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Functional Feeding Groups Of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates On Natural And Artificial Leaves In Forested Stream Habitats In The Sebago Lake Land Reserve, Sam H. Matey, Kala Freytag Wistar 2019 University of Southern Maine

Functional Feeding Groups Of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates On Natural And Artificial Leaves In Forested Stream Habitats In The Sebago Lake Land Reserve, Sam H. Matey, Kala Freytag Wistar

Thinking Matters Symposium

We investigated preferential insect colonization of natural versus artificial leaves in forested streams to determine the impact of invertebrate-substrate associations on macroinvertebrate community composition and ecosystem nutrient cycling. We created 10 onion bags filled with natural maple leaves and 10 filled with artificial maple leaves, and placed 5 of each in two forested streams, one larger and one smaller, in the Sebago Lake Land Reserve in Standish, Maine. We identified the aquatic macroinvertebrates found on these samples after approximately one month to order-level and used Maine DEP biomonitoring data and functional feeding group taxonomies to classify macroinvertebrates by functional feeding ...


A Closer Look At The Items Within Three Measures Of Evolution Acceptance: Analysis Of The Mate, I-Sea, And Gaene As A Single Corpus Of Items, William L. Romine, Amber Todd, Emily M. Walter 2019 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Closer Look At The Items Within Three Measures Of Evolution Acceptance: Analysis Of The Mate, I-Sea, And Gaene As A Single Corpus Of Items, William L. Romine, Amber Todd, Emily M. Walter

Amber Todd

Background

Current direct Likert measures for evolution acceptance include the MATE, GAENE, and I-SEA. Pros and cons of each of these instruments have been debated, and yet there is a dearth of research teasing out their similarities and differences when they are used together in a single context beyond the fact that their measures tend to be highly correlated. We administered these to 452 college students in non-major biology classes at two research-intensive universities from the Midwestern and Western United States to investigate the measurement properties of the items within these instruments when combined as a single corpus.

Results

Factor ...


The Learning Loss Effect In Genetics: What Ideas Do Students Retain Or Lose After Instruction?, Amber Todd, William L. Romine 2019 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Learning Loss Effect In Genetics: What Ideas Do Students Retain Or Lose After Instruction?, Amber Todd, William L. Romine

Amber Todd

Modern genetics is a relatively new domain, but it is increasingly important for students to have a firm grasp on the content, because genetic technologies are becoming more commonplace. In a previous study, we used the Learning Progression-based Assessment of Modern Genetics to assess high school students’ knowledge of genetics concepts after an intensive inquiry-based genetics instructional period. Given that this type of intensive inquiry-based instruction is unique, we are now investigating how students’ knowledge of genetics changes after instruction (i.e., learning loss effect). Using a six-measure longitudinal design, we found that students retained significant gains in five of ...


Ecological Response Of Phytoplankton To The Oil Spills In The Oceans, Danling Tang, Jing Sun, Li Zhou, Sufen Wang, Ramesh P. Singh, Gang Pan 2019 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ecological Response Of Phytoplankton To The Oil Spills In The Oceans, Danling Tang, Jing Sun, Li Zhou, Sufen Wang, Ramesh P. Singh, Gang Pan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Oil spills in oceans have substantial influence on marine ecosystems. This study investigates 21 oil spills in the world. Analyzing Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomerer (MODIS) data after Penglai oil spills on 4 June 2011, found a bloom with peak value of Chl-a (13.66 mg m−3) spread over an area of 800 km2 during 18–25 June 2011, and a pronounced increase in the monthly Chl-a concentration (6.40 mg m−3) on June 2012 in the Bohai Sea. Out of the 21 oil spills, 14 blooms were observed, while 11 ...


A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout

Open Access Articles

Biological systems must possess mechanisms that prevent inappropriate responses to spurious environmental inputs. Caenorhabditis elegans has two breakdown pathways for the short-chain fatty acid propionate: a canonical, vitamin B12-dependent pathway and a propionate shunt that is used when vitamin B12 levels are low. The shunt pathway is kept off when there is sufficient flux through the canonical pathway, likely to avoid generating shunt-specific toxic intermediates. Here, we discovered a transcriptional regulatory circuit that activates shunt gene expression upon propionate buildup. Nuclear hormone receptor 10 (NHR-10) and NHR-68 function together as a "persistence detector" in a type 1, coherent feed-forward loop ...


