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Effects Of Reactive Oxygen Species On Life History Traits Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Samson William Smith 2012 Portland State University

Effects Of Reactive Oxygen Species On Life History Traits Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Samson William Smith

Dissertations and Theses

Evolutionary life history theory predicts that tradeoffs among fitness-related phenotypes will occur as a result of resource limitations and/or physiological constraints. Such tradeoffs are defined as the cost(s) incurred on one component of fitness (e.g., reproduction) by the increased expression of another fitness-related trait (e.g., longevity). Only recently have researchers begun to investigate the mechanistic bases of life history tradeoffs. A recent proposal is that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a central role in shaping life history traits and tradeoffs. Research on disparate animal taxa has highlighted strong correlations between oxidative stress resistance and fitness-related life ...


Ettin (Arf3) Physically Interacts With Kanadi Proteins To Form A Functional Complex Essential For Integument Development And Polarity Determination In Arabidopsis, Dior R. Kelley, Alexandra Arreola, Thomas L. Gallager, Charles S. Gasser 2011 University of California, Davis

Ettin (Arf3) Physically Interacts With Kanadi Proteins To Form A Functional Complex Essential For Integument Development And Polarity Determination In Arabidopsis, Dior R. Kelley, Alexandra Arreola, Thomas L. Gallager, Charles S. Gasser

Dior Kelley

KANADI (KAN) transcription factors promote abaxial cell fate throughout plant development and are required for organ formation during embryo, leaf, carpel and ovule development. ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS, or KAN4) is necessary during ovule development to maintain the boundary between the two ovule integuments and to promote inner integument growth. Yeast two-hybrid assays identified ETTIN (ETT, or AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 3) as a transcription factor that could physically interact with ATS. ATS and ETT were shown to physically interact in vivo in transiently transformed tobacco epidermal cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ATS and ETT were found to share an overlapping ...


Returns To The Introduction Of New Sorghum Cultivars Into The Dairy Industry Of El Salvador, Alexis H. Villacís, John H. Sanders 2011 Purdue University

Returns To The Introduction Of New Sorghum Cultivars Into The Dairy Industry Of El Salvador, Alexis H. Villacís, John H. Sanders

INTSORMIL Presentations

The driver of agricultural development is the introduction of new technology. Sensitive sorghums have long been a critical component of hillside Central American agriculture providing a reserve or insurance policy when the principal staple of maize falters. The insensitive sorghums have been more recently introduced since the ‘70s for planting in the valleys in the second season. In the last thirty years the introduction of new insensitive cultivars has accelerated initially for poultry and in the previous two decades for dairy production. This growth has been facilitated by strategic investments in research by CENTA and the Ministry of Agriculture.

As ...


Domain Loss Has Independently Occurred Multiple Times In Plant Terpene Synthase Evolution, Matthew L. Hillwig, Meimei Xu, Tomonobu Toyomasu, Mollie S. Tiernan, Gao Wei, Guanghong Cui, Luqi Huang, Reuben J. Peters 2011 Iowa State University

Domain Loss Has Independently Occurred Multiple Times In Plant Terpene Synthase Evolution, Matthew L. Hillwig, Meimei Xu, Tomonobu Toyomasu, Mollie S. Tiernan, Gao Wei, Guanghong Cui, Luqi Huang, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The extensive family of plant terpene synthases (TPSs) generally has a bi-domain structure, yet phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that these evolved from larger diterpene synthases. In particular, that duplication of the diterpene synthase genes required for gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis provided an early predecessor, whose loss of a ~220 amino acid “internal sequence element” (now recognized as the γ domain) gave rise to the precursor of modern mono- and sesqui-TPSs found in all higher plants. Intriguingly, TPSs are conserved by taxonomic relationships rather than function, demonstrating that such functional radiation has occurred both repeatedly and relatively recently, yet phylogenetic analyses assume ...


