it susceptible to oncogenic transformation.

METHODS: In this study, women were selected who were diagnosed with ductal or lobular AH, but no breast cancer prior to or within the 2-year follow-up. Paired AH and ...


Design And Methods Of The Healthy Kids And Families Study: A Parent-Focused Community Health Worker-Delivered Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention, Amy Borg, Christina F. Haughton, Mullen Sawyer, Stephenie C. Lemon, Kevin J. Kane, Lori Pbert, Wenjun Li, Milagros C. Rosal 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Design And Methods Of The Healthy Kids And Families Study: A Parent-Focused Community Health Worker-Delivered Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention, Amy Borg, Christina F. Haughton, Mullen Sawyer, Stephenie C. Lemon, Kevin J. Kane, Lori Pbert, Wenjun Li, Milagros C. Rosal

Open Access Articles

Background: One third of U.S. children and two thirds of adults are overweight or obese. Interventions to prevent obesity and thus avert threats to public health are needed. This paper describes the design and methods of the Healthy Kids and Families study, which tested the effect of a parent-focused community health worker (CHW)-delivered lifestyle intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

Methods: Participants were English or Spanish-speaking parent-child dyads (n = 247) from nine elementary schools (grades K-6) located in racial/ethnically diverse low-income communities in Worcester, Massachusetts. Using a quasi-experimental design with the school as the level of allocation, the ...


Methodology Of An Exercise Intervention Program Using Social Incentives And Gamification For Obese Children, Yue Fang, Yunsheng Ma, Dandan Mo, Shunxing Zhang, Mi Xiang, Zhiruo Zhang 2019 Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Methodology Of An Exercise Intervention Program Using Social Incentives And Gamification For Obese Children, Yue Fang, Yunsheng Ma, Dandan Mo, Shunxing Zhang, Mi Xiang, Zhiruo Zhang

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Traditional exercise [supervised exercise (SE)] intervention has been proved to be one of the most effective ways to improve metabolic health. However, most exercise interventions were on a high-cost and small scale, moreover lacking of the long-term effect due to low engagement. On the other hand, it was noteworthy that gamification and social incentives were promising strategies to increase engagement and sustain exercise interventions effects; as well as mobile technologies such as WeChat also can provide an appropriate platform to deploy interventions on a broader, low-cost scale. Thus, we aim to develop a novel exercise intervention ('SandG exercise intervention ...


Early Pre-Radiographic Structural Pathology Precedes The Onset Of Accelerated Knee Osteoarthritis, Matthew S. Harkey, Julie E. Davis, Bing Lu, Lori Lyn Price, Robert J. Ward, James W. MacKay, Charles B. Eaton, Grace H. Lo, Mary F. Barbe, Ming Zhang, Jincheng Pang, Alina C. Stout, Timothy E. McAlindon, Jeffrey B. Driban 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Early Pre-Radiographic Structural Pathology Precedes The Onset Of Accelerated Knee Osteoarthritis, Matthew S. Harkey, Julie E. Davis, Bing Lu, Lori Lyn Price, Robert J. Ward, James W. Mackay, Charles B. Eaton, Grace H. Lo, Mary F. Barbe, Ming Zhang, Jincheng Pang, Alina C. Stout, Timothy E. Mcalindon, Jeffrey B. Driban

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Accelerated knee osteoarthritis (AKOA) is characterized by more pain, impaired physical function, and greater likelihood to receive a joint replacement compared to individuals who develop the typical gradual onset of disease. Prognostic tools are needed to determine which structural pathologies precede the development of AKOA compared to individuals without AKOA. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript was to determine which pre-radiographic structural features precede the development of AKOA.

METHODS: The sample comprised participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) who had at least one radiographically normal knee at baseline (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] grade < 1). Participants were classified into 2 groups based on radiographic progression from baseline to 48 months: AKOA (KL grade change from < 1 to > 3) and No AKOA. The index visit was ...


