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Tal Effector-Nucleotide Targeter (Tale-Nt) 2.0: Tools For Tal Effector Design And Target Prediction, Erin L. Doyle, Nicholas J. Booher, Daniel S. Standage, Daniel F. Voytas, Volker P. Brendel, John K. VanDyk, Adam J. Bogdanove 2019 Iowa State University

Tal Effector-Nucleotide Targeter (Tale-Nt) 2.0: Tools For Tal Effector Design And Target Prediction, Erin L. Doyle, Nicholas J. Booher, Daniel S. Standage, Daniel F. Voytas, Volker P. Brendel, John K. Vandyk, Adam J. Bogdanove

Nicholas J. Booher

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are repeat-containing proteins used by plant pathogenic bacteria to manipulate host gene expression. Repeats are polymorphic and individually specify single nucleotides in the DNA target, with some degeneracy. A TAL effector-nucleotide binding code that links repeat type to specified nucleotide enables prediction of genomic binding sites for TAL effectors and customization of TAL effectors for use in DNA targeting, in particular as custom transcription factors for engineered gene regulation and as site-specific nucleases for genome editing. We have developed a suite of web-based tools called TAL Effector-Nucleotide Targeter 2.0 (TALE-NT 2.0;https://boglab.plp ...


Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson 2019 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This report presents the results of a web-based survey of certified crop advisers (CCAs) conducted as part of the Integrated Management of Oomycete Diseases of Soybean and other Crop Plants Project funded by USDA-NIFA. The survey is part of a project-long effort to engage members of the Certified Crop Adviser program of the American Society of Agronomy and other crop advisers in educational and extension activities to improve their ability to accurately diagnose and manage soybean seedling and root diseases, particularly those caused by oomycetes. The report consists of three sections. This first section describes the survey’s objectives and ...


Parameter Estimation Within An Sir Model Of Chestnut Blight In North America, Anita Davelos Baines, Hope B. Anderson, John S. McAlister, Robert F. Allen 2019 University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Parameter Estimation Within An Sir Model Of Chestnut Blight In North America, Anita Davelos Baines, Hope B. Anderson, John S. Mcalister, Robert F. Allen

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Sir Modeling Of American Chestnut Blight, Tatum Rask 2019 Illinois State University

Sir Modeling Of American Chestnut Blight, Tatum Rask

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Candidate Effectors From Uromyces Appendiculatus, The Causal Agent Of Rust On Common Bean, Can Be Discriminated Based On Suppression Of Immune Responses, Mingsheng Qi, Yu Mei, James P. Grayczyk, Luana M. Darben, Martin E. G. Rieker, Janina M. Seitz, Ralf T. Voegele, Steven A. Whitham, Tobias I. Link 2019 Iowa State University

Candidate Effectors From Uromyces Appendiculatus, The Causal Agent Of Rust On Common Bean, Can Be Discriminated Based On Suppression Of Immune Responses, Mingsheng Qi, Yu Mei, James P. Grayczyk, Luana M. Darben, Martin E. G. Rieker, Janina M. Seitz, Ralf T. Voegele, Steven A. Whitham, Tobias I. Link

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Rust fungi are devastating pathogens for several important crop plants. The biotrophic lifestyle of rust fungi requires that they influence their host plants to create a favorable environment for growth and reproduction. Rust fungi secrete a variety of effector proteins that manipulate host target proteins to alter plant metabolism and suppress defense responses. Because of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle of rust fungi, direct evidence for effector function is difficult to obtain, and so suites of experiments utilizing expression in heterologous systems are necessary. Here, we present results from a yeast cell death suppression assay and assays for suppression of PAMP-triggered ...


