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Xerostomia: A Comprehensive Review, Danevin Putrus 2019 Wayne State University

Xerostomia: A Comprehensive Review, Danevin Putrus

Honors College Theses

This thesis will be highlighting the condition known as Xerostomia. Xerostomia is the condition also known as “dry mouth”. This condition affects many people all throughout the world with symptoms causing bad breath, discomfort, difficulty speaking and many other. The seriousness of this condition can lead to cardiovascular disease, dementia, respiratory infections, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer (Absolutedental.com). Currently there is not any one specific solution for the condition although many have been proposed. Throughout the thesis I will closely examine former research studies, current solutions proposed, and propose my own study and solution based on research ...


Differential Microrna Expression Of Mir-21 And Mir-155 With Oral Cancer Extracellular Vesicles In Response To Melationin, Matthew Hunsaker, Greta Barba, Karl Kingsley, Katherine M. Howard 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Differential Microrna Expression Of Mir-21 And Mir-155 With Oral Cancer Extracellular Vesicles In Response To Melationin, Matthew Hunsaker, Greta Barba, Karl Kingsley, Katherine M. Howard

Dental Medicine Faculty Publications

Objective: Extracellular vesicles derived from oral cancer cells, which include Exosomes and Oncosomes, are membranous vesicles secreted into the surrounding extracellular environment. These extracellular vesicles can regulate and modulate oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression through the horizontal transfer of bioactive molecules including proteins, lipids and microRNA (miRNA). The primary objective of this study was to examine the potential to isolate and evaluate extracellular vesicles (including exosomes) from various oral cancer cell lines and to explore potential differences in miRNA content. Methods: The OSCC cell lines SCC9, SCC25 and CAL27 were cultured in DMEM containing 10% exosome-free fetal bovine serum ...


The Q Rule In Bacteriodetes And The Identification And Characterization Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis Glutaminyl Cyclase., John Andrew Houston 2019 University of Louisville

The Q Rule In Bacteriodetes And The Identification And Characterization Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis Glutaminyl Cyclase., John Andrew Houston

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, secretes variety of proteins, majority of which begins with glutamine. Several of these proteins were found with pyroglutamate (pGlu) at N-terminus suggesting the presence of this posttranslational modification pathway in P.gingivalis. The observation that N-terminal glutamine is over-represented as the first amino acid after signal peptide cleavage, and subsequent confirmation of pGlu formation on the nascent protein via mass spectrometry, led us to conclude that an enzyme must be present as the executor of this reaction. Hypothesis: PG2157 is a glutaminyl cyclase and is responsible for the cyclization of ...


Periodontitis And The Elderly: An Overview Of The Disease And Its Impact On An Aging Population, Nicole Grace Weissenfluh 2019 Liberty University

Periodontitis And The Elderly: An Overview Of The Disease And Its Impact On An Aging Population, Nicole Grace Weissenfluh

Senior Honors Theses

Periodontitis affects millions of Americans each year, and is especially prevalent among the elderly. Since periodontitis is a chronic, progressive condition, uninterrupted disease progression leads to irreversible oral damage; therefore, periodontitis often reduces the oral health-related quality of life. Furthermore, research strongly suggests a correlation between periodontitis and other systemic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus), highlighting the importance of understanding, treating, and preventing periodontitis. This thesis explores the pathology and etiology of periodontitis, with special focus given to the prevalence and impact of the disease in the elderly population. Additionally, the connection between periodontitis and other systemic ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Titanium implants are used in dental practice to replace damaged or lost teeth. The implant needs to integrate with the surrounding gingiva to protect it against bacterial invasion that leads to implant loss. The biointegration is dependent on the implant surface that interacts with proteins from biological fluids to modulate tissues response. Tailoring the surface with specific proteins from the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) would be beneficial to improve the implant-gingiva interface since EMD can affect various cells including gingival fibroblasts. A surface-affinity approach using three different titanium surfaces and saliva was utilized as a model in combination with tandem ...