The Non-Canonical Smc Protein Smchd1 Antagonises Tad Formation And Compartmentalisation On The Inactive X Chromosome, Michal R. Gdula, Tatyana B. Nesterova, Greta Pintacuda, Jonathan Godwin, Ye Zhan, Hakan Ozadam, Michael McClellan, Daniella Moralli, Felix Krueger, Catherine M. Green, Wolf Reik, Skirmantas Kriaucionis, Edith Heard, Job Dekker, Neil Brockdorff 2019 University of Oxford

The Non-Canonical Smc Protein Smchd1 Antagonises Tad Formation And Compartmentalisation On The Inactive X Chromosome, Michal R. Gdula, Tatyana B. Nesterova, Greta Pintacuda, Jonathan Godwin, Ye Zhan, Hakan Ozadam, Michael Mcclellan, Daniella Moralli, Felix Krueger, Catherine M. Green, Wolf Reik, Skirmantas Kriaucionis, Edith Heard, Job Dekker, Neil Brockdorff

Open Access Articles

The inactive X chromosome (Xi) in female mammals adopts an atypical higher-order chromatin structure, manifested as a global loss of local topologically associated domains (TADs), A/B compartments and formation of two mega-domains. Here we demonstrate that the non-canonical SMC family protein, SmcHD1, which is important for gene silencing on Xi, contributes to this unique chromosome architecture. Specifically, allelic mapping of the transcriptome and epigenome in SmcHD1 mutant cells reveals the appearance of sub-megabase domains defined by gene activation, CpG hypermethylation and depletion of Polycomb-mediated H3K27me3. These domains, which correlate with sites of SmcHD1 enrichment on Xi in wild-type cells ...


South Dakota Aquatic Invertebrate Collection And Database, Ashlee Nilson, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr. 2019 South Dakota State University

South Dakota Aquatic Invertebrate Collection And Database, Ashlee Nilson, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr.

Oak Lake Field Station 30th Anniversary Retreat Presentations

No abstract provided.


Determination Of Optimal Parameter Estimates For Medical Interventions In Human Metabolism And Inflammation, Marcella Torres 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Determination Of Optimal Parameter Estimates For Medical Interventions In Human Metabolism And Inflammation, Marcella Torres

Theses and Dissertations

In this work we have developed three ordinary differential equation models of biological systems: body mass change in response to exercise, immune system response to a general inflammatory stimulus, and the immune system response in atherosclerosis. The purpose of developing such computational tools is to test hypotheses about the underlying biological processes that drive system outcomes as well as possible real medical interventions. Therefore, we focus our analysis on understanding key interactions between model parameters and outcomes to deepen our understanding of these complex processes as a means to developing effective treatments in obesity, sarcopenia, and inflammatory diseases.

We develop ...


Using Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensors To Accurately Observe The Physiology Of Persister Cells Through Single-Cell Microscopy, Thomas Yao 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Using Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensors To Accurately Observe The Physiology Of Persister Cells Through Single-Cell Microscopy, Thomas Yao

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Isogenic bacterial communities are capable of harboring a small subpopulation of phenotypically distinguished cells that are transiently resistant to antibiotics. Upon exposure to antibiotics, these cells - termed persisters - enter a dormant state, rendering them tolerant to the antibiotic stimulus. Once the antibiotic stimulus subsides, these cells revert to a normal state and continue dividing to repopulate the community. This feature makes it extremely difficult to eradicate persisters, consolidating their role in the recurrence of chronic infections. While multiple mechanisms can trigger entry into the persistent state, the underlying factor leading to dormancy has been determined to stem from a downregulation ...


Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fish scales are specialized biological structures of current interest in innovative materials design because of the combination of protective function, flexibility, and light weight they offer. This study presents a developmental and functional investigation of a particular fish scale structure, the scutes (bony external plates) of the armored Bronze Corydoras Catfish (Corydoras aeneus). Scutes in this model fish species were analyzed via three complementary approaches. First, scutes were documented throughout fish development via high-quality microscope images. These images were subsequently used to inform fabrication of synthetic models to characterize the relationship between scute overlap and overall bending stiffness of scute ...