Reduced Levels Of Membrane-Bound Alkaline Phosphatase Are Common To Lepidopteran Strains Resistant To Cry Toxins In Bacillus Thuringiensis, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Lohitash Karumbaiah, Sova Rama Krishna Jakka, Changming Ning, Chenxi Liu, Kongming Wu, Jerreme Jackson, Fred Gould, Carlos Blanco, Maribel Portilla, Omaththage Perera, Michael Adang 2019 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Reduced Levels Of Membrane-Bound Alkaline Phosphatase Are Common To Lepidopteran Strains Resistant To Cry Toxins In Bacillus Thuringiensis, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Lohitash Karumbaiah, Sova Rama Krishna Jakka, Changming Ning, Chenxi Liu, Kongming Wu, Jerreme Jackson, Fred Gould, Carlos Blanco, Maribel Portilla, Omaththage Perera, Michael Adang

Jerreme Jackson

Development of insect resistance is one of the main concerns with the use of transgenic crops expressing Cry toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Identification of biomarkers would assist in the development of sensitive DNA-based methods to monitor evolution of resistance to Bt toxins in natural populations. We report on the proteomic and genomic detection of reduced levels of midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (mALP) as a common feature in strains of Cry-resistant Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera frugiperda when compared to susceptible larvae. Reduced levels of H. virescens mALP protein (HvmALP) were detected by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis ...


Recent Advances In Cucurbit Downy Mildew Research And Their Contribution To The Development Of Integrated Protection Of Cucurbits, Aleš Lebeda, Eva Křístková, Božena Sedláková, Mark P. Widrlechner 2019 Palacký University

Recent Advances In Cucurbit Downy Mildew Research And Their Contribution To The Development Of Integrated Protection Of Cucurbits, Aleš Lebeda, Eva Křístková, Božena Sedláková, Mark P. Widrlechner

Mark P. Widrlechner

Knowledge of the recent distribution, host range, virulence, DNA profiles, and resistance to fungicides of Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Rostovzev, and sources of host resistance to this pathogen are reviewed (Lebeda and Cohen, 2011; 2012; Cohen et al., 2015). P. cubensis is widely distributed in all continents, with a high capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions and new regions. Its host-plant range includes more than 60 species and 20 genera of Cucurbitaceae (Lebeda and Schwinn, 1994; Lebeda and Cohen, 2011). P. cubensis exhibits clear host specialization, with shifts in host range and an increasing spectrum of new host species (Lebeda et al., 2011).


Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley 2019 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley

Papers in Plant Pathology

Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides worldwide and are typically deployed as seed treatments (hereafter NST) in many grain and oilseed crops, including soybeans. However, there is a surprising dearth of information regarding NST effectiveness in increasing soybean seed yield, and most published data suggest weak, or inconsistent yield benefit. The US is the key soybean-producing nation worldwide and this work includes soybean yield data from 194 randomized and replicated field studies conducted specifically to evaluate the effect of NSTs on soybean seed yield at sites within 14 states from 2006 through 2017. Here we show that across the ...


Heterodera Glycines Utilizes Promiscuous Spliced Leaders And Demonstrates A Unique Preference For A Species-Specifc Spliced Leader Over C. Elegans Sl1, Stacey N. Barnes, Rick E. Masonbrink, Tom R. Maier, Arun S. Seetharam, Anoop S. Sindhu, Andrew J. Severin, Thomas J. Baum 2019 Iowa State University

Heterodera Glycines Utilizes Promiscuous Spliced Leaders And Demonstrates A Unique Preference For A Species-Specifc Spliced Leader Over C. Elegans Sl1, Stacey N. Barnes, Rick E. Masonbrink, Tom R. Maier, Arun S. Seetharam, Anoop S. Sindhu, Andrew J. Severin, Thomas J. Baum

Thomas Baum

Spliced leader trans-splicing (SLTS) plays a part in the maturation of pre-mRNAs in select species across multiple phyla but is particularly prevalent in Nematoda. The role of spliced leaders (SL) within the cell is unclear and an accurate assessment of SL occurrence within an organism is possible only after extensive sequencing data are available, which is not currently the case for many nematode species. SL discovery is further complicated by an absence of SL sequences from high-throughput sequencing results due to incomplete sequencing of the 5'-ends of transcripts during RNA-seq library preparation, known as 5'-bias. Existing datasets and ...


