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2,166 full-text articles. Page 44 of 44.

Melilotus Officinalis (Yellow Sweetclover) Causes Large Changes In Community And Ecosystem Processes In Both The Presence And Absence Of A Cover Crop, Timothy L. Dickson, Brian J. Wilsey, Ryan R. Busby, Dick L. Gebhart 2010 Iowa State University

Melilotus Officinalis (Yellow Sweetclover) Causes Large Changes In Community And Ecosystem Processes In Both The Presence And Absence Of A Cover Crop, Timothy L. Dickson, Brian J. Wilsey, Ryan R. Busby, Dick L. Gebhart

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Non-native species are hypothesized to decrease native species establishment and cover crops are hypothesized to decrease non-native species abundance. Although many studies have compared invaded to non-invaded habitats, relatively few studies have experimentally added non-native species to directly examine their effects. In a greenhouse mesocosm experiment, we tested the effects of non-native forbs (Melilotus officinalis, Verbascum thapsus, and Lespedeza cuneata), a proposed C3 grass cover crop (Pascopyrum smithii), and a commonly seeded non-native C3 grass (Bromus inermis) on the establishment of target native C4 prairie grass species. All treatments contained the same seed density of target C4 species and were ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Characterization And Inheritance Assessment Of Fruit And Leaf Shape In Unique Vitis Seedlings, Paul J. Sandefur, John R. Clark, Douglas Karcher 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization And Inheritance Assessment Of Fruit And Leaf Shape In Unique Vitis Seedlings, Paul J. Sandefur, John R. Clark, Douglas Karcher

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

From August to October of 2009, two separate studies were conducted to assess fruit shape of Vitis section Euvitis hybrid bunch grapes using digital photography (Study 1) and evaluate inheritance of leaf shape in unique populations of V. rotundifolia hybrids (Vitis section Muscadinia) (Study 2). All vines studied were located at the University of Arkansas Fruit Research Station, Clarksville. Study 1 used SigmaScan® digital photography analysis software to calculate shape factor, major:minor axis ratio, and compactness of highly variable, unique-shaped fruit from a population of 182 Euvitis seedlings. SigmaScan® accurately characterized fruit shape elongation as had been recorded in ...


Choosing A Genome Browser For A Model Organism Database: Surveying The Maize Community, Taner Z. Sen, Lisa C. Harper, Mary L. Schaeffer, Carson M. Andorf, Trent E. Seigfried, Darwin A. Campbell, Carolyn J. Lawrence 2010 Iowa State University

Choosing A Genome Browser For A Model Organism Database: Surveying The Maize Community, Taner Z. Sen, Lisa C. Harper, Mary L. Schaeffer, Carson M. Andorf, Trent E. Seigfried, Darwin A. Campbell, Carolyn J. Lawrence

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

As the B73 maize genome sequencing project neared completion, MaizeGDB began to integrate a graphical genome browser with its existing web interface and database. To ensure that maize researchers would optimally benefit from the potential addition of a genome browser to the existing MaizeGDB resource, personnel at MaizeGDB surveyed researchers’ needs. Collected data indicate that existing genome browsers for maize were inadequate and suggest implementation of a browser with quick interface and intuitive tools would meet most researchers’ needs. Here, we document the survey’s outcomes, review functionalities of available genome browser software platforms and offer our rationale for choosing ...


Video-Tracking And On-Plant Tests Show Cry1ab Resistance Influences Behavior And Survival Of Neonate Ostrinia Nubilalis Following Exposure To Bt Maize, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Richard L. Hellmich, Andre LB Crespo, Blair D. Siegfried, David W. Onstad 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Video-Tracking And On-Plant Tests Show Cry1ab Resistance Influences Behavior And Survival Of Neonate Ostrinia Nubilalis Following Exposure To Bt Maize, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Richard L. Hellmich, Andre Lb Crespo, Blair D. Siegfried, David W. Onstad

Entomology Publications

To examine how resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins influences movement and survival of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis [Hübner]) neonates, the responses of Cry1Ab-resistant , -susceptible, and hybrid (F1) larvae were examined using two different techniques. First, using an automated video-tracking system, aspects of O. nubilalis movement were quantified in the presence of artificial diet incorporating 50% non-Bt or insect-resistant Cry1Ab maize tissue. Second, O. nubilalis dispersal and survival were measured 48–72 h after hatching on a Cry1Ab maize plant surrounded by two non-Bt maize plants. Video tracking indicated the presence of Cry1Ab tissue increased the total distance moved ...


