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Transdisciplinary Graduate Training In Predictive Plant Phenomics, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Theodore J. Heindel, Patrick S. Schnable, Stephanie J. Strong, Jill Wittrock, Mary E. Losch, Julie A. Dickerson 2018 Iowa State University

Transdisciplinary Graduate Training In Predictive Plant Phenomics, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Theodore J. Heindel, Patrick S. Schnable, Stephanie J. Strong, Jill Wittrock, Mary E. Losch, Julie A. Dickerson

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Novel methods to increase crop productivity are required to meet anticipated demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel. It is becoming feasible to use modern sensors and data analysis techniques for predicting plant growth and productivity based on genomic, phenotypic, and environmental data. To design and construct crops that deliver desired traits requires trained personnel with scientific and engineering expertise as well as a variety of “soft” skills. To address these needs at Iowa State University, we developed a graduate specialization called “Predictive Plant Phenomics” (P3). Although some of our experiences may be unique, many of the specialization’s principles ...


Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Of Forage Agronomic Traits In Six Mapping Populations Derived From European Elite Maize Germplasm, Pengfei Leng, Milena Ouzunova, Matthias Landbeck, Gerhard Wenzel, Joachim Eder, Birte Darnhofer, Thomas Lubberstedt 2018 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Of Forage Agronomic Traits In Six Mapping Populations Derived From European Elite Maize Germplasm, Pengfei Leng, Milena Ouzunova, Matthias Landbeck, Gerhard Wenzel, Joachim Eder, Birte Darnhofer, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Four agronomic traits were analysed including dry matter concentration (DMC) and dry matter yield (DMY) for stover, plant height (PHT) and days from planting to silking (DPS). We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) in three populations with doubled haploid lines (DHL), one RIL population and two testcross (TC) populations derived from crosses between two of the four populations mentioned above to elite tester lines, based on field phenotyping at multiple locations and years for each; 146–168 SSRs were used for genotyping of the four mapping populations. Significant high phenotypic and genotypic correlations were found for all traits at two ...


Gwas For Fusarium Head Blight Related Traits In Winter Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) In An Artificially Warmed Treatment, Elisane W. Tessmann, David A. Van Sanford 2018 University of Kentucky

Gwas For Fusarium Head Blight Related Traits In Winter Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) In An Artificially Warmed Treatment, Elisane W. Tessmann, David A. Van Sanford

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Global temperature increases will affect Fusarium head blight (FHB) levels in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A pressing question is whether current sources of resistance will be effective in a warmer environment. We evaluated phenotypic response to disease in 238 soft winter wheat breeding lines and cultivars grown in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 under control and warmed (+3 °C) conditions. Warming was achieved with heating cables buried 3 cm in the rhizosphere. We measured heading date, plant height, yield, FHB rating, Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), deoxynivalenol (DON), leaf blotch rating, powdery mildew rating and leaf rust rating. There were significant ...


Effects Of Oxalate Oxidase Transgene Expression On Mycorrhizal Colonization In American Chestnuts, Hannah Roden 2018 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Effects Of Oxalate Oxidase Transgene Expression On Mycorrhizal Colonization In American Chestnuts, Hannah Roden

Honors Theses

American chestnuts have been genetically engineered to express an oxalate oxidase gene isolated from wheat, which allows the plants to degrade oxalic acid, the virulence factor produced by Cryphonectria parasitica, the pathogenic fungus that causes the chestnut blight. In this study, we investigated the effect of oxalate oxidase gene expression on rate of mycorrhizal colonization of American chestnut root tips. Six-month-old transgenic and wildtype plantlets were placed in a soil inoculant and cultured in a greenhouse for 7 months, then root tips were visually assessed to estimate how many were colonized (expressed as a percentage). Three genotypes were used: ELLIS ...


Genetic Diversity Analysis Of 11 Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra L.) Cultivars And Development Of A Mapping Population, Steven Jacob Schneider Jr 2018 Missouri State University

Genetic Diversity Analysis Of 11 Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra L.) Cultivars And Development Of A Mapping Population, Steven Jacob Schneider Jr

MSU Graduate Theses

Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) production stands on the brink of potentially great market expansion that can only be realized if tree improvement increases such that commercial production becomes feasible. Breeding black walnut for thinner shell, disease resistance, and predictable nut yield are just three of the many agronomically important traits that could be improved using marker-assisted selection (MAS). The goal of this study was to incorporate microsatellite markers to characterize (genotype) 11 cultivars and establish a mapping population from a cross between ‘Football’ and ‘Sparrow’ (Ft x Sp). Phenology of these two cultivars coupled with marker characteristics and ...