Assessing The Efficiency Of Phenotypic And Molecular Genotype Selection Methods For Complex Traits In Soybean, Catherine Nyaguthii Nyinyi 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Assessing The Efficiency Of Phenotypic And Molecular Genotype Selection Methods For Complex Traits In Soybean, Catherine Nyaguthii Nyinyi

Doctoral Dissertations

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important source of protein and oil for both nutritional and industrial applications. Increasing seed yield and protein concentration is the main goal of many soybean breeders to meet market demands. Soybean breeders have occasionally succeeded in producing high yielding cultivars with increased protein content using conventional means despite the negative correlation that exists between these two traits. The efficiency of breeding for seed yield and protein concentration improvement in soybean could be increased using marker assisted selection (MAS) breeding strategies to select genotypes containing favorable alleles for faster cultivar development. The objective of ...


Characterization And Molecular Analysis Of University Of Arkansas Peach, Prunus Persica (L.) Batsch, Flesh Types And Development Of A Post-Harvest Evaluation Protocol For Arkansas Peach And Nectarine Genotypes, Paul James Sandefur 2011 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization And Molecular Analysis Of University Of Arkansas Peach, Prunus Persica (L.) Batsch, Flesh Types And Development Of A Post-Harvest Evaluation Protocol For Arkansas Peach And Nectarine Genotypes, Paul James Sandefur

Theses and Dissertations

This study determined the effect of pre-cold storage treatment on P. persica genotypes, developed a protocol for the evaluation of breeding selection and cultivar storage performance, and provided information on post-harvest performance of these individuals. Additionally, characterization of the peach and nectarine flesh types, validation of endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) DNA markers, and investigation of endoPG marker allele combinations associated with the slow-melting-flesh (SMF) trait were done.

Fruit from 30 individuals were harvested at minimum- and well-mature states. After conditioning for 24 h at 20 ◦C, all 2010 fruit were exposed to 2 min of 1 ◦C 100 ppm chlorinated hydro-cooling, a ...


Regulatory Considerations Surrounding The Deployment Of Bt-Expressing Cowpea In Africa: Report Of The Deliberations Of An Expert Panel, Joseph E. Huesing, Jörg Romeis, Norman C. Ellstrand, Alan Raybould, Richard L. Hellmich, Jeffrey D. Wolt, Jeffrey D. Ehlers, L. Clémentine Dabiré-Binso, Christian A. Fatokun, Karen E. Hokanson, Mohammed F. Ishiyaku, Venu M. Margam, Nompumelelo Obokoh, Jacob D. Mignouna, Francis Nang'ayo, Jeremy T. Ouedraogo, Rémy S. Pasquet, Barry R. Pittendrigh, Barbara A. Schaal, Jeff Stein, Manuele Tamò, Larry L. Murdock 2011 Purdue University

Regulatory Considerations Surrounding The Deployment Of Bt-Expressing Cowpea In Africa: Report Of The Deliberations Of An Expert Panel, Joseph E. Huesing, Jörg Romeis, Norman C. Ellstrand, Alan Raybould, Richard L. Hellmich, Jeffrey D. Wolt, Jeffrey D. Ehlers, L. Clémentine Dabiré-Binso, Christian A. Fatokun, Karen E. Hokanson, Mohammed F. Ishiyaku, Venu M. Margam, Nompumelelo Obokoh, Jacob D. Mignouna, Francis Nang'ayo, Jeremy T. Ouedraogo, Rémy S. Pasquet, Barry R. Pittendrigh, Barbara A. Schaal, Jeff Stein, Manuele Tamò, Larry L. Murdock

Entomology Publications

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation – predominately from the legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata), flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) and a complex of pod-sucking bugs (e.g.,Clavigralla spp) – is a major yield-limiting factor in West African cowpea production. Dramatic increases in yield are shown when M. vitrata is controlled with insecticides. However, availability, costs, and safety considerations limit pesticides ...