Gene Expression In Developing Fibres Of Upland Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Was Massively Altered By Domestication, Ryan A. Rapp, Candace H. Haigler, Lex Flagel, Ran H. Hovav, Joshua A. Udall, Jonathan F. Wendel 2010 Iowa State University

Gene Expression In Developing Fibres Of Upland Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Was Massively Altered By Domestication, Ryan A. Rapp, Candace H. Haigler, Lex Flagel, Ran H. Hovav, Joshua A. Udall, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Understanding the evolutionary genetics of modern crop phenotypes has a dual relevance to evolutionary biology and crop improvement. Modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed following thousands of years of artificial selection from a wild form, G. hirsutum var. yucatanense, which bears a shorter, sparser, layer of single-celled, ovular trichomes (’fibre’). In order to gain an insight into the nature of the developmental genetic transformations that accompanied domestication and crop improvement, we studied the transcriptomes of cotton fibres from wild and domesticated accessions over a developmental time course. Fibre cells were harvested between 2 and 25 days post-anthesis and ...


Genetic Diversity, Micro Propagation, And Cold Hardiness Of Ilex Glabra (L.) A. Gray, Youping Sun 2010 The University of Maine

Genetic Diversity, Micro Propagation, And Cold Hardiness Of Ilex Glabra (L.) A. Gray, Youping Sun

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ilex glabra (L.) A.Gray (inkberry) is a native evergreen shrub with dark green foliage and compact habit. This shrub has gained popularity in the northern landscapes of the United States and more nursery growers would like to produce it. To better understand genetic relationships among inkberry cultivars and breed cold-hardy cultivars for northern nursery growers and landscape specialists, the following projects were conducted. A group of 48 inkberry accessions and two other Ilex species (Ilex crenata Thunb. and I. mutchagara Makino) were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 229 markers between 50 and 500 ...


Morphological Features Of Wheat Grain And Genotype Affecting Flour Yield, Mark Andrew Edwards 2010 Southern Cross University

Morphological Features Of Wheat Grain And Genotype Affecting Flour Yield, Mark Andrew Edwards

Theses

Although the wheat grain comprises 82 - 86% starchy endosperm, only approximately 76 - 78% is able to be separated using current milling technology. Suitability for primary processing depends on three main characteristics that are in turn influenced to varying degrees by the genetic origin of wheat and agro-climatic conditions during plant development: the endosperm to bran ratio, kernel hardness and ease of separation of bran and endosperm. Among these, hardness appears to be an essential factor in wheat milling behavior also important to the food processing industries. Accumulated evidence supports the prominent influence of the puroindoline (pin) proteins on grain hardness ...


Spring Seed Guide 2010: Nebraska Variety And Hybrid Tests -- Soybeans, Teshome Regassa, Robert N. Klein, Bruce Anderson, Charles A. Shapiro, Jim Krall 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Spring Seed Guide 2010: Nebraska Variety And Hybrid Tests -- Soybeans, Teshome Regassa, Robert N. Klein, Bruce Anderson, Charles A. Shapiro, Jim Krall

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

NEBRASKA SOYBEAN VARIETY TESTS 2009

Crop Production Summary: The November 2009 estimated soybean yield for Nebraska was 52 bushels per acre from 4.800 million harvested acres. The total production of soybeans for the state was forecasted at 247 million bushels. These estimates are from the November National Agricultural Statistics Service.


