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Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. McDermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction (UCLR) is a surgical procedure on one of the main ligaments that provides normal stability for the elbow joint against excessive valgus stress. Damage to this ligament is common in athletes performing overhead throwing activities, primarily baseball players, due to excessive valgus stress during the throwing motion. The most common form of treatment for this type of injury is reconstructive surgery of the ligament, especially if athletes wish to return to sport participation. This type of surgery is extremely invasive and requires extensive post-operative rehabilitation in order to facilitate return to play. To date, many ...


Transplantation Of Renal Allograft After Removal Of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Anthony P. Tran, Paulo N.A. Martins, Zachary G. Papazian, Vijay K. Vanguri, Babak Movahedi, Pang-Yen Fan, Kenneth A. Bodziak, Jennifer K. Yates, Mitchell H. Sokoloff, Adel Bozorgzadeh 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transplantation Of Renal Allograft After Removal Of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Anthony P. Tran, Paulo N.A. Martins, Zachary G. Papazian, Vijay K. Vanguri, Babak Movahedi, Pang-Yen Fan, Kenneth A. Bodziak, Jennifer K. Yates, Mitchell H. Sokoloff, Adel Bozorgzadeh

Open Access Articles

With the rising incidence of end-stage renal disease in the United States, patients needing renal transplants are waiting longer for increasingly scarce grafts. Formerly, the general practice was to avoid organs with tumors for transplant because of the risk of malignancy transmission to the recipient. However, with comprehensive donor selection and a small-sized primary tumor, the positive outcomes of transplant outweigh the risks of transmission after a partial nephrectomy. In our case, a 31-year-old woman, the daughter of the recipient, underwent a laparoscopic nephrectomy with an existing 8-mm tumor later confirmed as renal cell carcinoma. An ex vivo tumor enucleation ...


Leptin Promotes Expression Of Emt-Related Transcription Factors And Invasion In A Src And Fak-Dependent Pathway In Mcf10a Mammary Epithelial Cells, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Zuniga-Eulogio, Arvey Tacuba-Saavedra, Magdalena Bueno-Salgado, Andrea Sanchez-Carvajal, Yovani Vargas-Santiago, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalan, Eduardo Perez Salazar, Alejandra Garcia-Hernandez, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito 2019 Autonomous University of Guerrero

Leptin Promotes Expression Of Emt-Related Transcription Factors And Invasion In A Src And Fak-Dependent Pathway In Mcf10a Mammary Epithelial Cells, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Zuniga-Eulogio, Arvey Tacuba-Saavedra, Magdalena Bueno-Salgado, Andrea Sanchez-Carvajal, Yovani Vargas-Santiago, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalan, Eduardo Perez Salazar, Alejandra Garcia-Hernandez, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito

Open Access Articles

Leptin is one of the main adipokines secreted in breast tissue. Leptin promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell migration and invasion in epithelial breast cells, leading to tumor progression. Although, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these events are not fully understood, the activation of different signaling pathways appears to be essential. In this sense, the effects of leptin on the activation of kinases like Src and FAK, which regulate signaling pathways that activate the EMT program, are not completely described. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of these kinases using an in vitro model for leptin-induced EMT process in the non-tumorigenic MCF10A ...


Mutations In The Sptlc1 Gene Are A Cause Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis That May Be Amenable To Serine Supplementation, Janel O. Johnson, Ruth Chia, Robert H. Brown Jr., John E. Landers 2019 National Institutes of Health

Mutations In The Sptlc1 Gene Are A Cause Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis That May Be Amenable To Serine Supplementation, Janel O. Johnson, Ruth Chia, Robert H. Brown Jr., John E. Landers

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

SPTLC1 encodes a critical subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, the enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, and mutations in this gene are known to cause hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A. Using exome sequencing, we identified a de novo variant in SPTLC1 resulting in a p.Ala20Ser amino acid change in an individual diagnosed with juvenile-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and confirmed its pathogenicity by showing elevated plasma levels of neurotoxic deoxymethyl-sphinganine. A second case of juvenile-onset ALS arising again from a p.Ala20Ser mutation was later identified, confirming the association of SPTLC1 with this ...