Parsing A Multifunctional Biosynthetic Gene Cluster From Rice: Biochemical Characterization Of Cyp71z6 & 7, Yinsheng Wu, Matthew L. Hillwig, Qiang Wang, Reuben J. Peters 2011 Iowa State University

Parsing A Multifunctional Biosynthetic Gene Cluster From Rice: Biochemical Characterization Of Cyp71z6 & 7, Yinsheng Wu, Matthew L. Hillwig, Qiang Wang, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Rice (Oryza sativa) contains a biosynthetic gene cluster associated with production of at least two groups of diterpenoid phytoalexins, the antifungal phytocassanes and antibacterial oryzalides. While cytochromes P450 (CYP) from this cluster are known to be involved in phytocassane production, such mono-oxygenase activity relevant to oryzalide biosynthesis was unknown. Here we report biochemical characterization demonstrating that CYP71Z6 from this cluster acts as an ent-isokaurene C2-hydroxylase that is presumably involved in the biosynthesis of oryzalides. Our results further suggest that the closely related and co-clustered CYP71Z7 likely acts as a C2- hydroxylase involved in a latter step of phytocassane biosynthesis. Thus ...


Smp1-3 Insight Into Seed Longevity, Taylor Lloyd 2011 University of Kentucky

Smp1-3 Insight Into Seed Longevity, Taylor Lloyd

Kaleidoscope

No abstract provided.


Developing Genomics Tools For The Western Corn Rootworm – Progress And Promise, Thomas W. Sappington 2011 United States Department of Agriculture

Developing Genomics Tools For The Western Corn Rootworm – Progress And Promise, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The Diabrotica Genetics Consortium was organized in 2003 as a way to enhance and encourage communication among scientists in North America and Europe conducting research on all aspects of rootworm genetics (Sappington et al. 2006). The initial impetus for organizing ourselves was the mutual discovery that five laboratories in the US and France were simultaneously engaged in, or about to engage in, development of microsatellite DNA markers for population genetics studies of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. Development of microsatellites is a costly and rather time-consuming endeavor. We agreed that we could all benefit from more efficient use ...


Collaborative Research: Gymnosperms On The Tree Of Life: Resolving The Phylogeny Of Seed Plants, Christopher S. Campbell 2011 Principal Investigator; University of Maine, Orono

Collaborative Research: Gymnosperms On The Tree Of Life: Resolving The Phylogeny Of Seed Plants, Christopher S. Campbell

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

An award is made to Sarah Mathews (Lead PI), Jianhua Li (Co-PI), Harvard University; Reed S. Beaman (PI), Nico Cellinese (Co-PI), Yale University; Christopher S. Campbell (PI), University of Maine; Richard C. Cronn (Collaborator), USDA Forest Service; Sean W. Graham (Co-PI), University of British Columbia; Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond (PI), University of Alaska; Dean G. Kelch (PI), University of California-Berkeley and California State Herbarium; Aaron I. Liston (PI), Oregon State University; Linda A. Raubeson (PI), Central Washington University; Gar W. Rothwell (PI), Gene Mapes (Co-PI), Ohio University; Andrea E. Schwarzbach (PI), University of Texas-Brownsville; Dennis W. Stevenson (PI), New York Botanical ...


Extensive Clonal Spread And Extreme Longevity In Saw Palmetto, A Foundation Clonal Plant, Mizuki K. Takahashi, Liana M. Horner, Toshiro Kubota, Nathan A. Keller, Warren G. Abrahamson II 2011 Bucknell University

Extensive Clonal Spread And Extreme Longevity In Saw Palmetto, A Foundation Clonal Plant, Mizuki K. Takahashi, Liana M. Horner, Toshiro Kubota, Nathan A. Keller, Warren G. Abrahamson Ii

Faculty Journal Articles

The lack of effective tools have hampered our ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate ...