Response To Persistent Er Stress In Plants: A Multiphasic Process That Transitions Cells From Prosurvival Activities To Cell Death, Renu Srivastava, Zhaoxia Li, Giulia Russo, Jie Tang, Ran Bi, Usha Muppirala, Sivanandan Chudalayandi, Andrew J. Severin, Mingze He, Samuel I. Vaitkevicius, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Peng Liu, Ann E. Stapleton, Diane C. Bassham, Federica Brandizzi, Stephen H. Howell 2018 Iowa State University

Response To Persistent Er Stress In Plants: A Multiphasic Process That Transitions Cells From Prosurvival Activities To Cell Death, Renu Srivastava, Zhaoxia Li, Giulia Russo, Jie Tang, Ran Bi, Usha Muppirala, Sivanandan Chudalayandi, Andrew J. Severin, Mingze He, Samuel I. Vaitkevicius, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Peng Liu, Ann E. Stapleton, Diane C. Bassham, Federica Brandizzi, Stephen H. Howell

Office of Biotechnology Publications

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved response that protects plants from adverse environmental conditions. The UPR is elicited by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in which unfolded and misfolded proteins accumulate within the ER. Here, we induced the UPR in maize (Zea mays) seedlings to characterize the molecular events that occur over time during persistent ER stress. We found that a multiphasic program of gene expression was interwoven among other cellular events, including the induction of autophagy. One of the earliest phases involved the degradation by regulated IRE1-dependent RNA degradation (RIDD) of RNA transcripts derived from a family ...


An Evaluation Of Breeding, Agronomic, And Processing Methodologies Of Vegetable Soybean (Edamame) To Increase Domestic Production In The United States Market, David Octor Moseley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Evaluation Of Breeding, Agronomic, And Processing Methodologies Of Vegetable Soybean (Edamame) To Increase Domestic Production In The United States Market, David Octor Moseley

Theses and Dissertations

Edamame is a food-grade soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) that is either harvested immature (R6 stage) or after plant maturity (R8 stage). At R6, the premium product will have crescent- shaped large green pods and gray pubescence. At R8, the seed will either have stayed green or will have turned yellow, black, or brown. Edamame is a healthy snack with a sweet flavor and firm texture. The edamame market is growing in the United States, creating a need for more adapted varieties. The genetic diversity is low among adapted large-seeded breeding lines. Finding diverse accessions will help develop larger and ...


A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder

Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of small grains caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. FHB poses potential economic losses and health risks due to the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on infected seed heads. The objectives of this study are: 1) evaluate soft red winter wheat (SRWW) lines for resistance to FHB in terms of resistance to initial inoculum (incidence); resistance to spread within the head (severity); resistance to DON accumulation; and resistance to Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), 2) determine the frequency and effect of known FHB resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and 3 ...


Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo da Silva 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

Charcoal rot of soybean (Glycine max (L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is a disease of economic significance in the United States. The identification and quantification of the resistance is difficult, and very little is known about the genetics and markers linked to the charcoal rot (CR) resistance genes. Current assay methods can be time consuming, and data may vary between tests. The objectives of this study were to 1) create a robust seed plate assay (SPA) for CR resistance by comparing results with cut-stem and CFUI assays; 2) correlate and compare field data disease assessments with SPA; 3) identify QTLs ...


Inferring Roles In Defense From Metabolic Allocation Of Rice Diterpenoids, Xuan Lu, Juan Zhang, Benjamin Brown, Riqing Li, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Aileen Berasategui, Bo Liu, Meimei Xu, Dangping Luo, Zhiqiang Pan, Scott R. Baerson, Jonathan Gershenzon, Zhaohu Li, Ane Sesma, Bing Yang, Reuben J. Peters 2018 Iowa State University

Inferring Roles In Defense From Metabolic Allocation Of Rice Diterpenoids, Xuan Lu, Juan Zhang, Benjamin Brown, Riqing Li, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Aileen Berasategui, Bo Liu, Meimei Xu, Dangping Luo, Zhiqiang Pan, Scott R. Baerson, Jonathan Gershenzon, Zhaohu Li, Ane Sesma, Bing Yang, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Among their responses to microbial infection, plants deploy an arsenal of natural antibiotic products. Historically these have been identified on the basis of their antibiotic activity in vitro, which leaves open the question of their relevance to defense in planta. The vast majority of such natural products from the important crop plant rice (Oryza sativa) are diterpenoids whose biosynthesis proceeds via either ent- or syn-copalyl diphosphate (CPP) intermediates, which were isolated on the basis of their antibiotic activity against the fungal blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. However, rice plants in which the gene for the syn-CPP synthase Os-CPS4 is ...