The Caenorhabditis Elegans Oxidative Stress Response Requires The Nhr-49 Transcription Factor, Queenie Hu, Dayana R. D'Amora, Lesley T. MacNeil, Albertha J. M. Walhout, Terrance J. Kubiseski 2018 York University

The Caenorhabditis Elegans Oxidative Stress Response Requires The Nhr-49 Transcription Factor, Queenie Hu, Dayana R. D'Amora, Lesley T. Macneil, Albertha J. M. Walhout, Terrance J. Kubiseski

Open Access Articles

The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells can lead to the development of diseases associated with aging. We have previously shown that C. elegans BRAP-2 (Brca1 associated binding protein 2) regulates phase II detoxification genes such as gst-4, by increasing SKN-1 activity. Previously, a transcription factor (TF) RNAi screen was conducted to identify potential activators that are required to induce gst-4 expression in brap-2(ok1492) mutants. The lipid metabolism regulator NHR-49/HNF4 was among 18 TFs identified. Here, we show that knockdown of nhr-49 suppresses the activation of gst-4 caused by brap-2 inactivation and that gain-of-function alleles of ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson 2018 Southwestern Oklahoma State University

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

Crabwalkers and sand minnows: Searching for psammophilic mayflies in the central and western states (& provinces)1

Greg Courtney Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA

Motivated by a number of collaborative photography projects with Steve Marshall (e.g., Courtney & Marshall, 2019), I have devoted a bit of time recently to searching for non-dipteran aquatic insects. Among the ongoing projects is a book on which I am not only lead author but in charge of several chapters focused on taxa outside my usual bailiwick (e.g., Ephemeroptera!). Thankfully, Steve has already established an excellent template for such a book ...


Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Ligands Regulate Dimer Selection., Jamie S. Rush 2018 University of Louisville

Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Ligands Regulate Dimer Selection., Jamie S. Rush

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There are thirteen known endogenous EGF-like ligands. We previously reported that Betacellulin (BTC) increases ligand-mediated corneal wound healing more than Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) [Peterson et al. (2014) IOVS 55(5):2870-80], although the molecular reason for this is unknown. Despite being better at promoting wound healing via enhanced cell migration, BTC has reduced receptor affinity and weaker induction of EGFR phosphorylation. These data indicate that BTC’s response is not due to enhanced affinity or EGFR-kinase activity. Receptor phosphorylation and proximity ligation assays indicate that BTC treatment significantly increases ErbB3 phosphorylation and EGFR:ErbB3 heterodimers. BTC traffics EGFR at ...


Integrating Node Embeddings And Biological Annotations For Genes To Predict Disease-Gene Associations, Sezin Kircali ATA, Le OU-YANG, Yuan FANG, Chee-Keong KWOH, Min WU, Xiao-Li LI 2018 Singapore Management University

Integrating Node Embeddings And Biological Annotations For Genes To Predict Disease-Gene Associations, Sezin Kircali Ata, Le Ou-Yang, Yuan Fang, Chee-Keong Kwoh, Min Wu, Xiao-Li Li

Research Collection School Of Information Systems

Background: Predicting disease causative genes (or simply, disease genes) has played critical roles in understandingthe genetic basis of human diseases and further providing disease treatment guidelines. While various computationalmethods have been proposed for disease gene prediction, with the recent increasing availability of biologicalinformation for genes, it is highly motivated to leverage these valuable data sources and extract useful information foraccurately predicting disease genes. Results: We present an integrative framework called N2VKO to predict disease genes. Firstly, we learn the nodeembeddings from protein-protein interaction (PPI) network for genes by adapting the well-known representationlearning method node2vec. Secondly, we combine the learned node ...


Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The use of artificial nests to study the predation of avian nests has faced disregard by ecologists due to inconsistencies found between the survival rates of real and artificial nests across studies and reviews. The negative perception of artificial nests providing an inconsistent assessment of survival has thus fostered the perception that artificial nests are a secondary option to be used to overcome logistical hurdles associated with achieving sufficient sample sizes in systems where study species are rare or elusive, or as merely a preliminary method to study predation across gradients. We argue that the greatest mistake ecologists have made ...