Use Of Natural Variation Reveals Core Genes In The Transcriptome Of Iron-Deficient Arabidopsis Thaliana Roots, Ricardo J. Stein, Brian M. Waters 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Use Of Natural Variation Reveals Core Genes In The Transcriptome Of Iron-Deficient Arabidopsis Thaliana Roots, Ricardo J. Stein, Brian M. Waters

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral micronutrient for plants and animals. Plants respond to Fe deficiency by increasing root uptake capacity. Identification of gene networks for Fe uptake and homeostasis could result in improved crop growth and nutritional value. Previous studies have used microarrays to identify a large number of genes regulated by Fe deficiency in roots of three Arabidopsis ecotypes. However, a large proportion of these genes may be involved in secondary or genotype-influenced responses rather than in a universal role in Fe uptake or homeostasis. Here we show that a small percentage of the Fe deficiency transcriptome of ...


Transposon Ac/Ds -Induced Chromosomal Rearrangements At The Rice Osrlg5 Locus, Yuan Hu Xuan, Hai Long Piao, Byoung Il Je, Soon Ju Park, Jin Huang, Jian Bo Zhang, Thomas Peterson, Chang-deok Han 2011 Gyeongsang National University

Transposon Ac/Ds -Induced Chromosomal Rearrangements At The Rice Osrlg5 Locus, Yuan Hu Xuan, Hai Long Piao, Byoung Il Je, Soon Ju Park, Jin Huang, Jian Bo Zhang, Thomas Peterson, Chang-Deok Han

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Previous studies have shown that pairs of closely-linked Ac/Ds transposable elements can induce various chromosomal rearrangements in plant genomes. To study chromosomal rearrangements in rice, we isolated a line ( OsRLG5-161) that contains two inversely-oriented Ds insertions in OsRLG5 ( Oryza sativa Receptor like kinase Gene 5). Among approximately 300 plants regenerated from OsRLG5-161 heterozygous seeds, 107 contained rearrangements including deletions, duplications and inversions of various sizes. Most rearrangements were induced by previously identified alternative transposition mechanism. Furthermore, we also detected a new class of rearrangements that contain juxtaposed inversions and deletions on the same chromosome. We propose that these novel ...


A Strawberry Knox Gene Regulates Leaf, Flower And Meristem Architecture, Mithu Chatterjee, Claudia L. Bermudez-Lozano, Maureen A. Clancy, Thomas M. Davis, Kevin M. Folta 2011 University of Florida

A Strawberry Knox Gene Regulates Leaf, Flower And Meristem Architecture, Mithu Chatterjee, Claudia L. Bermudez-Lozano, Maureen A. Clancy, Thomas M. Davis, Kevin M. Folta

Biological Sciences Scholarship

The KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN (KNOX) genes play a central role in maintenance of the shoot apical meristem. They also contribute to the morphology of simple and compound leaves. In this report we characterize the FaKNOX1 gene from strawberry (Fragaria spp.) and demonstrate its function in trasgenic plants. The FaKNOX1 cDNA was isolated from a cultivated strawberry (F.×ananassa) flower EST library. The sequence is most similar to Class I KNOX genes, and was mapped to linkage group VI of the diploid strawberry genome. Unlike most KNOX genes studied, steady-state transcript levels were highest in flowers and fruits. Transcripts were also detected ...


Changes In Twelve Homoeologous Genomic Regions In Soybean Following Three Rounds Of Polyploidy, Andrew J. Severin, Steven B. Cannon, Michelle Graham, David Grant, Randy C. Shoemaker 2011 Iowa State University

Changes In Twelve Homoeologous Genomic Regions In Soybean Following Three Rounds Of Polyploidy, Andrew J. Severin, Steven B. Cannon, Michelle Graham, David Grant, Randy C. Shoemaker

Agronomy Publications

With the advent of high-throughput sequencing, the availability of genomic sequence for comparative genomics is increasing exponentially. Numerous completed plant genome sequences enable characterization of patterns of the retention and evolution of genes within gene families due to multiple polyploidy events, gene loss and fractionation, and differential evolutionary pressures over time and across different gene families. In this report, we trace the changes that have occurred in 12 surviving homoeologous genomic regions from three rounds of polyploidy that contributed to the current Glycine max genome: a genome triplication before the origin of the rosids (;130 to 240 million years ago ...