Dysfunction In Serotonergic And Noradrenergic Systems And Somatic Symptoms In Psychiatric Disorders, Yi Liu, Jingping Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan, Wenbin Guo 2019 The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

Dysfunction In Serotonergic And Noradrenergic Systems And Somatic Symptoms In Psychiatric Disorders, Yi Liu, Jingping Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan, Wenbin Guo

Open Access Articles

Somatic symptoms include a range of physical experiences, such as pain, muscle tension, body shaking, difficulty in breathing, heart palpitation, blushing, fatigue, and sweating. Somatic symptoms are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, and some other psychiatric disorders. However, the etiology of somatic symptoms remains unclear. Somatic symptoms could be a response to emotional distress in patients with those psychiatric conditions. Increasing evidence supports the role of aberrant serotoninergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission in somatic symptoms. The physiological alterations underlying diminished serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling may contribute to impaired signal transduction, reduced 5-HT, or NE release from ...


Detection Of Bleeding Events In Electronic Health Record Notes Using Convolutional Neural Network Models Enhanced With Recurrent Neural Network Autoencoders: Deep Learning Approach, Rumeng Li, Baotian Hu, Feifan Liu, Weisong Liu, Francesca Cunningham, David D. McManus, Hong Yu 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Detection Of Bleeding Events In Electronic Health Record Notes Using Convolutional Neural Network Models Enhanced With Recurrent Neural Network Autoencoders: Deep Learning Approach, Rumeng Li, Baotian Hu, Feifan Liu, Weisong Liu, Francesca Cunningham, David D. Mcmanus, Hong Yu

David D. McManus

BACKGROUND: Bleeding events are common and critical and may cause significant morbidity and mortality. High incidences of bleeding events are associated with cardiovascular disease in patients on anticoagulant therapy. Prompt and accurate detection of bleeding events is essential to prevent serious consequences. As bleeding events are often described in clinical notes, automatic detection of bleeding events from electronic health record (EHR) notes may improve drug-safety surveillance and pharmacovigilance.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a natural language processing (NLP) system to automatically classify whether an EHR note sentence contains a bleeding event.

METHODS: We expert annotated 878 EHR notes (76,577 ...


Gigantic Stomach: A Rare Manifestation Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Amaninder Dhaliwal, Sarvani Madiraju, Banreet S. Dhindsa, Getaw W. Hassen, Fedja A. Rochling 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Gigantic Stomach: A Rare Manifestation Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Amaninder Dhaliwal, Sarvani Madiraju, Banreet S. Dhindsa, Getaw W. Hassen, Fedja A. Rochling

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by degeneration and atrophy of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles after a latent period of apparently normal development and function. The gastrointestinal manifestations start in the second decade of life and are mainly due to atrophy of smooth muscle layers. Refractory gastroparesis and chronic constipation can lead to severe gastric and small bowel dilatation, which can be life threatening. Here, we present a case of a 21-year-old male with a gigantic stomach secondary to DMD resolved with conservative management and no surgical intervention.


Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis: Presentation And Management, Răzvan C. Petca, Răzvan I. Popescu, Cristian Mareș, Claudia Mehedințu, Bogdan Mastalier, Dumitru Cristinel Badiu, Nicoleta Măru, Vlad D. Constantin, Aida Petca 2019 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis: Presentation And Management, Răzvan C. Petca, Răzvan I. Popescu, Cristian Mareș, Claudia Mehedințu, Bogdan Mastalier, Dumitru Cristinel Badiu, Nicoleta Măru, Vlad D. Constantin, Aida Petca

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is characterized by the presence of lipid-laden foamy macrophages with both acute and chronic phase inflammatory cells. The aim of the study is to present our experience about patients with Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. 29 patients were evaluated through a complete anamnesis and the preoperative management included routine blood and biochemical tests, urine culture and renal ultrasound, intravenous urography and computed tomography (CT). All patients underwent open nephrectomy followed by the pathological exam. The main symptoms of these patients were fever and flank pain. Preoperative laboratory tests revealed anemia, leukocytosis and increasing levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and ...


Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany DeSouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Desouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige

Open Access Articles

Exercise mitigates chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms governing protection from these diseases are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that exercise rescues metabolically compromised high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and reprograms subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Using transcriptomic profiling, scWAT was analyzed for HFD gene expression changes that were rescued by exercise. Gene networks involved in vascularization were identified as prominent targets of exercise, which led us to investigate the vasculature architecture and endothelial phenotype. Vascular density in scWAT was found to be compromised in HFD, and exercise rescued this defect ...