Biofilms And Their Consequences In The Oral Cavity, Tyler Olson 2019 Iowa State University

Biofilms And Their Consequences In The Oral Cavity, Tyler Olson

Creative Components

The oral cavity offers a wide variety of microenvironments that can support a wide array of microflora. These different environments create a diversity of microflora. In the oral cavity, this microflora produces biofilms that are distinct to the mouth and that can be both beneficial and pathogenic. Practically all bacteria prefer to live in biofilms compared to planktonic solutions. Oxygen availability, nutrient availability, shedding and non-shedding substratum, along with other factors determines which organisms inhabit specific regions of the oral cavity. These organisms attach to surfaces through a succession; primary colonizers initially use the host’s glycoproteins to attach to ...


Influences Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis On The Viability Of Esophageal Cancer Cells., Muddasir Mohammed 2018 University of Louisville

Influences Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis On The Viability Of Esophageal Cancer Cells., Muddasir Mohammed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A recent study demonstrated an association between the Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg)infection and the progression of ESCC (Gao et al., 2016). However, how Pg infection affects the nature of ESCC remains unknown. We examined the effects of Pg on the proliferation and chemotherapy drug-induced apoptosis of ESCC cells and elucidated the signaling molecules involved in these processes. Method: Apoptosis and cell proliferation were tested using Flow cytometry and Tetrazolium salt based proliferation assays respectively. Western Blot was utilized to detect the protein expression. CDK2 and Cyclin E were knocked down in the ESCC cells through transfection. Unpaired T-test and ANOVA ...


Effect Of Grape Components On Periodontal Disease., Juili Subodh Shivde 2018 University of Louisville

Effect Of Grape Components On Periodontal Disease., Juili Subodh Shivde

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Half of the adult American population (47 %) are victims of periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease which leads to destruction of the tissues supporting the tooth. Periodontitis is initiated by periodontal pathogens and caused by excessive or prolonged host mediated inflammation. Porphyromonas gingivalisis one important agent implicated in the etiopathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by periodontal pathogens can cause alveolar bone loss and periodontitis. Bone loss is caused by the imbalance of bone formation and bone resorption. Osteoclasts are major cells that cause bone resorption. Moreover, periodontal inflammation also leads to bone resorption. Grapes are rich in ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Targeted Bar Encapsulated Polylactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles To Inhibit Porphyromonas Gingivalis Biofilm Formation., Ranjith Radha Krishnan 2018 University of Louisville

Synthesis And Characterization Of Targeted Bar Encapsulated Polylactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles To Inhibit Porphyromonas Gingivalis Biofilm Formation., Ranjith Radha Krishnan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Between 30-50% of the global adult population suffers from periodontal disease. Some form of periodontitis is present in 46% of American adults, corresponding to annual expenditures in excess of 14 billion dollars for treatment and prevention. Current treatments for periodontal diseases involve mechanical removal of plaque, correction of risk factors, gingival surgery and/or antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge there is no effective therapeutic approach that aims to limit pathogen colonization of the oral biofilm or re-colonization after treatment. Interaction of the pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis with oral streptococci is ...


Patient Satisfaction And Oral Health-Related Quality Of Life Outcomes In Edentulous Patients Being Treated With Complete Dentures By Dental Students At The University Of Iowa College Of Dentistry And Dental Clinics, José Miguel García Loera 2018 University of Iowa

Patient Satisfaction And Oral Health-Related Quality Of Life Outcomes In Edentulous Patients Being Treated With Complete Dentures By Dental Students At The University Of Iowa College Of Dentistry And Dental Clinics, José Miguel García Loera

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives:

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of multiple factors in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life of patients being treated with Conventional Complete Dentures, including: a) Level of expertise of the dental provider (third year dental student vs. fourth year dental student); b) Length of time edentulous; c) Number of previous prostheses; d) Race; e) Sex; f) Age; g) Systemic conditions; h) Condition of the bone ridge; i) Economic factor and insurance coverage, in patients at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry (D3 and D4 Clinics).

Materials and methods:

Eighty-one subjects who had ...


