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Identification Of Sources Of Rhizoctonia Root Rot Resistance In Common Bean And Mapping A New Source Of Bean Rust Resistance From The Tertiary Gene Pool Of Common Bean, Pamela A. Peña-Perdomo 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Identification Of Sources Of Rhizoctonia Root Rot Resistance In Common Bean And Mapping A New Source Of Bean Rust Resistance From The Tertiary Gene Pool Of Common Bean, Pamela A. Peña-Perdomo

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

An efficient screening method was developed and used to identify bean lines resistant to Rhizoctonia Root Rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. Two sets of 163 and 111 lines previously evaluated for drought tolerance at Mitchell, NE and Isabela, PR were evaluated for Rhizoctonia Root Rot resistance under greenhouse conditions. This root rot data was also correlated with yield under drought stress and non stress conditions. In the first set of lines the rhizoctonia mean score ranged from 1.7 to 3.9; and in the second set the rhizoctonia mean score was between 2.6 and 5.7. There ...


Smartstax: Multi-Trait Corn Offered By Dow And Monsanto, Aaron J. Gassmann, Erin W. Hodgson 2010 Iowa State University

Smartstax: Multi-Trait Corn Offered By Dow And Monsanto, Aaron J. Gassmann, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Beginning in 2009, Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto have entered into an agreement to offer SmartStax, which combines the Bt traits found in Herculex XTRA and VT Triple Pro. This product will include several Bt traits, with multiple toxins providing control of some key pests and with a broader overall spectrum of pest control. Additionally, there will be a reduction in the refuge requirement with the product. Growers should carefully consider how the pest-control benefits of this product balance against seed costs when deciding what to plant in 2011.


Areawide Suppression Of European Corn Borer With Bt Maize Reaps Savings To Non-Bt Maize Growers, W. D. Hutchison, E. C. Burkness, P. D. Mitchell, R. D. Moon, T. W. Leslie, S. J. Fleischer, M. Abrahamson, K. L. Hamilton, Kevin L. Steffey, M. E. Gray, Richard L. Hellmich, L. V. Kaster, Thomas E. Hunt, R. J. Wright, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky, T. L. Rabaey, B. R. Flood, E. S. Raun 2010 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Areawide Suppression Of European Corn Borer With Bt Maize Reaps Savings To Non-Bt Maize Growers, W. D. Hutchison, E. C. Burkness, P. D. Mitchell, R. D. Moon, T. W. Leslie, S. J. Fleischer, M. Abrahamson, K. L. Hamilton, Kevin L. Steffey, M. E. Gray, Richard L. Hellmich, L. V. Kaster, Thomas E. Hunt, R. J. Wright, Kenneth T. Pecinovsky, T. L. Rabaey, B. R. Flood, E. S. Raun

Entomology Publications

Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to ...


Dual Roles For The Variable Domain In Protein Trafficking And Host-Specific Recognition Of Heterodera Glycines Cle Effector Proteins, Jianying Wang, Chris Lee, Amy Replogle, Sneha Joshi, Dmitry Korkin, Richard Hussey, Thomas J. Baum, Eric L. Davis, Xiaohong Wang, Melissa G. Mitchum 2010 University of Missouri

Dual Roles For The Variable Domain In Protein Trafficking And Host-Specific Recognition Of Heterodera Glycines Cle Effector Proteins, Jianying Wang, Chris Lee, Amy Replogle, Sneha Joshi, Dmitry Korkin, Richard Hussey, Thomas J. Baum, Eric L. Davis, Xiaohong Wang, Melissa G. Mitchum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

  • Soybean cyst nematodes (Heterodera glycines) produce secreted effector proteins that function as peptide mimics of plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like peptides probably involved in the developmental reprogramming of root cells to form specialized feeding cells called syncytia.
  • The site of action and mechanism of delivery of CLE effectors to host plant cells by the nematode, however, have not been established. In this study, immunologic, genetic and biochemical approaches were used to reveal the localization and site of action of H. glycines-secreted CLE proteins in planta.
  • We present evidence indicating that the nematode CLE propeptides are delivered to the cytoplasm ...