A Solution For Sampling Position Errors In Maize And Soybean Root Mass And Length Estimates, Raziel A. Ordonez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield, Mark A. Licht, Emily E. Wright, Sotirios V. Archontoulis 2018 Iowa State University

A Solution For Sampling Position Errors In Maize And Soybean Root Mass And Length Estimates, Raziel A. Ordonez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield, Mark A. Licht, Emily E. Wright, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Agronomy Publications

Root mass and length attributes are difficult to obtain in the field and currently there is uniformity among literature studies in estimating the effect of sampling position error. With the objectives of 1) quantifying the sampling position error in calculating weighted average root values per unit area and 2) developing an algorithm to minimize root position sampling error so that existing data in the literature can be used in future studies, we collected and analyzed root mass and length data across four sampling positions (0, 12, 24 and 36 cm distance from the plant row; row-to-row spacing 76 cm) from ...


Optimizing The Use Of A Liquid Handling Robot To Conduct A High Throughput Forward Chemical Genetics Screen Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, B. Kirtley Amos, Victoria G. Pook, Seth DeBolt 2018 University of Kentucky

Optimizing The Use Of A Liquid Handling Robot To Conduct A High Throughput Forward Chemical Genetics Screen Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, B. Kirtley Amos, Victoria G. Pook, Seth Debolt

Horticulture Faculty Publications

Chemical genetics is increasingly being employed to decode traits in plants that may be recalcitrant to traditional genetics due to gene redundancy or lethality. However, the probability of a synthetic small molecule being bioactive is low; therefore, thousands of molecules must be tested in order to find those of interest. Liquid handling robotics systems are designed to handle large numbers of samples, increasing the speed with which a chemical library can be screened in addition to minimizing/standardizing error. To achieve a high-throughput forward chemical genetics screen of a library of 50,000 small molecules on Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), protocols ...


Cover Crops Use In Midwestern U.S. Agriculture: Perceived Benefits And Net Returns, Alejandro Plastina, Fangge Liu, Fernando E. Miguez, Sarah Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Cover Crops Use In Midwestern U.S. Agriculture: Perceived Benefits And Net Returns, Alejandro Plastina, Fangge Liu, Fernando E. Miguez, Sarah Carlson

Economics Publications

Despite being generally accepted as a promising conservation practice to reduce nitrate pollution and promote soil sustainability, cover crop adoption in Midwestern U.S. agriculture is low. Based on focus groups, surveys, and partial budgets, we calculated the annual net returns to cover crop use for farmers in Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota; and elicited farmers’ perceptions about the pros and cons of incorporating cover crops to their row cropping systems. The novelty of our methodology resides in comparing each farmer’s practices in the portion of their cropping system with cover crops (typically small), against their practices in the other ...


Kelch F-Box Protein Positively Influences Arabidopsis Seed Germination By Targeting Phytochrome-Interacting Factor1, Manoj Majee, Santosh Kumar, Praveen Kumar Kathare, Shuiqin Wu, Derek Gingerich, Nihar R. Nayak, Louai Salaita, Randy Dinkins, Kathleen Martin, Michael M. Goodin, Lynnette M. A. Dirk, Taylor D. Lloyd, Ling Zhu, Joseph Chappell, Arthur G. Hunt, Richard Vierstra, Enamul Huq, A. Bruce Downie 2018 National Institute of Plant Genome Research, India

Kelch F-Box Protein Positively Influences Arabidopsis Seed Germination By Targeting Phytochrome-Interacting Factor1, Manoj Majee, Santosh Kumar, Praveen Kumar Kathare, Shuiqin Wu, Derek Gingerich, Nihar R. Nayak, Louai Salaita, Randy Dinkins, Kathleen Martin, Michael M. Goodin, Lynnette M. A. Dirk, Taylor D. Lloyd, Ling Zhu, Joseph Chappell, Arthur G. Hunt, Richard Vierstra, Enamul Huq, A. Bruce Downie

Horticulture Faculty Publications

Seeds employ sensory systems that assess various environmental cues over time to maximize the successful transition from embryo to seedling. Here we show that the Arabidopsis F-BOX protein COLD TEMPERATURE-GERMINATING (CTG)-10, identified by activation tagging, is a positive regulator of this process. When overexpressed (OE), CTG10 hastens aspects of seed germination. CTG10 is expressed predominantly in the hypocotyl, and the protein is localized to the nucleus. CTG10 interacts with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 1 (PIF1) and helps regulate its abundance in planta. CTG10-OE accelerates the loss of PIF1 in light, increasing germination efficiency, while PIF1-OE lines fail to complete germination in ...


Testing The Potential Of Novel Grain Crop Cultivation In Rural Malawi During The Dry Season Through Irrigation And Soil Modification, Jessica Truman 2018 Brigham Young University

Testing The Potential Of Novel Grain Crop Cultivation In Rural Malawi During The Dry Season Through Irrigation And Soil Modification, Jessica Truman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research project studied the germination and growth rates of oat and quinoa crops in Mtalimanja, Malawi. This project was part of a larger effort by General Mills and Brigham Young University researchers to increase the diversity and nutrient content of crops in impoverished countries worldwide. It was conducted from May to August 2017 during Malawi’s dry season. Tetraploid oats and quinoa, both modified to increase the protein content of harvested grains, were planted under three different soil conditions: unamended soil, soil mixed with composted chicken litter, and soil with surface-applied granular fertilizer. The research plots were watered daily ...


