Analysis Of The Genetic Architecture Of Maize Kernel Size Traits By Combined Linkage And Association Mapping, 2019 Sichuan Agricultural University
Analysis Of The Genetic Architecture Of Maize Kernel Size Traits By Combined Linkage And Association Mapping, Min Liu, Xiaolong Tan, Yan Yang, Peng Liu, Xiaoxiang Zhang, Yinchao Zhang, Lei Wang, Yu Hu, Langlang Ma, Zhaoling Li, Yanling Zhang, Chaoying Zou, Haijian Lin, Shibin Gao, Michael Lee, Thomas Lubberstedt, Guangtang Pan, Yaou Shen
Kernel size‐related traits are the most direct traits correlating with grain yield. The genetic basis of three kernel traits of maize, kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW) and kernel thickness (KT), was investigated in an association panel and a biparental population. A total of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected to be most significantly (P < 2.25 × 10−6) associated with these three traits in the association panel under four environments. Furthermore, 50 quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these traits were detected in seven environments in the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 doubled haploid (DH) population, of which eight were repetitively identified in at least three environments. Combining the two mapping populations revealed that 56 SNPs (P < 1 × 10−3) fell within 18 of the QTL confidence intervals. According to the top significant SNPs, stable‐effect SNPs and the co‐localized SNPs by association analysis and linkage mapping, a total of 73 candidate genes were identified, regulating seed development. Additionally, seven miRNAs were found to situate within the linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions of the co‐localized SNPs, of which zma‐miR164e was demonstrated to cleave the mRNAs of Arabidopsis CUC1, CUC2 and NAC6 in vitro. Overexpression of zma‐miR164e resulted in the down‐regulation of these genes above and the failure of seed formation in Arabidopsis pods, with the increased branch number. These findings provide insights into the mechanism of ...
Scientific Communication And Crispr, 2019 Iowa State University
Scientific Communication And Crispr, Sarah Fleischmann
Genome editing technologies have the capability of providing a quick, relatively inexpensive method of plant breeding that could greatly expand breeding efforts across species. CRISPR-Cas9 has become one of the leading forms of genome editing, but the level of investment and number of products developed with the technology will be greatly affected by both regulatory decisions made around the world and the level of consumer acceptance. The ability of scientists who are involved with genome editing research to communicate with non-experts will impact the outcomes of both factors. This paper reviews available literature on scientific communication, provides a high-level discussion ...
Sulphur Sources And Sinks In Brassica Juncea L., 2019 Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW
Sulphur Sources And Sinks In Brassica Juncea L., Priyakshee Borpatragohain
Brassica crops require high amounts of sulphur (S) for optimum yield, and are characterised by the synthesis of S-rich glucosinolates (GSL). This thesis examined the role of S nutrition in the accumulation and distribution of GSLs and S-containing proteins, and resolved the loci contributing to the regulation of S-metabolite accumulation in seeds of the oil crop Brassica juncea (Indian mustard). This research made use of unique experimental materials in the form of genetically uniform mustard lines selected for high and low seed GSL content. Further examination of complex Genotype x Environment x Management interactions will facilitate the development of elite ...
Refsoil+: A Reference Database For Genes And Traits Of Soil Plasmids, 2019 Michigan State University
Refsoil+: A Reference Database For Genes And Traits Of Soil Plasmids, Taylor K. Dunivin, Jinlyung Choi, Adina Howe, Ashley Shade
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications
Plasmids harbor transferable genes that contribute to the functional repertoire of microbial communities, yet their contributions to metagenomes are often overlooked. Environmental plasmids have the potential to spread antibiotic resistance to clinical microbial strains. In soils, high microbiome diversity and high variability in plasmid characteristics present a challenge for studying plasmids. To improve the understanding of soil plasmids, we present RefSoil+, a database containing plasmid sequences from 922 soil microorganisms. Soil plasmids were larger than other described plasmids, which is a trait associated with plasmid mobility. There was a weak relationship between chromosome size and plasmid size and no relationship ...
Crispr In Plant Breeding, 2019 Iowa State University
Crispr In Plant Breeding, Edward Rowe
No abstract provided.
Gamma Ray Irradiation Effects In Soybean With Regards To Protein And Amino Acids Contents Of Cysteine, Lysine, Methionine And Threonine, Janel Bettis
No abstract provided.
Development And Characterization Of Wheat-Thinopyrum Junceiforme Chromosome Addition Lines, 2019 South Dakota State University
Development And Characterization Of Wheat-Thinopyrum Junceiforme Chromosome Addition Lines, Dilkaran Singh
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Production of wheat is challenged by dynamic biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetic improvement via alien gene transfer is an effective approach to tackle such challenges. Alien gene transfer played an important role in the history of wheat crop improvement. Sea wheatgrass (SWG; Thinopyrum junceiforme, 2n = 28, genomes J1J1J2J2) is a wild relative of wheat. In our previous work, we have developed a complete amphiploid between cultivated emmer and SWG and shown that SWG is resistant to wheat streak mosaic virus, Fusarium head blight and wheat stem sawflies (due to the solid stem) and tolerant to waterlogging, salinity, heat, and low ...