An Integrative Approach To Genomic Introgression Mapping, Andrew J. Severin, Gregory A. Peiffer, Wayne W. Xu, David L. Hyten, Bruna Bucciarelli, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Yung-Tsi Bolon, David Grant, Andrew D. Farmer, Gregory D. May, Carol P. Vance, Randy C. Shoemaker, Robert M. Stupar 2010 Iowa State University

An Integrative Approach To Genomic Introgression Mapping, Andrew J. Severin, Gregory A. Peiffer, Wayne W. Xu, David L. Hyten, Bruna Bucciarelli, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Yung-Tsi Bolon, David Grant, Andrew D. Farmer, Gregory D. May, Carol P. Vance, Randy C. Shoemaker, Robert M. Stupar

Agronomy Publications

Near-isogenic lines (NILs) are valuable genetic resources for many crop species, including soybean (Glycine max). The development of new molecular platforms promises to accelerate the mapping of genetic introgressions in these materials. Here, we compare some existing and emerging methodologies for genetic introgression mapping: single-feature polymorphism analysis, Illumina GoldenGate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, and de novo SNP discovery via RNA-Seq analysis of next-generation sequence data. We used these methods to map the introgressed regions in an iron-inefficient soybean NIL and found that the three mapping approaches are complementary when utilized in combination. The comparative RNA-Seq approach offers several additional ...


Plant Immunity Directly Or Indirectly Restricts The Injection Of Type Iii Effectors By The Pseudomonas Syringae Type Iii Secretion System, Emerson Crabill, Anna Joe, Anna Block, Jennifer M. Van Rooyen, James R. Alfano 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Plant Immunity Directly Or Indirectly Restricts The Injection Of Type Iii Effectors By The Pseudomonas Syringae Type Iii Secretion System, Emerson Crabill, Anna Joe, Anna Block, Jennifer M. Van Rooyen, James R. Alfano

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Plants perceive microorganisms by recognizing microbial molecules known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) inducing PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) or by recognizing pathogen effectors inducing effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The hypersensitive response (HR), a programmed cell death response associated with ETI, is known to be inhibited by PTI. Here, we show that PTI-induced HR inhibition is due to direct or indirect restriction of the type III protein secretion system’s (T3SS) ability to inject type III effectors (T3Es). We found that the Pseudomonas syringae T3SS was restricted in its ability to inject a T3E-adenylate cyclase (CyaA) injection reporter into PTI-induced tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum ...


Rna-Seq Atlas Of Glycine Max: A Guide To The Soybean Transcriptome, Andrew J. Severin, Jenna L. Woody, Yung-Tsi Bolon, Bindu Joseph, Brian W. Diers, Andrew D. Farmer, Gary J. Muehlbauer, Rex T. Nelson, David Grant, James E. Specht, Michelle A. Graham, Steven B. Cannon, Gregory D. May, Carroll P. Vance, Randy C. Shoemaker 2010 Iowa State University

Rna-Seq Atlas Of Glycine Max: A Guide To The Soybean Transcriptome, Andrew J. Severin, Jenna L. Woody, Yung-Tsi Bolon, Bindu Joseph, Brian W. Diers, Andrew D. Farmer, Gary J. Muehlbauer, Rex T. Nelson, David Grant, James E. Specht, Michelle A. Graham, Steven B. Cannon, Gregory D. May, Carroll P. Vance, Randy C. Shoemaker

Agronomy Publications

Background
Next generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of transcriptomes. It can determine the expression level of transcripts with a dynamic range of over six orders of magnitude from multiple tissues, developmental stages or conditions. Patterns of gene expression provide insight into functions of genes with unknown annotation.

Results
The RNA Seq-Atlas presented here provides a record of high-resolution gene expression in a set of fourteen diverse tissues. Hierarchical clustering of transcriptional profiles for these tissues suggests three clades with similar profiles: aerial, underground and seed tissues. We also investigate the relationship between gene structure and gene expression and find ...