Muts Homolog1 Is A Nucleoid Protein That Alters Mitochondrial And Plastid Properties And Plant Response To High Light, Ying-Zhi Xu, Maria P. Arrieta-Montiel, Kamaldeep S. Virdi, Wilson B. M. de Paula, Joshua R. Widhalm, Gilles J. Basset, Jaime I. Davila, Thomas Elthon, Christian G. Elowsky, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Sally Ann MacKenzie 2011 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Muts Homolog1 Is A Nucleoid Protein That Alters Mitochondrial And Plastid Properties And Plant Response To High Light, Ying-Zhi Xu, Maria P. Arrieta-Montiel, Kamaldeep S. Virdi, Wilson B. M. De Paula, Joshua R. Widhalm, Gilles J. Basset, Jaime I. Davila, Thomas Elthon, Christian G. Elowsky, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Sally Ann Mackenzie

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Mitochondrial-plastid interdependence within the plant cell is presumed to be essential, but measurable demonstration of this intimate interaction is difficult. At the level of cellular metabolism, several biosynthetic pathways involve both mitochondrial- and plastid-localized steps. However, at an environmental response level, it is not clear how the two organelles intersect in programmed cellular responses. Here, we provide evidence, using genetic perturbation of the MutS Homolog1 (MSH1) nuclear gene in five plant species, that MSH1 functions within the mitochondrion and plastid to influence organellar genome behavior and plant growth patterns. The mitochondrial form of the protein participates in DNA recombination surveillance ...


Rna-Mediated Silencing In Algae: Biological Roles And Tools For Analysis Of Gene Function, Heriberto Cerutti, Xinrong Ma, Joseph Msanne, Timothy Repas 2011 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rna-Mediated Silencing In Algae: Biological Roles And Tools For Analysis Of Gene Function, Heriberto Cerutti, Xinrong Ma, Joseph Msanne, Timothy Repas

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively ...


Aronia Mitschurinii: Solving A Horticultural Enigma, Peter J. Leonard 2011 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Aronia Mitschurinii: Solving A Horticultural Enigma, Peter J. Leonard

Master's Theses

Aronia (Medik.), commonly known as chokeberry, is a taxonomically misunderstood genus currently experiencing a renaissance in North America as both an ornamental and fruit crop. Three species of chokeberry are commonly accepted as native in North America: A. arbutifolia (L.) Pers. red chokeberry; A. melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot, black chokeberry; and A. prunifolia (Marshall) Rehder, or purple chokeberry. In Europe a fourth species of human origin is recognized as Aronia mitschurinii (A.K.Skvortsov & Maitul.), or cultivated, black-fruited Aronia. It is widely speculated that this genotype originated in the early 20th century with Russian pomologist Ivan Michurin, as the product ...


The Role Of A Transcription Factor In Regulating Rice Response To Drought Stress, Diana Ha, Liyuan A. Zhang, Jeffery Shen 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Role Of A Transcription Factor In Regulating Rice Response To Drought Stress, Diana Ha, Liyuan A. Zhang, Jeffery Shen

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

The current water shortage is a major concern in regard to our global climate change crisis. A decrease in the availability of water will have direct effects on the development of plants. Some crops, such as Oryza sativa, or commonly known as rice, requires an abundant amount of water for adequate growth. With the water shortage crisis, it will become extremely difficult to harvest such crops to meet the world’s food demand. However, many plants have evolved mechanisms for overcoming and tolerating stresses such as drought. My research focuses on studying the proteins involved with these mechanisms. The WRKY ...


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