Neural Jnk3 Regulates Blood Flow Recovery After Hindlimb Ischemia In Mice Via An Egr1/Creb1 Axis, Shashi Kant, Siobhan M. Craige, Kai Chen, Michaella M. Reif, Heather Learnard, Mark Kelly, Amada D. Caliz, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Kasmir Ramo, Owen M. Peters, Marc R. Freeman, Roger J. Davis, John F. Keaney Jr. 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Neural Jnk3 Regulates Blood Flow Recovery After Hindlimb Ischemia In Mice Via An Egr1/Creb1 Axis, Shashi Kant, Siobhan M. Craige, Kai Chen, Michaella M. Reif, Heather Learnard, Mark Kelly, Amada D. Caliz, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Kasmir Ramo, Owen M. Peters, Marc R. Freeman, Roger J. Davis, John F. Keaney Jr.

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Diseases related to impaired blood flow such as peripheral artery disease (PAD) impact nearly 10 million people in the United States alone, yet patients with clinical manifestations of PAD (e.g., claudication and limb ischemia) have limited treatment options. In ischemic tissues, stress kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), are activated. Here, we show that inhibition of the JNK3 (Mapk10) in the neural compartment strikingly potentiates blood flow recovery from mouse hindlimb ischemia. JNK3 deficiency leads to upregulation of growth factors such as Vegfa, Pdgfb, Pgf, Hbegf and Tgfb3 in ischemic muscle by activation of the transcription factors Egr1 ...


Extensive Ribosome And Rf2 Rearrangements During Translation Termination, Egor Svidritskiy, Gabriel Demo, Anna B. Loveland, Chen Xu, Andrei A. Korostelev 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Extensive Ribosome And Rf2 Rearrangements During Translation Termination, Egor Svidritskiy, Gabriel Demo, Anna B. Loveland, Chen Xu, Andrei A. Korostelev

Open Access Articles

Protein synthesis ends when a ribosome reaches an mRNA stop codon. Release factors (RFs) decode the stop codon, hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA to release the nascent protein, and then dissociate to allow ribosome recycling. To visualize termination by RF2, we resolved a cryo-EM ensemble of E. coli 70S*RF2 structures at up to 3.3 A in a single sample. Five structures suggest a highly dynamic termination pathway. Upon peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, the CCA end of deacyl-tRNA departs from the peptidyl transferase center. The catalytic GGQ loop of RF2 is rearranged into a long beta-hairpin that plugs the peptide tunnel, biasing a nascent ...


Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii, Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii, Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus gattii R265 is a hyper-virulent fungal strain responsible for the major outbreak of cryptococcosis in Vancouver Island of British Columbia in 1999. It differs significantly from C. neoformans in its natural environment, its preferred site in the mammalian host, and in the nature and mode of pathogenesis. Our previous studies in C. neoformans have shown that the presence of chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, in the cell wall attenuates inflammatory responses in the host, while its absence induces robust immune responses, which in turn facilitate clearance of the fungus and induces a protective response. The results of the ...


Expression Of Mitochondrial Membrane-Linked Sab Determines Severity Of Sex-Dependent Acute Liver Injury, Sanda Win, Robert W. M. Min, Christopher Q. Chen, Jun Zhang, Yibu Chen, Meng Li, Ayako Suzuki, Manal F. Abdelmalek, Ying Wang, Mariam Aghajan, Filbert W. M. Aung, Anna Mae Diehl, Roger J. Davis, Tin A. Than, Neil Kaplowitz 2019 University of Southern California

Expression Of Mitochondrial Membrane-Linked Sab Determines Severity Of Sex-Dependent Acute Liver Injury, Sanda Win, Robert W. M. Min, Christopher Q. Chen, Jun Zhang, Yibu Chen, Meng Li, Ayako Suzuki, Manal F. Abdelmalek, Ying Wang, Mariam Aghajan, Filbert W. M. Aung, Anna Mae Diehl, Roger J. Davis, Tin A. Than, Neil Kaplowitz

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

SAB is an outer membrane docking protein for JNK mediated impaired mitochondrial function. Deletion of Sab in hepatocytes inhibits sustained JNK activation and cell death. Current work demonstrated that increasing SAB enhanced the severity of APAP liver injury. Female mice were resistant to liver injury and exhibited markedly decreased hepatic SAB protein expression versus males. The mechanism of SAB repression involved a pathway from ERalpha to p53 expression which induced miR34a-5p. miR34a-5p targeted the Sab mRNA coding region, repressing SAB expression. Fulvestrant or p53 knockdown decreased miR34a-5p and increased SAB in females leading to increased injury from APAP and TNF ...