Steps Toward Butternut (Juglans Cinerea L.) Restoration, Sunshine L. Brosi 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Steps Toward Butternut (Juglans Cinerea L.) Restoration, Sunshine L. Brosi

Doctoral Dissertations

Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.), a lesser-known relative of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), is a native tree species beneficial for wildlife, valuable for timber, and part of the great diversity of species in the eastern forests of North America. Populations of butternut are being devastated by butternut canker disease, caused by the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum (V.M.G. Nair, Kostichka, & Kuntz), which is thought to be introduced to North America. The disease causes multiple branch and stem cankers that eventually girdle trees. Small population sizes, lack of sprouting, and shade intolerance exacerbates the disease and results in permanent losses of ...


Xenia Effects On Quality Of Maize Female Inbred In Production Of Hybrid Seeds, Leandro Castañeda 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Xenia Effects On Quality Of Maize Female Inbred In Production Of Hybrid Seeds, Leandro Castañeda

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

In Maize (Zea maize L.), cost of hybrid seed production is directly related to the yield and quality of seed obtained per hectare of female parent. It is also important to consider the effects that a male parent can exert on the development of hybrid seed in the female parent. This effect is known as xenia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate xenia effects on 1) yield as 80K units, 2) germination of the hybrid seed and 3) susceptibility of the hybrid seed to mechanical damage. One female inbred and four male inbred lines were selected from a ...


Genetic Mapping Of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Bioenergy Traits, And The Assessment Of Genetic Variability In Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.). Moench), Aatshwaelwe Lekgari Lekgari 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Genetic Mapping Of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Bioenergy Traits, And The Assessment Of Genetic Variability In Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.). Moench), Aatshwaelwe Lekgari Lekgari

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Sweet sorghum, a botanical variety of sorghum is a potential source of bioenergy because high sugar levels accumulate in its stalks. The objectives of this study were to explore the global diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm, and map the genomic regions that are associated with bioenergy traits. In assessing diversity, 142 sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated with three marker types (SSR, SRAP, and morphological markers) to determine the degree of relatedness among the accessions. The traits measured (anthesis date [AD], plant height [PH], biomass yield [BY], and moisture content [MC]) were all significantly different (P<0.05) among accessions. Morphological marker clustered the accessions into five groups based on PH, MC and AD. The three traits accounted for 92.5% of the variation. There were four and five groups based on SRAP and SSR data respectively classifying accessions mainly on their origin or breeding history. The observed difference between SSR and SRAP based clusters could be attributed to the difference in marker type. SSRs amplify any region of the genome whereas SRAP amplify the open reading frames and promoter regions. Comparing the three marker-type clusters, the markers complimented each other in grouping accessions and would be valuable in assisting breeders to select appropriate lines for crossing. In evaluating QTLs that are associated with bioenergy traits, 165 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were planted at four environments in Nebraska. A genetic linkage map constructed spanned a length of 1541.3 cM, and generated 18 linkage groups that aligned to the 10 sorghum chromosomes. Fourteen QTLs (6 for brix, 3 for BY, 2 each for AD and MC, and 1 for PH) were mapped. QTLs for the traits that were significantly correlated, colocalized in two clusters on linkage group Sbi01b. Both parents contributed beneficial alleles for most of traits measured, supporting the transgressive segregation in this population. Additional work is needed on exploiting the usefulness of chromosome 1 in breeding sorghum for bioenergy.


Drought Response Of Populus Transformed With Stress Response Transcription Factors, Alina S. Campbell 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Drought Response Of Populus Transformed With Stress Response Transcription Factors, Alina S. Campbell

Masters Theses

The economic feasibility of producing biomass-based fuels requires high-yielding feedstocks to supply biomass to biorefineries. Populus trees are a potential biomass feedstock due to their high yield, but their high water requirement limits productivity under drought conditions.

The number of genes controlling drought tolerance, and the long generation time for perennial species, slows cultivar development. Accelerated domestication proposes using the sequenced Populus genome to quickly incorporate target traits into productive clones by transgenesis.