Uhthoff Phenomenon, Sreelakshmi Panginikkod, Lokesh A.. Rukmangadachar 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Uhthoff Phenomenon, Sreelakshmi Panginikkod, Lokesh A.. Rukmangadachar

Open Access Articles

Uhthoff's phenomenon (also known as Uhthoff sign or Uhthoff syndrome) is described as temporary, short-lived (less than 24 hours) and stereotyped worsening of neurological function among multiple sclerosis patients in response to increases in core body temperature. This phenomenon is named after Wilhelm Uhthoff, a German ophthalmologist who described it. In 1890, Uhthoff first described exercise-induced amblyopia in multiple sclerosis patients. In 1961, this phenomenon was given his surname, Uhthoff's Phenomenon (UP), by G. Ricklefs[1]. In four out of 100 MS patients, Uhthoff observed the appearance of reversible optic symptoms induced by an increase in body temperature ...


Inhibition Of Triggering Receptor Expressed On Myeloid Cells 1 Ameliorates Inflammation And Macrophage And Neutrophil Activation In Alcoholic Liver Disease In Mice, David Tornai, Istvan Furi, Zu T. Shen, Alexander B. Sigalov, Sahin Coban, Gyongyi Szabo 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Inhibition Of Triggering Receptor Expressed On Myeloid Cells 1 Ameliorates Inflammation And Macrophage And Neutrophil Activation In Alcoholic Liver Disease In Mice, David Tornai, Istvan Furi, Zu T. Shen, Alexander B. Sigalov, Sahin Coban, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by macrophage and neutrophil leukocyte recruitment and activation in the liver. Damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns contribute to a self-perpetuating proinflammatory state in ALD. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a surface receptor that amplifies inflammation induced by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is expressed on neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. We hypothesized that TREM-1 signaling contributes to proinflammatory pathway activation in ALD. Using an in vivo ALD model in mice, we tested the effects of ligand-independent TREM-1 inhibitory peptides that were formulated into human high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking complexes GF9-HDL and GA ...


Sepsis: Identification & Recognition, Shelbi Ethington, Lakisha Irwin, Jodi Cramer, Victoria Roell, Mindy Von Elling 2019 Children's Mercy Hospital

Sepsis: Identification & Recognition, Shelbi Ethington, Lakisha Irwin, Jodi Cramer, Victoria Roell, Mindy Von Elling

Nurse Presentations

Describes educational interventions to increase confidence of pediatric nurses on a medical/surgical unit in their recognition and treatment of sepsis.


Low Back Pain, A Comprehensive Review: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, And Treatment (Poster), Ivan Urits, Aaron Burshtein, Medha Sharma, Lauren Testa, Peter A. Gold, Vwaire Orhurhu, Omar Viswanath, Mark R. Jones, Moises A. Sidransky, Alan D. Kaye 2019 Harvard Medical School

Low Back Pain, A Comprehensive Review: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, And Treatment (Poster), Ivan Urits, Aaron Burshtein, Medha Sharma, Lauren Testa, Peter A. Gold, Vwaire Orhurhu, Omar Viswanath, Mark R. Jones, Moises A. Sidransky, Alan D. Kaye

Senior Scholars Program

Purpose of Review: Low back pain encompasses three distinct sources: axial lumbosacral, radicular, and referred pain. Annually, the prevalence of low back pain in the general U.S. adult population is 10-30%, and the lifetime prevalence of U.S. adults is as high as 65-80%.

Recent Findings: Patient history, physical exam, and diagnostic testing are important components to accurate diagnosis and identification of patient pathophysiology. Etiologies of low back pain include myofascial pain, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, discogenic pain, and spinal stenosis, and failed back surgery. In chronic back pain patients, a multidisciplinary, logical approach to treatment is ...


Pharmacological Inhibition Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome Reduces Blood Pressure, Renal Damage, And Dysfunction In Salt-Sensitive Hypertension, Shalini M. Krishnan, Eicke Latz, Grant R. Drummond 2019 Monash University

Pharmacological Inhibition Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome Reduces Blood Pressure, Renal Damage, And Dysfunction In Salt-Sensitive Hypertension, Shalini M. Krishnan, Eicke Latz, Grant R. Drummond

Open Access Articles

AIMS: Renal inflammation, leading to fibrosis and impaired function is a major contributor to the development of hypertension. The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates inflammation in several chronic diseases by processing the cytokines pro-interleukin (IL)-1beta and pro-IL-18. In this study, we investigated whether MCC950, a recently-identified inhibitor of NLRP3 activity, reduces blood pressure (BP), renal inflammation, fibrosis and dysfunction in mice with established hypertension.

METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL6/J mice were made hypertensive by uninephrectomy and treatment with deoxycorticosterone acetate (2.4 mg/day, s.c.) and 0.9% NaCl in the drinking water (1K/DOCA/salt). Normotensive controls were uninephrectomized ...


A National Study Of Veterans With Major Upper Limb Amputation: Survey Methods, Participants, And Summary Findings, Linda Resnik, Sarah Ekerholm, Matthew Borgia, Melissa A. Clark 2019 Brown University

A National Study Of Veterans With Major Upper Limb Amputation: Survey Methods, Participants, And Summary Findings, Linda Resnik, Sarah Ekerholm, Matthew Borgia, Melissa A. Clark

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: A comprehensive study to assess quality and outcomes of care for Veterans with upper limb amputation is needed. This paper presents methods and summary findings from a national survey of Veterans with upper limb amputation.

METHODS: After completion of a pilot study to develop and refine methods, computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with 808 Veterans with upper limb amputation (response rate = 47.7%; cooperation rate = 63.3%).

RESULTS: Respondents were 776 unilateral and 32 bilateral amputees, 97.5% male, mean age 63.3 (sd 14.1). Prostheses were used by 60% unilateral and 91% bilateral, the majority used body ...


Gait Mechanics Contribute To Exercise Induced Pain Flares In Knee Osteoarthritis, Katherine A. Boyer, Jocelyn F. Hafer 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gait Mechanics Contribute To Exercise Induced Pain Flares In Knee Osteoarthritis, Katherine A. Boyer, Jocelyn F. Hafer

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced pain flares represent a significant barrier for individuals with knee osteoarthritis to meet physical activity recommendations. There is a need to understand factors that contribute to pain flares and the potential for the motor system to adapt and reduce joint loading should a flare occur. The study aim was to examine the impact of a bout of exercise on self-reported pain, walking mechanics and muscle co-contraction for participants with knee osteoarthritis.

METHODS: Thirty-six adults (17 healthy older and 19 knee osteoarthritis) participated in this study. Self-reported pain, joint mechanics and muscle co-activation during gait at two self-selected speeds ...


Immunosuppressive Treatment And The Risk Of Diabetes In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Siri Lillegraven, Jeffrey D. Greenberg, George W. Reed, Katherine Saunders, Jeffrey R. Curtis, Leslie R. Harrold, Marc C. Hochberg, Dimitrios A. Pappas, Joel M. Kremer, Daniel H. Solomon 2019 Diakonhjemmet Hospital

Immunosuppressive Treatment And The Risk Of Diabetes In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Siri Lillegraven, Jeffrey D. Greenberg, George W. Reed, Katherine Saunders, Jeffrey R. Curtis, Leslie R. Harrold, Marc C. Hochberg, Dimitrios A. Pappas, Joel M. Kremer, Daniel H. Solomon

Leslie R. Harrold

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation and anti-inflammatory treatments might influence the risk of diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with incident diabetes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

METHODS: The study population consisted of RA patients from a multi-center cohort study, Corrona. To assess risk associated with disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) exposure, we assessed five mutually exclusive DMARD groups. Additionally, we assessed the risk associated with body mass index (BMI, < 25, 25-30, > 30 kg/m2) and glucocorticoid usage. Incident cases of diabetes were confirmed through adjudication, and Cox regression models were fit to estimate the risk of incident diabetes.

RESULTS: We ...


No Woman Is An Island -- Access To Care And Extreme Measures For Cancer Pain And Lymphedema: A Case Report, Lauren M. Hall, Julia Reilly, Mathew J. Most, Jennifer Baima 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

No Woman Is An Island -- Access To Care And Extreme Measures For Cancer Pain And Lymphedema: A Case Report, Lauren M. Hall, Julia Reilly, Mathew J. Most, Jennifer Baima

Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications and Presentations

Background: Cancer rehabilitation is a rapidly growing diverse field in physiatry. This case provides an example where rehabilitation physiatrists played a crucial role in the pain management, education, and rehabilitation before and after a palliative amputation. Due to her limited resources, both in her home country and in her local community, she could not access appropriate care that may have prevented the need for amputation. Though amputation is not generally accepted as the first line of treatment for pain, there have been several reports of palliative amputation in metastatic cancer patients. In particular, fore quarter amputations have been reported in ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress