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Attitudes Toward Animal Research And Experimentation: An Annotated Bibliography [1981-1990], Erich Yahner 2019 The Humane Society of the United States

Attitudes Toward Animal Research And Experimentation: An Annotated Bibliography [1981-1990], Erich Yahner

Anthrozoology

No abstract provided.


Attitudes Toward Animal Research And Experimentation: An Annotated Bibliography [1991-2000], Erich Yahner 2019 The Humane Society of the United States

Attitudes Toward Animal Research And Experimentation: An Annotated Bibliography [1991-2000], Erich Yahner

Anthrozoology

No abstract provided.


Attitudes Toward Animal Research And Experimentation: An Annotated Bibliography [2001-2010], Erich Yahner 2019 The Humane Society of the United States

Attitudes Toward Animal Research And Experimentation: An Annotated Bibliography [2001-2010], Erich Yahner

Anthrozoology

No abstract provided.


Attitudes Toward Animal Research And Experimentation: An Annotated Bibliography [2011-2019], Erich Yahner 2019 The Humane Society of the United States

Attitudes Toward Animal Research And Experimentation: An Annotated Bibliography [2011-2019], Erich Yahner

Anthrozoology

No abstract provided.


Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows 2019 Carroll College

Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Chytridiomycosis is a potentially deadly skin disease found in amphibian populations all over the world. Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that grows on the skin of amphibians. The fungus can cause a disruption in the homeostatic functions of the amphibian skin and can lead to death. The relationship between an amphibian’s antimicrobial skin secretions, cutaneous microbial communities and environmental water quality can affect their resistance and susceptibility to Bd infection. Columbia spotted frogs (Lithobates luteiventris) are native to western Montana and have been affected by chytridiomycosis. Three lakes known to be positive for Bd were ...


Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff

Undergraduate Research Conference

Do white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) prefer to eat certain types of acorns based on tannin content?

Hydrolyzable tannins consist of gallate groups connected via ester linkages to a carbohydrate (D-glucose)

The Prussian Blue method was used to determine hydrolyzable tannin content


2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'Annah Jones, DeLawnia Comer-Hagans 2019 Governors State University

2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'annah Jones, Delawnia Comer-Hagans

GSU Research Day

This research poster details the relationship between cancer treatments and alternative approaches, such as mindfulness. The purpose of this study was to determine the methodology used by doctors to treat breast cancer and their willingness to try a holistic approach. This study was conducted on site at the UIC Cancer Center as well as remotely within hospitals around the Chicagoland area. We determined that mindfulness is in fact a worthwhile asset to breast cancer patients and that the field of oncology could support further research.


Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, K Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro 2019 New York Medical College

Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, K Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro

Nader G. Abraham

We have previously reported that the alpha1 subunit of sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase), acts as a receptor and an amplifier for reactive oxygen species, in addition to its distinct pumping function. On this background, we speculated that blockade of Na/K-ATPase-induced ROS amplification with a specific peptide, pNaKtide, might attenuate the development of steatohepatitis. To test this hypothesis, pNaKtide was administered to a murine model of NASH: the C57Bl6 mouse fed a "western" diet containing high amounts of fat and fructose. The administration of pNaKtide reduced obesity as well as hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Of interest, we ...


Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham 2019 New York Medical College

Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham

Nader G. Abraham

Background Hmox1 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and function by regulating cellular heme-derived CO and bilirubin. Previous studies have demonstrated that global disruption of HO-1 in humans and mice resulted in severe organ dysfunction. Methods We investigated the potential role of adipose-specific-HO-1 genetic ablation on adipose tissue function, mitochondrial quality control and energy expenditure by generating an adipo-HO-1 knockout mouse model (Adipo-HO-1-/-) and, in vitro, adipocyte cells in which HO activity was inhibited. Adiposity, signaling proteins, fasting glucose and oxygen consumption were determined and compared to adipocyte cultures with depressed levels of both HO-1/HO-2 ...


The Effects Of Salinity On Zootechnical Performance Of Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Eric Gigli 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Effects Of Salinity On Zootechnical Performance Of Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Eric Gigli

Master's Theses

The spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) is a euryhaline finfish candidate for marine aquaculture in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Aquaculture of this species currently uses salinities of 25 psu or greater making production challenging in areas where high salinity water is not available. This study aimed to document the effects of salinity on zootechnical performance of spotted seatrout embryos, early larvae, and juveniles in recirculating aquaculture systems to assist with the development of protocols for low salinity culture.

Embryos obtained from a volitional spawn at 29 psu were incubated at three salinities (12.5, 18.75, or 25 psu) until ...


Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey 2019 Cruelty Free International

Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey

Validation of Animal Experimentation

Background: Even after several decades of human drug development, there remains an absence of published, substantial, comprehensive data to validate the use of animals in preclinical drug testing, and to point to their predictive nature with regard to human safety/toxicity and efficacy. Two recent papers, authored by pharmaceutical industry scientists, added to the few substantive publications that exist. In this brief article, we discuss both these papers, as well as our own series of three papers on the subject, and also various views and criticisms of lobby groups that advocate the animal testing of new drugs.

Main text: We ...


No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez

Open Access Articles

Macrophage (mac)-tropic human immnunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immnunodeficiency virus (SIV) in brain are associated with neurological disease. Mac-tropic HIV-1 evolves enhanced CD4 interactions that enable macrophage infection via CD4, which is in low abundance. In contrast, mac-tropic SIV is associated with CD4-independent infection via direct CCR5 binding. Recently, mac-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) from macaque brain was also reported to infect cells via CCR5 without CD4. Since SHIV envelope proteins (Envs) are derived from HIV-1, we tested more than 100 HIV-1 clade B Envs for infection of CD4-negative, CCR5(+) Cf2Th/CCR5 cells. However, no infection was ...


Changes In Expression Of The Autophagy-Related Genes Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3Β And Autophagy Related 7 In Skeletal Muscle Of Fattening Japanese Black Cattle: A Pilot Study, Tomonori Nakanishi, Tadaaki Tokunaga, Takafumi Ishida, Ikuo Kobayashi, Yuta Katahama, Azusa Yano, Laurie Erickson, Satoshi Kawahara 2019 Hebrew Theological College

Changes In Expression Of The Autophagy-Related Genes Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3Β And Autophagy Related 7 In Skeletal Muscle Of Fattening Japanese Black Cattle: A Pilot Study, Tomonori Nakanishi, Tadaaki Tokunaga, Takafumi Ishida, Ikuo Kobayashi, Yuta Katahama, Azusa Yano, Laurie Erickson, Satoshi Kawahara

Hebrew Theological College Publications and Research

Objective

Autophagy is a bulk degradation system for intracellular proteins which contributes to skeletal muscle homeostasis, according to previous studies in humans and rodents. However, there is a lack of information on the physiological role of autophagy in the skeletal muscle of meat animals. This study was planned as a pilot study to investigate changes in expression of two major autophagy-related genes, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (MAP1LC3B) and autophagy related 7 (ATG7) in fattening beef cattle, and to compare them with skeletal muscle growth.

Methods

Six castrated Japanese Black cattle (initial body weight: 503±20 kg) were enrolled ...


Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins 2019 Central Washington University

Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins

All Master's Theses

Captive facilities housing chimpanzees are required to provide adequate care and provisions such as dietary, social, and environmental enrichment to promote the psychological well-being of the apes in their care. Chimpanzees are social creatures and changes in groups as well as relocation to a facility with new social partners, can impact each individual chimpanzee’s welfare. By tracking each chimpanzee’s activity budgets, managers can assess welfare and make improvements or adjustments if necessary. I looked at the activity budgets of two captive chimpanzees after the death of a group member and the two chimpanzees’ subsequent relocation to a novel ...


Invited Review: Completeness Of Reporting Of Experiments: Reflecting On A Year Of Animal Trials In The Journal Of Dairy Science, Charlotte B. Winder, Katheryn J. Churchill, Jan M. Sargeant, Stephen J. LeBlanc, Annette M. O'Connor, David L. Renaud 2019 University of Guelph

Invited Review: Completeness Of Reporting Of Experiments: Reflecting On A Year Of Animal Trials In The Journal Of Dairy Science, Charlotte B. Winder, Katheryn J. Churchill, Jan M. Sargeant, Stephen J. Leblanc, Annette M. O'Connor, David L. Renaud

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Reproducibility is an essential element of the scientific process, and it requires clear and complete reporting of study design, conduct, and analysis. In the human and animal health literature, incomplete reporting is associated with biased effect estimates. Moreover, incomplete reporting precludes knowledge synthesis and undervalues the resources allocated to the primary research. The Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Trials for Livestock and Food Safety (REFLECT) statement, published in 2010, is a checklist developed by expert consensus to provide guidance on what study elements should be reported in any intervention trial (designed experiment) involving livestock. The Journal of Dairy Science (JDS ...