Cannabidiol Alters The Immune Response To Porphyromonas Gingivalis In Mice., Shilpa Singh 2018 University of Louisville

Cannabidiol Alters The Immune Response To Porphyromonas Gingivalis In Mice., Shilpa Singh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis, an infectious disease defined by destruction of supporting tissues of the teeth. Marijuana is a risk factor for chronic periodontitis, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. As phytocannabinoids have been ascribed antiinflammatory properties, we hypothesized that cannabidiol exposure would lead to altered immune response to P. gingivalis infection facilitating bacterial persistence and, subsequently, increased alveolar bone loss in cannabidiol (CBD)-exposed mice. Methods: P. gingivalis-infected cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) knockout and wild type C57/Bl6 mice were exposed, or not exposed, to cannabidiol. Oral swabs from mice were used ...


Associations Between Fluoride Intakes, Bone Outcomes And Dental Fluorosis, Reem Oweis 2018 University of Iowa

Associations Between Fluoride Intakes, Bone Outcomes And Dental Fluorosis, Reem Oweis

Theses and Dissertations

These PhD projects represent secondary analyses of data from the ongoing Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS)/Iowa Bone Development Study (IBDS). The aim of this dissertation was to explore the associations between period-specific and cumulative fluoride intakes from birth to age 17, and from birth to age 19 years and bone measures of participants. Also, this dissertation looked into the associations between the clinical presence of dental fluorosis and bone outcomes.

Participants have been participating in the IBDS that grew out of the IFS, which is a longitudinal investigation of dietary and non-dietary fluoride exposures, dental fluorosis and dental caries. IFS ...


The Effects Of Bioprinting Materials On Hepm Cell Proliferation And Cytokine Release, Robert David Swenson 2018 University of Iowa

The Effects Of Bioprinting Materials On Hepm Cell Proliferation And Cytokine Release, Robert David Swenson

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a manufacturing process that incorporates viable cells into a 3D matrix by adding layer upon layer of material. The objectives of this study are to characterize a novel matrix of collagen and hydroxyapatite and to assess the effects of the 3D bioprinting process on cytotoxicity, proliferation rate, and cytokine expression of Homo sapiens palatal mesenchyme (HEPM) cells.

Methods: For this, we prepared a 3D matrix of collagen and hydroxyapatite without and with cells. We used light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the structure and arrangement of the collagen ...


Knowledge And Practice Of Implant Dentistry Among University Of Iowa College Of Dentistry Alumni., Salahaldeen Mohammad Abuhammoud 2018 University of Iowa

Knowledge And Practice Of Implant Dentistry Among University Of Iowa College Of Dentistry Alumni., Salahaldeen Mohammad Abuhammoud

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The objective of this study was to measure and assess the implant education received by graduates from the University of Iowa College of Dentistry and Dental Clinics. This study measured the self-reported competency levels of dental practitioners with regards to providing and maintaining dental implants as treatment modalities to their patients. The study assessed dental graduates’ willingness to practice and perform dental implant procedures, including both surgical and prosthetic treatments. Additionally, the study identifies challenges that face practicing dentists treating patients with dental implants and identifies the preferred way practitioners seek future training after completing dental school.

Methods: A ...


Development Of Blended Polymeric Fibers To Alter The Release Of Peptide Targeting Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Sonali Suresh Sapare 2018 University of Louisville

Development Of Blended Polymeric Fibers To Alter The Release Of Peptide Targeting Porphyromonas Gingivalis., Sonali Suresh Sapare

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that infects the tissues of the periodontium. It is estimated that 47.2% or 67.2 million American adults suffer from mild, moderate and severe periodontitis. Globally, 30-50% of the adult population is afflicted with periodontal disease, making it one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world. Therapeutics targeting P. gingivalis may be effective to alter periodontitis progression. However, the current treatment modalities that target critical pathogens to maintain host-biofilm homeostasis are limited, urging the development of specifically targeted therapeutics to limit P. gingivalis recolonization of the oral cavity after periodontal treatment ...