Diverse Repertoire Of Human Adipocyte Subtypes Develops From Transcriptionally Distinct Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells, So Yun Min, Anand Desai, Zinger Yang, Agastya Sharma, Tiffany DeSouza, Ryan Genga, Alper Kucukural, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Soren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Rene Maehr, Manuel Garber, Silvia Corvera 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Diverse Repertoire Of Human Adipocyte Subtypes Develops From Transcriptionally Distinct Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells, So Yun Min, Anand Desai, Zinger Yang, Agastya Sharma, Tiffany Desouza, Ryan Genga, Alper Kucukural, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Soren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Rene Maehr, Manuel Garber, Silvia Corvera

Open Access Articles

Single-cell sequencing technologies have revealed an unexpectedly broad repertoire of cells required to mediate complex functions in multicellular organisms. Despite the multiple roles of adipose tissue in maintaining systemic metabolic homeostasis, adipocytes are thought to be largely homogenous with only 2 major subtypes recognized in humans so far. Here we report the existence and characteristics of 4 distinct human adipocyte subtypes, and of their respective mesenchymal progenitors. The phenotypes of these distinct adipocyte subtypes are differentially associated with key adipose tissue functions, including thermogenesis, lipid storage, and adipokine secretion. The transcriptomic signature of "brite/beige" thermogenic adipocytes reveals mechanisms for ...


Systemic Inflammation Impairs Microglial Abeta Clearance Through Nlrp3 Inflammasome, Dario Tejera, Dilek Mercan, Juan M. Sanchez-Caro, Mor Hanan, David Greenberg, Hermona Soreq, Eicke Latz, Douglas T. Golenbock, Michael T. Heneka 2019 University Hospitals Bonn

Systemic Inflammation Impairs Microglial Abeta Clearance Through Nlrp3 Inflammasome, Dario Tejera, Dilek Mercan, Juan M. Sanchez-Caro, Mor Hanan, David Greenberg, Hermona Soreq, Eicke Latz, Douglas T. Golenbock, Michael T. Heneka

Open Access Articles

Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent type of dementia and is caused by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta and abnormal tau phosphorylation. Neuroinflammation has emerged as an additional pathological component. Microglia, representing the brain's major innate immune cells, play an important role during Alzheimer's. Once activated, microglia show changes in their morphology, characterized by a retraction of cell processes. Systemic inflammation is known to increase the risk for cognitive decline in human neurogenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Here, we assess for the first time microglial changes upon a peripheral immune challenge in the context of aging and ...


The Central Role Of The Tail In Switching Off 10s Myosin Ii Activity, Shixin Yang, Kyounghwan Lee, John L. Woodhead, Osamu Sato, Mitsuo Ikebe, Roger Craig 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Central Role Of The Tail In Switching Off 10s Myosin Ii Activity, Shixin Yang, Kyounghwan Lee, John L. Woodhead, Osamu Sato, Mitsuo Ikebe, Roger Craig

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Myosin II is a motor protein with two heads and an extended tail that plays an essential role in cell motility. Its active form is a polymer (myosin filament) that pulls on actin to generate motion. Its inactive form is a monomer with a compact structure (10S sedimentation coefficient), in which the tail is folded and the two heads interact with each other, inhibiting activity. This conformation is thought to function in cells as an energy-conserving form of the molecule suitable for storage as well as transport to sites of filament assembly. The mechanism of inhibition of the compact molecule ...