Quantitative Trait Loci For Endosperm Modification And Amino Acid Contents In Quality Protein Maize, Andrés Gutiérrez-Rojas, Javier Betrán, M. Paul Scott, Halima Atta, Mónica Menz 2010 Texas A & M University - College Station

Quantitative Trait Loci For Endosperm Modification And Amino Acid Contents In Quality Protein Maize, Andrés Gutiérrez-Rojas, Javier Betrán, M. Paul Scott, Halima Atta, Mónica Menz

Agronomy Publications

The deficient protein quality of corn (Zea mays L.) grain can be improved by replacing normal Opaque2 (O2) alleles with nonfunctional mutant o2 alleles. Unfortunately, o2 alleles are associated with soft endosperm texture, poor yield, and susceptibility to diseases and insects. Plant breeders have been able to restore a desirable ratio of hard to soft endosperm in o2germplasm. These modified genotypes are known as Quality Protein Maize (QPM). Neither the mechanism nor the genetic components controlling endosperm modification in QPM lines are well understood. Using a population of recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between an o2 line ...


Reproductive And Pollination Biology Of The Endemic Hawaiian Cotton, Gossypium Tomentosum (Malvaceae), John M. Pleasants, Jonathan F. Wendel 2010 Iowa State University

Reproductive And Pollination Biology Of The Endemic Hawaiian Cotton, Gossypium Tomentosum (Malvaceae), John M. Pleasants, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Gossypium tomentosum is a cotton species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. We studied several aspects of its reproductive biology, including potential pollinators, floral biology, and diurnal and seasonal flowering phenology. Flower visitors were observed in G. tomentosum populations on O‘ahu, Kaho‘olawe, and Maui. Primary visitors were introduced species, honeybees and carpenter bees, both of which were pollinating the flowers. No native bee species were seen visiting flowers. In examining floral biology we found that in some cases 10% of flowers had styles that were as short as the anthers or were recurved toward the anthers. In the greenhouse ...


A Draft Physical Map Of A D-Genome Cotton Species (Gossypium Raimondii), Lifeng Lin, Gary J. Pierce, John E. Bowers, James C. Estill, Rosana O. Compton, Lisa K. Rainville, Changsoo Kim, Cornelia Lemke, Junkang Rong, Haibao Tang, Xiyin Wang, Michele Braidotti, Amy H. Chen, Kristen Chicola, Kristi Collura, Ethan Epps, Wolfgang Golser, Corrinne E. Grover, Jennifer Ingles, Santhosh Karunakaran, Dave Kudrna, Jaime Olive, Nabila Tabassum, Eareana Um, Marina Wissotski, Yeisoo Yu, Andrea Zuccolo, Mehboob ur Rahman, Daniel G. Peterson, Rod A. Wing, Jonathan F. Wendel, Andrew H. Paterson 2010 University of Georgia

A Draft Physical Map Of A D-Genome Cotton Species (Gossypium Raimondii), Lifeng Lin, Gary J. Pierce, John E. Bowers, James C. Estill, Rosana O. Compton, Lisa K. Rainville, Changsoo Kim, Cornelia Lemke, Junkang Rong, Haibao Tang, Xiyin Wang, Michele Braidotti, Amy H. Chen, Kristen Chicola, Kristi Collura, Ethan Epps, Wolfgang Golser, Corrinne E. Grover, Jennifer Ingles, Santhosh Karunakaran, Dave Kudrna, Jaime Olive, Nabila Tabassum, Eareana Um, Marina Wissotski, Yeisoo Yu, Andrea Zuccolo, Mehboob Ur Rahman, Daniel G. Peterson, Rod A. Wing, Jonathan F. Wendel, Andrew H. Paterson

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo ...


Recent Insights Into Mechanisms Of Genome Size Change In Plants, Corrinne E. Grover, Jonathan F. Wendel 2010 Iowa State University

Recent Insights Into Mechanisms Of Genome Size Change In Plants, Corrinne E. Grover, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Genome sizes vary considerably across all eukaryotes and even among closely related species. The genesis and evolutionary dynamics of that variation have generated considerable interest, as have the patterns of variation themselves. Here we review recent developments in our understanding of genome size evolution in plants, drawing attention to the higher order processes that can influence the mechanisms generating changing genome size.