Arkansas Wheat Cultivar Performance Tests 2018-2019, R. E. Mason, R. G. Miller, D. E. Moon, J. P. Kelley 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Wheat Cultivar Performance Tests 2018-2019, R. E. Mason, R. G. Miller, D. E. Moon, J. P. Kelley

Research Series

Wheat cultivar performance tests are conducted each year in Ark- ansas by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences. The tests provide information to companies developing cultivars and marketing seed within the state and aid the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service in formulating cultivar recommendations for small-grain producers. The tests are conducted at the Northeast Research and Extension Center at Keiser, the Vegetable Substation near Kibler, the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station near Marianna, the Newport Extension Center near Newport, the Rohwer Research Station near Rohwer, the Pine ...


Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2018, Fred Bourland 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2018, Fred Bourland

Research Series

Arkansas ended the 2018 season ranked 5th nationally in harvested acres (480,000 acres), 4th in lint yield (1150 lb/acre), and 4th in total production (1,150,000 bales). The string of consecutive years with good yields is helping to drive the increase in cotton acres. Harvest and ginning capacity is a major limiting factor for acre expansion. Cotton planting intentions for 2019 released in late March are at 580,000 acres, up 20% from the 485,000 acres planted in 2018. This continues to push the ginning capacity of 28 gins in 2018 and on-farm picker capacity to ...


The Dispersal Pattern Of Thekopsora Minima In Wild Blueberry Determined By A Molecular Detection Method, Nghi Nguyen 2019 The University of Maine

The Dispersal Pattern Of Thekopsora Minima In Wild Blueberry Determined By A Molecular Detection Method, Nghi Nguyen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Blueberry rust caused by Thekopsora minima is a common disease in wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) and other Vaccinium genera. Understanding the spore dispersal pattern and disease cycle of fungal pathogens in wild blueberry is crucial for the development of a more efficient disease management program. Molecular assays for rapid detection and quantification of Thekopsora minima were developed to be incorporated with a spore trap sampling method and weather data collection to examine spore dispersal pattern and production in three different fields: Blueberry Hill Farm in Jonesboro, East Machias, and Spring Pond in Deblois, Maine, in three years 2014, 2015 and ...


Nature-Guided Synthesis Of Advanced Bio-Lubricants, Trevor Romsdahl, Asghar Shirani, Robert E. Minto, Chunyu Zhang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Kent D. Chapman, Diana Berman 2019 University of North Texas

Nature-Guided Synthesis Of Advanced Bio-Lubricants, Trevor Romsdahl, Asghar Shirani, Robert E. Minto, Chunyu Zhang, Edgar B. Cahoon, Kent D. Chapman, Diana Berman

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Design of environmentally friendly lubricants derived from renewable resources is highly desirable for many practical applications. Here, Orychophragmus violaceus (Ov) seed oil is found to have superior lubrication properties, and this is based on the unusual structural features of the major lipid species— triacylglycerol (TAG) estolides. Ov TAG estolides contain two non-hydroxylated, glycerol-bound fatty acids (FAs) and one dihydroxylated FA with an estolide branch. Estolide branch chains vary in composition and length, leading to their thermal stability and functional properties. Using this concept, nature-guided estolides of castor oil were synthesized. As predicted, they showed improved lubrication properties similar to Ov ...


Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li 2019 Iowa State University

Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li

Ling Li

Enhancing the nutritional quality and disease resistance of crops without sacrificing productivity is a key issue for developing varieties that are valuable to farmers and for simultaneously improving food security and sustainability. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana species‐specific AtQQS (Qua‐Quine Starch) orphan gene or its interactor, NF‐YC4 (Nuclear Factor Y, subunit C4), has been shown to increase levels of leaf/seed protein without affecting the growth and yield of agronomic species. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of AtQQS and NF‐YC4 in Arabidopsis and soybean enhances resistance/reduces susceptibility to viruses, bacteria, fungi, aphids, and soybean cyst ...


B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies, R. J. Norman, K. A.K. Moldenhauer 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies, R. J. Norman, K. A.K. Moldenhauer

Research Series

No abstract provided.