Distributions Of Hypothalamic Neuron Populations Co-Expressing Tyrosine Hydroxylase And The Vesicular Gaba Transporter In The Mouse., Kenichiro Negishi, Mikayla A. Payant, Kayla S. Schumacker, Gabor Wittman, Rebecca M. Butler, Ronald M. Lechan, Harry W. M. Steinbusch m, Arshad M. Khan, Melissa J. Chee 2019 Carleton University

Distributions Of Hypothalamic Neuron Populations Co-Expressing Tyrosine Hydroxylase And The Vesicular Gaba Transporter In The Mouse., Kenichiro Negishi, Mikayla A. Payant, Kayla S. Schumacker, Gabor Wittman, Rebecca M. Butler, Ronald M. Lechan, Harry W. M. Steinbusch M, Arshad M. Khan, Melissa J. Chee

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Role Of A 19s Proteasome Subunit- Psmd10(Gankyrin) In Neurogenesis Of Human Neuronal Progenitor Cells, Indrajit Sahu, Padma P. Nanaware, Minal Mane, Saim Wasi Mulla, Soumen Roy, Prasanna Venkatraman 2019 Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

Role Of A 19s Proteasome Subunit- Psmd10(Gankyrin) In Neurogenesis Of Human Neuronal Progenitor Cells, Indrajit Sahu, Padma P. Nanaware, Minal Mane, Saim Wasi Mulla, Soumen Roy, Prasanna Venkatraman

Open Access Articles

PSMD10(Gankyrin), a proteasome assembly chaperone, is a widely known oncoprotein which aspects many hall mark properties of cancer. However, except proteasome assembly chaperon function its role in normal cell function remains unknown. To address this issue, we induced PSMD10(Gankyrin) overexpression in HEK293 cells and the resultant large-scale changes in gene expression profile were analyzed. We constituted networks from microarray data of these differentially expressed genes and carried out extensive topological analyses. The overrecurring yet consistent theme that appeared throughout analysis using varied network metrics is that all genes and interactions identified as important would be involved in neurogenesis ...


The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus neoformans can cause fatal meningoencephalitis in patients with AIDS or other immune-compromising conditions. Current antifungals are suboptimal to treat this disease, therefore, novel targets and new therapies are needed. Previously, we have shown that chitosan is a critical component of the cryptococcal cell wall, is required for survival in the mammalian host, and that chitosan deficiency results in rapid clearance from the mammalian host. We had also identified several specific proteins that were required for chitosan biosynthesis, and we hypothesize that screening for compounds that inhibit chitosan biosynthesis would identify additional genes/proteins that influence chitosan biosynthesis.


Integrins Have Cell-Type-Specific Roles In The Development Of Motor Neuron Connectivity, Devyn Oliver, Emily Norman, Heather Bates, Rachel Avard, Monika Rettler, Claire Y. Benard, Michael M. Francis, Michele L. Lemons 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Integrins Have Cell-Type-Specific Roles In The Development Of Motor Neuron Connectivity, Devyn Oliver, Emily Norman, Heather Bates, Rachel Avard, Monika Rettler, Claire Y. Benard, Michael M. Francis, Michele L. Lemons

Open Access Articles

Formation of the nervous system requires a complex series of events including proper extension and guidance of neuronal axons and dendrites. Here we investigate the requirement for integrins, a class of transmembrane cell adhesion receptors, in regulating these processes across classes of C. elegans motor neurons. We show alpha integrin/ina-1 is expressed by both GABAergic and cholinergic motor neurons. Despite this, our analysis of hypomorphic ina-1(gm144) mutants indicates preferential involvement of alpha integrin/ina-1 in GABAergic commissural development, without obvious involvement in cholinergic commissural development. The defects in GABAergic commissures of ina-1(gm144) mutants included both premature termination ...


Modeling Of Cisplatin-Induced Signaling Dynamics In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells Reveals Mediators Of Sensitivity, Anne Margriet Heijink, Marieke Everts, Megan E. Honeywell, Ryan Richards, Yannick P. Kok, Elisabeth G. E. de Vries, Michael J. Lee, Marcel A T M van Vugt 2019 University of Groningen

Modeling Of Cisplatin-Induced Signaling Dynamics In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells Reveals Mediators Of Sensitivity, Anne Margriet Heijink, Marieke Everts, Megan E. Honeywell, Ryan Richards, Yannick P. Kok, Elisabeth G. E. De Vries, Michael J. Lee, Marcel A T M Van Vugt

Open Access Articles

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) display great diversity in cisplatin sensitivity that cannot be explained solely by cancer-associated DNA repair defects. Differential activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) to cisplatin has been proposed to underlie the observed differential sensitivity, but it has not been investigated systematically. Systems-level analysis-using quantitative time-resolved signaling data and phenotypic responses, in combination with mathematical modeling-identifies that the activation status of cell-cycle checkpoints determines cisplatin sensitivity in TNBC cell lines. Specifically, inactivation of the cell-cycle checkpoint regulator MK2 or G3BP2 sensitizes cisplatin-resistant TNBC cell lines to cisplatin. Dynamic signaling data of five cell cycle-related signals predicts ...