Six putative drought tolerance transcription factors: DREB2A, DREB2B, AtMYB, AREB1/ABF2, MYB, and NAC, had been previously identified and manipulated in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides). Three constructs ...


Reestablishing Diversity In Our Hardwood Forests: A Transplant Study Of Five Spring-Flowering Herbs, Danielle Racke 2010 Western Kentucky University

Reestablishing Diversity In Our Hardwood Forests: A Transplant Study Of Five Spring-Flowering Herbs, Danielle Racke

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Herbaceous communities are critical to the functioning of forest ecosystems. They recycle nutrients, help prevent erosion, provide critical microhabitats and maintain biodiversity. In the eastern United States, most hardwood forests are growing on land once entirely cleared or used for some form of agriculture. Although some of these forests are nearly 150 years old, they still have depauperate native herbaceous communities when compared to remaining old-growth forests. This long-term depletion may result from dispersal limitation or environmental limitation.

I tested the hypothesis that dispersal was the primary factor contributing to the absence of five spring-flowering herbaceous species in four secondary ...


Four Aspects Of Dogwood Pollination: Insect Visitation, A Novel Approach To Identify Pollen, Floral Volatile Emission, And Tracking Parentage, Paul Raymond Rhoades 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Four Aspects Of Dogwood Pollination: Insect Visitation, A Novel Approach To Identify Pollen, Floral Volatile Emission, And Tracking Parentage, Paul Raymond Rhoades

Masters Theses

Part 1: Visitation of potential pollinators to Cornus florida and C. kousa flowers was assessed in East Tennessee in 2008 and 2009. Data regarding insect visitation rates to multiple trees per location were gathered throughout the flowering period. Diurnal and seasonal variations in visitation were recorded. Pollen coverage was assessed on portions of captured insect exoskeletons that were most likely to contact the stigma. Eleven families in four insect orders were collected from C. florida and 26 families in five orders from C. kousa. The most important pollinators in eastern Tennessee were bees in the Andrenidae and Halictidae. The most ...


Quantitative Trait Loci For Agronomic And End-Use Quality Performance And The Effect Of Soilborne Wheat Mosaic Virus In A Hard Winter Wheat Population In Nebraska, Nicholas A. Crowley 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Quantitative Trait Loci For Agronomic And End-Use Quality Performance And The Effect Of Soilborne Wheat Mosaic Virus In A Hard Winter Wheat Population In Nebraska, Nicholas A. Crowley

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

To better understand agronomic and end-use quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) we developed a population containing 154 F6:8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross TAM107-R7/Arlin. The parental lines and RILs were phenotyped at six environments in Nebraska and differed for resistance to Wheat soilborne mosaic virus (WSBMV), morphological, agronomic, and end-use quality traits. Additionally, a 2300 cM genome-wide linkage map was created for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Based on our results across multiple environments, the best RILs could be used for cultivar improvement. The population and marker data are publicly available for interested researchers for ...


Analysis Of Breeding Systems, Ploidy, And The Role Of Hexaploids In Three Hypericum Perforatum L. Populations, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Shawn M. Rigby 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Analysis Of Breeding Systems, Ploidy, And The Role Of Hexaploids In Three Hypericum Perforatum L. Populations, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Shawn M. Rigby

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

Hexaploid seeds are produced by predominantly tetraploid populations of Hypericum perforatum, but the fate of hexaploid seedlings and their reproductive behavior have not been closely examined. We used flow cytometry to analyze single seeds and individual plant samples of three accessions of H. perforatum to determine ploidy levels and reproductive pathways. Seed samples of all three accessions were facultative apomicts, with tetraploid cytotype predominant (85–91%) and a lower frequency of hexaploids (9–14%), with diploids (5%) detected in only one population. Seedling populations consisted of tetraploids (87–97%) and hexaploids (3–13%). Hexaploid embryos are most likely generated by ...