Natural High-Tech: Engineering Cotton, Brenna M. Cape, Erin E. Wheatley 2018 Kent State University

Natural High-Tech: Engineering Cotton, Brenna M. Cape, Erin E. Wheatley

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The concept of genetic engineering has seemingly developed an unpopular stigma, especially when it comes to food, but in regards to cotton, genetically modifying this plant and its agriculture process has become a necessity for survival. There are too few cotton consumers that are educated and/or interested about the concept of genetic engineering, and those that are aware of this topic generally have a negative view. Although genetic engineering is unfavorable to the public eye, cotton is now being developed and reconstructed in ways that produce higher-quality fibers while avoiding harmful chemicals. The need to not only market, but ...


Effect Of Cultivar And Type On Pepper Yield And Weight, Elizabeth 'Egan' Blessinger 2018 Western Kentucky University

Effect Of Cultivar And Type On Pepper Yield And Weight, Elizabeth 'Egan' Blessinger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Peppers (Capsicum) are a valuable commodity throughout the world. They provide food, coloring additives, vitamins, and ornamental aesthetics. Peppers can be grown in many different areas of the world and their success is based on variety selection. Breeding cultivars for superior performance is critical to success. Recent consumer desire for less chemical use throughout the growing process has resulted in new cultivar developments..

The objective of this research was to investigate how cultivar and type affect the yield and weight of field grown peppers. This study provides valuable information for growers in determining which cultivars are suitable for production in ...


Effects Of Endophytic Entomopathogenic Fungi On Soybean Aphid And Identification Of Metarhizium Isolates From Agricultural Fields, Eric H. Clifton, Stefan T, Jaronski, Brad S. Coates, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann 2018 Iowa State University

Effects Of Endophytic Entomopathogenic Fungi On Soybean Aphid And Identification Of Metarhizium Isolates From Agricultural Fields, Eric H. Clifton, Stefan T, Jaronski, Brad S. Coates, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann

Entomology Publications

Terrestrial plants can harbor endophytic fungi that may induce changes in plant physiology that in turn affect interactions with herbivorous insects. We evaluated whether the application of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum to soybean seeds could become endophytic and affect interactions with soybean aphid (Aphis glycinesMatsumura). It was found that A. glycines population sizes increased on plants with M. brunneum (strain F52) seed inoculum, but no significant effects were shown with analogous treatments with B. bassiana (strain GHA). Fungi recovered from soybean plant tissues indicate that endophytism was established, and that B. bassiana was more prevalent. Metarhizium ...


The Effect Of Two Planting Dates And Methods On Snap Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Production In A Tunnel House, Edward Sparks, Victor Khan, Ramble Ankumah, James E. Currington, Nathaniel Ellison, George X. Hunter Jr., Jeffery L. Moore 2018 Tuskegee University

The Effect Of Two Planting Dates And Methods On Snap Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Production In A Tunnel House, Edward Sparks, Victor Khan, Ramble Ankumah, James E. Currington, Nathaniel Ellison, George X. Hunter Jr., Jeffery L. Moore

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of two planting dates and methods on snap bean yields in a tunnel house. The main plots included planting dates March 17 and 31, 2016 for first and second plantings. The sub-plots consisted of planting Method 1 where one seed per hill was planted every 4” apart, and planting Method 2 where three seeds per hill were planted every 12” apart; each treatment combination was replicated four times. The results of the study showed that it took 55 days for the snap beans to be ready for harvest for both planting dates ...


The Determinants Of Nucleosome Patterns And The Impact Of Phosphate Starvation On Nucleosome Patterns And Gene Expression In Rice, Qi Zhang 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Determinants Of Nucleosome Patterns And The Impact Of Phosphate Starvation On Nucleosome Patterns And Gene Expression In Rice, Qi Zhang

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In eukaryotic cells, DNA is a large molecule that must be greatly condensed to fit within the nucleus. DNA is wrapped around histone proteins to form nucleosomes, which facilitate DNA condensation, but on the other hand, may limit DNA processes. Organisms must respond to environmental stress in order to survive, and one strategy is by remodeling nucleosomes to promote changes in DNA accessibility to alter gene expression. Studies have demonstrated a clear correlation between nucleosome dynamics and transcriptional change in some eukaryotes, however factors that affect nucleosome positioning in plants are largely unknown, and the correlation between nucleosome dynamics and ...


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