Insights Into The World Of Pea Nodulation Using The Low Nodulator R50, Scott Clemow 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Insights Into The World Of Pea Nodulation Using The Low Nodulator R50, Scott Clemow

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Cytokinin oxidase (CKX) is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of cytokinin, a class of adenine-based plant hormones that stimulate cell division, among other physiological processes. The pea mutant R50 is characterized by having a pale leaf phenotype, dwarf stature, few lateral roots, low nodule formation, and elevated levels of endogenous cytokinins in its shoots, roots and nodules. When compared to that of the wild-type Sparkle, total CKX activity is low but the transcript levels of PsCKX1 are significantly higher. In this study, I investigated the expression of PsCKX1 throughout the development of a nodule and the localization of PsCKX1 ...


The Pleiotropic Mutant R50 (Sym16): A Link Between Cytokinin And Starch Metabolism May Explain Its Seed Phenotype, Chengli Long 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Pleiotropic Mutant R50 (Sym16): A Link Between Cytokinin And Starch Metabolism May Explain Its Seed Phenotype, Chengli Long

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Cytokinins are a class of adenine-based plant hormones that stimulate cell divisions and are therefore essential for organ growth and development. The role that cytokinin plays in nodulation and that of R50 (syml6) in particular is very complex. In this study, a cytokinin antagonist and a cytokinin oxidase (CKX) inhibitor were used as tools to study the effects of cytokinin perception or cytokinin degradation on nodulation in pea, the cytokinin transduction pathway, especially that induced by CRE1/AHK4, and CKX play a significant role in pea nodulation. Comparison of the full length sequences PsCKX2 cDNAs from Sparkle and R50 indicated ...


Pigment Concentrations Among Heat-Tolerant Turfgrasses, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, John Sorochan, J. McElroy 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pigment Concentrations Among Heat-Tolerant Turfgrasses, Dean Kopsell, Mark Lefsrud, John Sorochan, J. Mcelroy

Dean A. Kopsell

Heat-tolerant bluegrass varieties were developed to resist dormancy and retain pigmentation during heat stress events. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of grass species, nitrogen (N) fertilization, and seasonality on the accumulation patterns of lutein, β-carotene, and chlorophyll a and b in the leaf tissues of turfgrass. The heat-tolerant bluegrass cultivars Dura Blue and Thermal Blue (Poa pratensis L. x Poa arachnifera Torr.), Apollo kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were compared for the accumulation of plant pigments. Evaluations were conducted over 2 consecutive years (Years 4 and 5 ...


Characterization Of Nutritionally Important Carotenoids In Bunching Onion, Dean Kopsell, Carl Sams, Dennis Deyton, Kristin Abney, David Kopsell, Larry Robertson 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Characterization Of Nutritionally Important Carotenoids In Bunching Onion, Dean Kopsell, Carl Sams, Dennis Deyton, Kristin Abney, David Kopsell, Larry Robertson

Dean A. Kopsell

Members of the Allium genus are consumed for their culinary flavor attributes, but also contain antioxidant and anticarcinogenic phytochemicals. Bunching onions (Allium fistulosum L.) are commonly used in Asian cuisine, in which both leaves and pseudostems are consumed. Carotenoids and chlorophylls are important classes of phytochemicals gaining attention for their health attributes. The goal of our study was to characterize carotenoids and chlorophylls and identify possible genetic and environmental influences on carotenoid concentrations among A. fistulosum accessions. Twelve USDA-ARS accessions were field grown in Knoxville, TN, and Geneva, NY, during the summer of 2007. After harvest, carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments ...


Nomenclatural Changes For Some Grasses In California And The Muhlenbergia Clade (Poaceae), James Payne Smith Jr. 2009 Humboldt State University

Nomenclatural Changes For Some Grasses In California And The Muhlenbergia Clade (Poaceae), James Payne Smith Jr.

James Payne Smith

No abstract provided.


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