Probability Discounting Of Lewis And Fischer 344 Rats: Strain Comparisons At Baseline And Following Acute Administration Of D-Amphetamine, Jenny E. Ozga 2019 West Virginia University

Probability Discounting Of Lewis And Fischer 344 Rats: Strain Comparisons At Baseline And Following Acute Administration Of D-Amphetamine, Jenny E. Ozga

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Risky choice can be defined as choice for a larger, uncertain reinforcer over a smaller, certain reinforcer when choosing the smaller alternative maximizes reinforcement. Risky choice is studied using various procedures in the animal laboratory; one such procedure is called probability discounting. There are many variables that contribute to risky decision-making, including biological and pharmacological determinants. The present study assessed both of these variables by evaluating dose-response effects of d-amphetamine on risky choice of Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The probability-discounting procedure included discrete-trials choices between one food pellet delivered 100% of the time and three food ...


Optimization Of Primary Cilia Detection In Musculoskeletal Tissue, Ragen Engel 2019 The University of Akron

Optimization Of Primary Cilia Detection In Musculoskeletal Tissue, Ragen Engel

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The objective of this research project was to optimize a laboratory technique for visualizing primary cilia in musculoskeletal tissue of young swine, specifically the growth plate of long bones. This was accomplished through varying fixation procedures, antigen retrieval methods, antibody concentrations, and incubation times. By varying these parameters, a reproducible procedure was developed to examine the primary cilia in multiple tissues including ligament, fascia, and growth plate. This experiment introduced variances in fixation methods, with methanol or formalin. Paraffin and frozen embedding techniques were also varied for comparison with regards to cilia visualization. Results from the acetylated alpha tubulin (aTUB ...


Study Of Three Potential Variables That May Impact The Maximum Shear Force And Shear Variation During The Growth And Transport Of Mixed Sex Broilers Grown In Commercial Poultry Houses, Mark Christie 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Study Of Three Potential Variables That May Impact The Maximum Shear Force And Shear Variation During The Growth And Transport Of Mixed Sex Broilers Grown In Commercial Poultry Houses, Mark Christie

Theses and Dissertations

Temperature conditions during the transportation to the processing facility of commercial broilers have a direct impact on the meat texture, specifically maximum shear force and shear variation of cooked breast meat. Analysis of a calendar year of flock data (N=346), reveals that the largest impact of transport conditions, specifically temperature, is on the standard deviation of the flocks range of cooked shear values. The optimal transport temperature that yields broiler breast meat with average flock minimum shear and standard deviation values is approximately 60°F. The shear values for flocks at or near 60°F are on average 1 ...


Optimizing Methods To Determine Metabolizable Energy Values Of Feed Ingredients For Broilers, Skyler P. West 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optimizing Methods To Determine Metabolizable Energy Values Of Feed Ingredients For Broilers, Skyler P. West

Theses and Dissertations

Determination of metabolizable energy (ME) and amino acid (AA) digestibility values of single feed indigents continues to be two of the most important aspects for successful least-cost poultry feed formulation. It would be advantageous if a common diet type could be utilized to determine both ME and AA digestibility values of feed ingredients within a single assay. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of basal diet type and excreta collection method on the ME value of single feed ingredients determined in broiler chicks using the regression method. In experiment 1, the objective was to investigate the influence of ...


No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König 2018 Chapman University

No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When infected, animals change their behaviors in several ways, including by decreasing their activity, their food and water intake, and their interest in social interactions. These behavioral alterations are collectively called sickness behaviors and, for several decades, the main hypotheses put forward to explain this phenomenon were that engaging in sickness behaviors facilitated the fever response and improved the likelihood of host survival. However, a new hypothesis was recently proposed suggesting that engaging in sickness behaviors may serve to protect kin. We tested this kin protection hypothesis by combining a field and a laboratory experiment in house mice. In both ...


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