Using Canalization For The Control Of Discrete Networks, David Murrugarra 2018 University of Kentucky

Using Canalization For The Control Of Discrete Networks, David Murrugarra

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Learning Loss Effect In Genetics: What Ideas Do Students Retain Or Lose After Instruction?, Amber Todd, William L. Romine 2018 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Learning Loss Effect In Genetics: What Ideas Do Students Retain Or Lose After Instruction?, Amber Todd, William L. Romine

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Modern genetics is a relatively new domain, but it is increasingly important for students to have a firm grasp on the content, because genetic technologies are becoming more commonplace. In a previous study, we used the Learning Progression-based Assessment of Modern Genetics to assess high school students’ knowledge of genetics concepts after an intensive inquiry-based genetics instructional period. Given that this type of intensive inquiry-based instruction is unique, we are now investigating how students’ knowledge of genetics changes after instruction (i.e., learning loss effect). Using a six-measure longitudinal design, we found that students retained significant gains in five of ...


Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Augments Myoblast Adhesion And Fusion Through Homophilic Trans-Interactions, Francis X. Pizza, Ryan A. Martin, Evan M. Springer, Maxwell S. Leffler, Bryce R. Woelmer, Issac J. Recker, Douglas W. Leaman 2018 Wright State University - Main Campus

Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Augments Myoblast Adhesion And Fusion Through Homophilic Trans-Interactions, Francis X. Pizza, Ryan A. Martin, Evan M. Springer, Maxwell S. Leffler, Bryce R. Woelmer, Issac J. Recker, Douglas W. Leaman

Douglas Leaman

The overall objective of the study was to identify mechanisms through which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) augments the adhesive and fusogenic properties of myogenic cells. Hypotheses were tested using cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts, which do not constitutively express ICAM-1, and myoblasts and fibroblasts forced to express full length ICAM-1 or a truncated form lacking the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. ICAM-1 mediated myoblast adhesion and fusion were quantified using novel assays and cell mixing experiments. We report that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion to myoblasts and myotubes through homophilic trans-interactions. Such adhesive interactions enhanced levels of active Rac in adherent and ...


Gene Diversification Of An Emerging Pathogen: A Decade Of Mutation In A Novel Fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (Vhs) Substrain Since Its First Appearance In The Laurentian Great Lakes, Carol A. Stepien, Lindsey R. Pierce, Douglas W. Leaman, Megan D. Niner, Brian S. Shepherd 2018 Wright State University - Main Campus

Gene Diversification Of An Emerging Pathogen: A Decade Of Mutation In A Novel Fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (Vhs) Substrain Since Its First Appearance In The Laurentian Great Lakes, Carol A. Stepien, Lindsey R. Pierce, Douglas W. Leaman, Megan D. Niner, Brian S. Shepherd

Douglas Leaman

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is an RNA rhabdovirus, which causes one of the world's most serious fish diseases, infecting >80 freshwater and marine species across the Northern Hemisphere. A new, novel, and especially virulent substrain—VHSv-IVb—first appeared in the Laurentian Great Lakes about a decade ago, resulting in massive fish kills. It rapidly spread and has genetically diversified. This study analyzes temporal and spatial mutational patterns of VHSv-IVb across the Great Lakes for the novel non-virion (Nv) gene that is unique to this group of novirhabdoviruses, in relation to its glycoprotein (G), phosphoprotein (P), and matrix (M ...


Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry, Thomas Leete, Ryan Richards, Peter Cruz-Gordillo, Hannah R. Schwartz, Megan E. Honeywell, Gary Ren, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Shelly R. Peyton, Michael J. Lee 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry, Thomas Leete, Ryan Richards, Peter Cruz-Gordillo, Hannah R. Schwartz, Megan E. Honeywell, Gary Ren, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Shelly R. Peyton, Michael J. Lee

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

Due to tumor heterogeneity, most believe that effective treatments should be tailored to the features of an individual tumor or tumor subclass. It is still unclear, however, what information should be considered for optimal disease stratification, and most prior work focuses on tumor genomics. Here, we focus on the tumor microenvironment. Using a large-scale coculture assay optimized to measure drug-induced cell death, we identify tumor-stroma interactions that modulate drug sensitivity. Our data show that the chemo-insensitivity typically associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer is not observed if these cells are grown in 2D or 3D monoculture, but is manifested ...


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