Determining The Fate Of Hybridized Genomes In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Tina Y. Wang 2010 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Determining The Fate Of Hybridized Genomes In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Tina Y. Wang

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Polyploidy is widely acknowledged as a widespread mechanism in the evolution and speciation of the majority of flowering plants. Allopolyploid forms through interspecific hybridization and whole genome duplication. While allopolyploids may display increased vigor relative to their progenitors, they can also face challenges to fertility following hybridization. Genetic changes in allopolyploids result from recombination between the hybridized subgenomes, which can influence phenotype and ultimately determine fitness of future generations. To study dynamic changes that follow allopolyploid formation, Brassica napus lineages were derived by hybridizing Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Two lineages of B. napus were analyzed for genetic and phenotypic ...


Carbon Bio-Sequestration Within The Phytoliths Of Economic Bamboo Species, Jeffrey Parr, Leigh Sullivan, Bihua Chen, Gongfu Ye, Zheng Wiepeng 2010 Southern Cross University

Carbon Bio-Sequestration Within The Phytoliths Of Economic Bamboo Species, Jeffrey Parr, Leigh Sullivan, Bihua Chen, Gongfu Ye, Zheng Wiepeng

Jeffrey Parr

The rates of carbon bio-sequestration within silica phytoliths of the leaf litter of 10 economically important bamboo species indicates that (a) there is considerable variation in the content of carbon occluded within the phytoliths (PhytOC) of the leaves between different bamboo species, (b) this variation does not appear to be directly related to the quantity of silica in the plant but rather the efficiency of carbon encapsulation by the silica. The PhytOC content of the species under the experimental conditions ranged from 1.6% to 4% of the leaf silica weight. The potential phytolith carbon bio-sequestration rates in the leaf-litter ...


Origin Of The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 And Gene Silencing By An E(Z) Homolog In The Unicellular Alga Chlamydomonas, Scott Shaver, J. Armando Casas-Mollano, Ronald L. Cerny, Heriberto D. Cerutti 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Origin Of The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 And Gene Silencing By An E(Z) Homolog In The Unicellular Alga Chlamydomonas, Scott Shaver, J. Armando Casas-Mollano, Ronald L. Cerny, Heriberto D. Cerutti

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Polycomb group proteins play an essential role in the maintenance of cell identity and the regulation of development in both animals and plants. The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is involved in the establishment of transcriptionally silent chromatin states, in part through its ability to methylate lysine 27 of histone H3 by the Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] subunit. The absence of PRC2 in unicellular model fungi and its function in the repression of genes vital for the development of higher eukaryotes led to the proposal that this complex may have evolved together with the emergence of multicellularity. However, we ...


New Corn Trait Deregulated In U.S., Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann 2010 Iowa State University

New Corn Trait Deregulated In U.S., Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann

Integrated Crop Management News

Last week, the USDA announced the deregulation of a new corn trait from Syngenta Seeds, Inc. This new technology is called Agrisure Viptera and is the industry's first non-crystalline (non-Cry) protein for insect control. Viptera will compliment the corn traits in Agrisure 3000GT and should be commercially available for the 2011 field season. This new trait has already been approved in Mexico and Canada this year.


Grain Yield And Yield-Related Qtl Validation Using Reciprocal Recombinant Inbred Chromosome Lines In Wheat, Neway C. Mengistu 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Grain Yield And Yield-Related Qtl Validation Using Reciprocal Recombinant Inbred Chromosome Lines In Wheat, Neway C. Mengistu

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Grain yield and yield-related traits are the most important economic factors for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement. Grain yield (GYLD) and yield-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were previously identified by using a population of recombinant inbred chromosome lines (RICLs) developed from cultivar ‘Cheyenne’ (CNN) and its substitution line CNN(WI3A), where the 3A chromosome of cultivar ‘Wichita’ (WI) was substituted for the CNN chromosome 3A. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate GYLD and yield-related QTLs previously identified in CNN(RICLs-3A) studies by using the mirror population WI(RICLs-3A), where chromosome 3A of CNN and WI ...


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