Rust And Viral Mosaic Diseases In Biofuel Switchgrass, Anthony A. Muhle 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rust And Viral Mosaic Diseases In Biofuel Switchgrass, Anthony A. Muhle

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial warm-season monocot that is indigenous to locations in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, and is considered a model grass for biofuel feedstock production. As switchgrass production increases, diseases pose a potential threat to biomass production and ethanol extraction. The two predominant switchgrass diseases in Nebraska are rust caused by Puccinia spp. and a viral mosaic disease caused by Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) and its associated Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV). In this thesis, one study determined how SPMV affects PMV infection and systemic spread in two populations of switchgrass at different ...


Dual Biological Control: Characterization Of Fungi And Bacteria To Control Granary Weevil And Fungal Pathogens Of Stored Grain, Gülçin Ercan 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dual Biological Control: Characterization Of Fungi And Bacteria To Control Granary Weevil And Fungal Pathogens Of Stored Grain, Gülçin Ercan

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Cereals are main food sources for humans and animals. However, during storage, cereal grains can be infested by insects and fungi. One of the most important insect storage pests is Sitophilus granarius (L., Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adults and larvae can cause serious grain losses. In addition to insect pests, fungal pathogens may also invade the grain and cause economic loss, including contamination with mycotoxins, which threaten mammal health by causing serious disease. The most common mycotoxigenic grain fungi are species that belong to the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Currently, the most commonly used management strategies for insect and fungal storage ...


The Effect Of Prescribed Burning On Wood-Decay Fungi In The Forests Of Northwest Arkansas, Nawaf Ibrahim Alshammari 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Prescribed Burning On Wood-Decay Fungi In The Forests Of Northwest Arkansas, Nawaf Ibrahim Alshammari

Theses and Dissertations

Prescribed burning is defined as the process of the planned application of fire to a predetermined area under specific environmental conditions in order to achieve a desired outcome such as land management. This project used both morphological and molecular methods to identify and characterize the wood-decay fungi associated with the forests of northwest Arkansas—Pea Ridge National Military Park, Devil’s Den State Park, and the Buffalo National River—through frequent visits made between February 2018 and February 2019. In addition, in order to assess the effects of prescribed burning, incubation chambers were used to compare the growth of fungi ...


Selectivity Of Infrared Heat Treatment On Inactivation Of Mycotoxigenic Fungi On Stored Grain, Shantae A. Wilson 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Selectivity Of Infrared Heat Treatment On Inactivation Of Mycotoxigenic Fungi On Stored Grain, Shantae A. Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Selective Infrared (IR) heating holds great potential to decontaminate spores of unsafe fungi in corn. The objectives for this study were to investigate the impact of exposing corn to infrared energy at selected peak wavelengths (λ), infrared intensities and treatment durations, followed by tempering for further inactivation of microbes on the grain and explore a method for decontaminating Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) spores on corn. Freshly harvested corn with initial moisture contents (IMCs) of 16%, 20%, and 24% wet basis (w.b.) were used. The corn samples were treated at different infrared wavelengths (3.2, 4.5, and 5.8 ...


Effects Of Sudangrass Cover Crop And Soil Solarization On Weed And Pathogen Management In Organic Strawberry Production, Timothy Jacobs 2019 California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Obispo

Effects Of Sudangrass Cover Crop And Soil Solarization On Weed And Pathogen Management In Organic Strawberry Production, Timothy Jacobs

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Field and lab experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sudangrass (Sorghum X drumondii (Nees ex Steud.) Millsp. & Chase) cover crop management techniques and soil solarization on important agricultural weeds and pathogens in organic strawberry production in Central California. Lab experiments assessed the time needed to kill weed seeds at temperatures typically achieved during soil solarization (40°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C, and 60°C) in California. Seeds tested included little mallow, redstem filaree, bristly oxtongue, annual sowthistle, common purslane, nettleleaf goosefoot, and redroot pigweed. Efficacy of simulated solarization temperatures differed between different species. Cool-season annuals annual ...


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