Validation Of Candidate Loci For Maize Regrowability And Selection Of Near Isogenic Lines For The Loci, 2019 South Dakota State University
Validation Of Candidate Loci For Maize Regrowability And Selection Of Near Isogenic Lines For The Loci, Tajbir Raihan
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Developing perennial grain crops is an effective way for sustainable agriculture and it can be a tool for the betterment of the overall ecosystem. To understand how perenniality works in perennial species, we made a cross between Zea diploperennis and maize (Z. mays) inbred line B73. F1 hybrids produced from this cross were selfed to get the F2 population and later the F2 population underwent Genotyping-By- Sequencing (GBS) analysis. Based on the candidate loci identified on chromosome 2 and chromosome 7 from GBS, SNP-specific markers were developed from the candidate locus interval and used to genotype the F2 population. X2 ...
Influence Of Loss Of Function Of The Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 Gene On Photosynthetic Activity And Foliar Redox Status, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Influence Of Loss Of Function Of The Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 Gene On Photosynthetic Activity And Foliar Redox Status, Janithri Savindya Wickramanayake
Theses and Dissertations
Fatty Acid Desaturase7 (FAD7) is a chloroplast-localized enzyme that converts 16 and 18 carbon dienoic fatty acids to trienoic fatty acids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated response2 (spr2) mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and the fad7-1 mutant in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) result in the loss of function of FAD7, which alter the fatty acid profiles of chloroplast membranes and enhance resistance against aphids. This research contributes toward the long-term goal of identifying factors that determine aphid resistance in FAD7 mutants. Previous data suggested constitutive differences between spr2 and WT including increased expression of genes associated with photosynthesis and differences in redox ...
Generation And Evaluation Of Modified Opaque-2 (O2) Popcorn Suggests A Route To Quality Protein Popcorn (Qpp), 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Generation And Evaluation Of Modified Opaque-2 (O2) Popcorn Suggests A Route To Quality Protein Popcorn (Qpp), Ying Ren
Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture
I have been working on a Quality Protein Popcorn breeding project where QPM conversion is carried out simultaneously for several elite popcorn germplasms. During my study in the graduate program, I led the following aspects of the Quality Protein Popcorn Breeding Project:
1. Identified suitable QPMs as opaque-2 allele donors.
2.Examined the feasibility of quick introgression of the opaque-2 allele into popcorn lines via marker-assisted selection.
3. Monitored modification by SDS-PAGE zein profiling and light box phenotypic selection to make sure multiple modifier loci for opaque-2 were incorporated each time generation advancement was carried out.
4. Carried out high ...
Risks And Opportunities Of Gm Crops: Bt Maize Example, 2018 Iowa State University
Risks And Opportunities Of Gm Crops: Bt Maize Example, Andrea K. Carzoli, Siddique I. Aboobucker, Leah L. Sandall, Thomas T. Lubberstedt, Walter P. Suza
The anticipated world population growth emphasizes a need to produce more food on less land. Cutting-edge technologies, including genetic engineering, can help to develop improved crop varieties and protect natural resources. In spite of the potential for genetically-modified (GM) crops to make crop production more efficient, they remain a polarizing issue due to safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the risk assessment process. The safety of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins is used as an example for how risk assessment is applied to GM crops. Risks associated with GM crops have proven to be low to non-existent. Developing countries ...
Linkage Mapping For Soybean (Glycine Max) Flood Tolerance, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Linkage Mapping For Soybean (Glycine Max) Flood Tolerance, Wade Stiles Hummer
Theses and Dissertations
Flood tolerance in soybean (Glycine max) is not a well-characterized trait, yet flooding damage is second only to drought stress in terms of yield reduction. The objectives of this study were to determine genetic variation for flooding tolerance in two populations of soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to identify and confirm flood tolerant QTL. Population A (WHA) consisted of 111 RILs derived from the cross 5002T by 91210-350 and Population B (WHB) consisted of 79 RILs from the cross RA-452 by Osage. Experiments were conducted at the Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC) near Stuttgart, AR in 2015 and ...
Insights Into The Evolution Of The New World Diploid Cottons (Gossypium, Subgenus Houzingenia) Based On Genome Sequencing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick Ii, Adam Thrash, Justin L. Conover, William S. Sanders, Daniel G. Peterson, James E. Frelichowski, Jodi A. Scheffler, Brian E. Scheffler, Jonathan F. Wendel
Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications
We employed phylogenomic methods to study molecular evolutionary processes and phylogeny in the geographically widely dispersed New World diploid cottons (Gossypium, subg. Houzingenia). Whole genome resequencing data (average of 33X genomic coverage) were generated to reassess the phylogenetic history of the subgenus and provide a temporal framework for its diversification. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the subgenus likely originated following trans-oceanic dispersal from Africa about 6.6 mya, but that nearly all of the biodiversity evolved following rapid diversification in the mid-Pleistocene (0.5-2.0 mya), with multiple long-distance dispersals required to account for range expansion to Arizona, the Galapagos Islands ...
Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory
Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee
Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids. Crude dissection of the seed followed by GC-MS analysis of polar metabolites also ...
Genotypic Variation In Anthocyanins, Phenolic Compounds, And Antioxidant Activity In Cob And Husk Of Purple Field Corn, Ponsawan Khamphasan, Khomsorn Lomthaisong, Bhornchai Harakotr, Danupol Ketthaisong, Marvin Paul Scott, Kamol Lertrat, Bhalang Suriharn
Information on phytochemicals in the cob and husk of field corn is important for the use of corn waste in the production of value-added corn products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the variation in monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity, as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in 53 purple field corn genotypes, and to study the correlations of these traits with color parameters. Fifty-three corn genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in two locations in the ...
Haplotype Loci Under Selection In Canadian Durum Wheat Germplasm Over 60 Years Of Breeding: Association With Grain Yield, Quality Traits, Protein Loss, And Plant Height, 2018 University of Saskatchewan
Haplotype Loci Under Selection In Canadian Durum Wheat Germplasm Over 60 Years Of Breeding: Association With Grain Yield, Quality Traits, Protein Loss, And Plant Height, Amidou N'Diaye, Jemanesh K. Haile, Kirby T. Nilsen, Sean Walkowiak, Yuefeng Ruan, Asheesh K. Singh, Fran R. Clarke, John M. Clarke, Curtis J. Pozniak
Durum wheat was introduced in the southern prairies of western Canada in the late nineteenth century. Breeding efforts have mainly focused on improving quality traits to meet the pasta industry demands. For this study, 192 durum wheat lines were genotyped using the Illumina 90K Infinium iSelect assay, and resulted in a total of 14,324 polymorphic SNPs. Genetic diversity changed over time, declining during the first 20 years of breeding in Canada, then increased in the late 1980s and early 1990s. We scanned the genome for signatures of selection, using the total variance Fst-based outlier detection method (Lositan), the hierarchical ...
E3 Ubiquitin Ligases: Key Regulators Of Hormone Signaling In Plants, 2018 Iowa State University
E3 Ubiquitin Ligases: Key Regulators Of Hormone Signaling In Plants, Dior R. Kelley
Ubiquitin-mediated control of protein stability is central to most aspects of plant hormone signaling. Attachment of ubiquitin to target proteins occurs via an enzymatic cascade with the final step being catalyzed by a family of enzymes known as E3 ubiquitin ligases, which have been classified based on their protein domains and structures. While E3 ubiquitin ligases are conserved among eukaryotes, in plants they are well-known to fulfill unique roles as central regulators of phytohormone signaling, including hormone perception and regulation of hormone biosynthesis. This review will highlight up-to-date findings that have refined well-known E3 ligase-substrate interactions and defined novel E3 ...
High Density Genetic Mapping Of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance Qtl In Tetraploid Wheat, 2018 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
High Density Genetic Mapping Of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance Qtl In Tetraploid Wheat, Ehsan Sari, Samia Berraies, Ron E. Knox, Asheesh K. Singh, Yuefeng Ruan, Richard D. Cuthbert, Curtis J. Pozniak, Maria Antonia Henriquez, Santosh Kumar, Andrew J. Burt, Amidou N'Diaye, David J. Konkin, Adrian L. Cabral, Heather L. Campbell, Krystalee Wiebe, Janet Condie, Prabhath Lokuruge, Brad Meyer, George Fedak, John M. Clarke, Daryl J. Somers, Perre R. Fobert
Breeding for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in durum wheat is complicated by the quantitative trait expression and narrow genetic diversity of available resources. High-density mapping of the FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL), evaluation of their co-localization with plant height and maturity QTL and the interaction among the identified QTL are the objectives of this study. Two doubled haploid (DH) populations, one developed from crosses between Triticum turgidum ssp. durum lines DT707 and DT696 and the other between T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. Strongfield and T. turgidum ssp. carthlicum cv. Blackbird were genotyped using the 90K Infinium iSelect chip ...
Color Space Standardization And Image Analysis For High-Throughput Phenotyping Of Sorghum Bicolor, 2018 Department of Mathematics, Illinois State University
Color Space Standardization And Image Analysis For High-Throughput Phenotyping Of Sorghum Bicolor, Alexandria A. Pokorny
Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research
No abstract provided.
Aac Viewfield Hard Red Spring Wheat, 2018 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Aac Viewfield Hard Red Spring Wheat, R. D. Cuthbert, R. M. Depauw, A. K. Singh, B. Mccallum, T. Fetch
AAC Viewfield hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has grain yield significantly higher than the check cultivars Katepwa and Lillian and is similar to Carberry. AAC Viewfield matures significantly later than Katewpa and Lillian but is similar to Carberry. AAC Viewfield has an awned spike, a low lodging score indicative of strong straw, and significantly shorter plant stature than all checks. AAC Viewfield expressed resistance to prevalent races of yellow rust and stem rust, moderate resistance to leaf rust and common bunt, and intermediate resistance to Fusarium head blight. AAC Viewfield has quality attributes within the range of the ...