Kallikrein-Related Peptidases Are Dysregulated In Pleomorphic Adenoma, Matthew D. Morrison 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Kallikrein-Related Peptidases Are Dysregulated In Pleomorphic Adenoma, Matthew D. Morrison

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Objectives: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign salivary gland tumor. Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) have been identified as biomarkers in many human tumors and may influence tumor behavior. We investigated KLK1-15 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and proteins in PA specimens to determine a KLK expression profile for this tumor.

Methods: Fresh frozen PA tissue specimens (n = 26) and matched controls were subjected to RT-qPCR to detect KLK1-15 mRNA. Expression of KLK1, KLK12, KLK13 and KLK8 proteins were then evaluated via immunostaining techniques. Statistical analyses were performed with the level of significance set at P < .05.

Results: We observed downregulation of ...


Aloe Vera: A Multipurpose Healer And Bacterial Eradicator, Mary X. Tran, Leira N. Jimenez, Linda K. Blackburn 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Aloe Vera: A Multipurpose Healer And Bacterial Eradicator, Mary X. Tran, Leira N. Jimenez, Linda K. Blackburn

Dental Hygiene Student Scholarship

The Aloe vera plant is a succulent known for its rich content in vitamins and minerals, thus gaining popularity over the years in healthcare products. With advancements in alternative medicine, it has been recently found useful in dentistry due to properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial actions that contribute to wound healing. The purpose of this study was to examine and discover how Aloe vera can be used as an alternative therapy in the dental field. The PubMed, Google Scholar and Dentistry & Oral Sciences (DOSS) databases were utilized to find current scientific evidence on the effects of Aloe vera ...


Influence Of The Oral Microbiome On General Health, Zvi G. Loewy, Shoshana Galbut, Ephraim Loewy, David A. Felton 2018 Touro College of Pharmacy, New York Medical College

Influence Of The Oral Microbiome On General Health, Zvi G. Loewy, Shoshana Galbut, Ephraim Loewy, David A. Felton

Touro College of Pharmacy (New York) Publications and Research

The prevalence of edentulism is common worldwide. While improvements in access to healthcare and dental care are reducing the prevalence rate of edentulism, the rapidly growing number of elderly as a percent of the global population will sustain a need for denture therapy for the foreseeable future. While denture use has positive impacts on the quality of life, their use is associated with some problems and risks. Denture stomatitis, a chronic infection-related inflammatory disorder of the oral mucosa, is extremely common and has been reported to occur in up to two-thirds of denture wearers. Importantly, epidemiology studies have shown edentulism ...


Oral Biofilms: Development, Control, And Analysis, Daniela Berger, Aviva Rakhamimova, Andrew Pollack, Zvi G. Loewy 2018 Touro College of Pharmacy

Oral Biofilms: Development, Control, And Analysis, Daniela Berger, Aviva Rakhamimova, Andrew Pollack, Zvi G. Loewy

Touro College of Pharmacy (New York) Publications and Research

The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microbial species that are present either as planktonic cells or incorporated into biofilms. The majority of the oral microbes are commensal organisms. Those that are pathogenic microbes can result in oral infections, and at times can initiate systemic diseases. Biofilms that contain pathogens are challenging to control. Many conventional antimicrobials have proven to be ineffective. Recent advances in science and technology are providing new approaches for pathogen control and containment and methods to characterize biofilms. This perspective provides (1) a general understanding of biofilm development; (2) a description of emerging chemical and biological methods ...


Potential Antimicrobial Methods For Provisionalizing Teeth After Endodontic Treatment, Laura T. Garden 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Potential Antimicrobial Methods For Provisionalizing Teeth After Endodontic Treatment, Laura T. Garden

Theses and Dissertations

POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL METHODS FOR PROVISIONALIZING TEETH AFTER ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

By Laura T. Garden, DDS

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Dentistry at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Virginia Commonwealth University, 2018

Thesis Advisor: Garry Myers, DDS

Department of Endodontics

Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of a Chlorhexidine soaked cotton pellet on bacterial leakage.

Methods: Fifty-one extracted teeth, including six controls, were instrumented, obturated, and sealed with either a cotton pellet (CP), 2% Chlorhexidine soaked cotton pellet (CHX), or a Permaflo orifice barrier (OB). Each root was suspended between two chambers: the ...


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