Pax9 Is Required For Cardiovascular Development And Interacts With Tbx1 In The Pharyngeal Endoderm To Control 4(Th) Pharyngeal Arch Artery Morphogenesis, Helen M. Phillips, Rene Maehr, Simon D. Bamforth 2019 Newcastle University

Pax9 Is Required For Cardiovascular Development And Interacts With Tbx1 In The Pharyngeal Endoderm To Control 4(Th) Pharyngeal Arch Artery Morphogenesis, Helen M. Phillips, Rene Maehr, Simon D. Bamforth

Open Access Articles

Developmental defects affecting the heart and aortic arch arteries are a significant phenotype observed in 22q11 deletion syndrome patients and are caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11. TBX1, one of the deleted genes, is expressed throughout the pharyngeal arches and is considered a key gene, when mutated, for the arch artery defects. Pax9 is expressed in the pharyngeal endoderm and is downregulated in Tbx1 mutant mice. We show here that Pax9 deficient mice are born with complex cardiovascular malformations affecting the outflow tract and aortic arch arteries with failure of the 3(rd) and 4(th) pharyngeal arch arteries ...


Exploring Current Topics And Trends In Anatomy Education: A Scoping Review, Alex Wolf 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Exploring Current Topics And Trends In Anatomy Education: A Scoping Review, Alex Wolf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Within the field of health professional education, one finds that anatomy often presents students with a great deal of difficulty. The literature in this area is piecemeal and there is limited work available examining the whole of this topic. A scoping review was conducted to determine how students are taught anatomy across multiple disciplines (medicine, dentistry, rehabilitation sciences, and undergraduate education) and to assess for any notable differences between these populations. The results found that scholarship on anatomy instruction varies based on educational context, and medical students are the most frequently targeted student population. It also found that the use ...


Hsp90/Axl/Eif4e-Regulated Unfolded Protein Response As An Acquired Vulnerability In Drug-Resistant Kras-Mutant Lung Cancer, Haitang Yang, Shun-Qing Liang, Duo Xu, Zhang Yang, Thomas M. Marti, Yanyun Gao, Gregor J. Kocher, Heng Zhao, Ralph A. Schmid, Ren-Wang Peng 2019 University of Bern

Hsp90/Axl/Eif4e-Regulated Unfolded Protein Response As An Acquired Vulnerability In Drug-Resistant Kras-Mutant Lung Cancer, Haitang Yang, Shun-Qing Liang, Duo Xu, Zhang Yang, Thomas M. Marti, Yanyun Gao, Gregor J. Kocher, Heng Zhao, Ralph A. Schmid, Ren-Wang Peng

Open Access Articles

Drug resistance and tumor heterogeneity are formidable challenges in cancer medicine, which is particularly relevant for KRAS-mutant cancers, the epitome of malignant tumors recalcitrant to targeted therapy efforts and first-line chemotherapy. In this study, we delineate that KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells resistant to pemetrexed (MTA) and anti-MEK drug trametinib acquire an exquisite dependency on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, rendering resistant cancer cells selectively susceptible to blockage of HSP90, the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Mechanistically, acquisition of drug resistance enables KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells to bypass canonical ...


Distinct Features Of Nucleolus-Associated Domains In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Aizhan Bizhanova, Aimin Yan, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Paul D. Kaufman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Distinct Features Of Nucleolus-Associated Domains In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Aizhan Bizhanova, Aimin Yan, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Paul D. Kaufman

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Background Heterochromatin in eukaryotic interphase cells frequently localizes to the nucleolar periphery (nucleolus-associated domains, NADs) and the nuclear lamina (lamina-associated domains, LADs). Gene expression in somatic cell NADs is generally low, but NADs have not been characterized in mammalian stem cells.

Results Here, we generated the first genome-wide map of NADs in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) via deep sequencing of chromatin associated with biochemically-purified nucleoli. As we had observed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), the large Type I subset of NADs overlaps with constitutive LADs and is enriched for features of constitutive heterochromatin, including late replication timing and low ...


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