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A Comparison Of The Tensile Strength Of Leaves In Encelia Californica In Canyon And Beach Species, Anna Chowaniec, Annie Lee, Hayley Springs 2010 Pepperdine University

A Comparison Of The Tensile Strength Of Leaves In Encelia Californica In Canyon And Beach Species, Anna Chowaniec, Annie Lee, Hayley Springs

Featured Research

Our research is concerned with the further exploration of leaf biomechanics, a relatively unexamined field. The purpose of this experiment was to find a correlation between environmental stress factors and tensile strength of leaves of Encelia californica. We hypothesized the beach species would have a higher tensile strength than canyon species. After evaluating data collected from both Pepperdine’s Presidents Canyon and Malibu beach we found that while the canyon species could withstand a higher maximum load of force, there was no difference between the canyon and the beach species with leaf area taken into account. Using Young’s Modulus ...


Comparing Leaf Properties Of Inland And Coastal Malosma Laurina In The Santa Monica Mountains, Rosemary Busch Conn, Lauren Parker, Brittany Sawrey 2010 Pepperdine University

Comparing Leaf Properties Of Inland And Coastal Malosma Laurina In The Santa Monica Mountains, Rosemary Busch Conn, Lauren Parker, Brittany Sawrey

Featured Research

Our group chose Malosma laurina, commonly known as Laurel Sumac, to observe and test. We hypothesized that there would be difference in photosynthetic trade-offs and capabilities between coastal and inland populations, specifically with respect to leaves. This was based on the low freezing tolerance in Malosma laurina (Pratt et al. 2005), and hypothesized that based on this stress, resources would be allocated differently in inland leaves than in coastal leaves. This hypothesis was tested using the indices of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), the ratio of green to red reflectance, and Leaf Specific Area (LSA ...


Post-­Fire Alterations In Mechanical Strength Of Leaves In Heteromeles Arbutifolia, Andrew Hair, Madeline DiLascia, Nick Novella, Taylor Wurdeman 2010 Pepperdine University

Post-­Fire Alterations In Mechanical Strength Of Leaves In Heteromeles Arbutifolia, Andrew Hair, Madeline Dilascia, Nick Novella, Taylor Wurdeman

Featured Research

Wildfires in the Santa Monica mountains in Southern California burn down a decent percentage of the local vegetation. However, some plants like Heteromeles Arbutifolia, are considered to be resprouters because they return a mere two years after being burnt down. It is hypothesized that the artificially browsed resprout leaves will have a lower tensile strength than both the young and adult leaves because they use a lower amount of carbohydrates per unit-leaf-area. Data showed that although there was a slight different between the young leaves and the adult leaves of the Heteromeles, there was no statistically significant difference between the ...


Tensile Strength Of Malosma Laurina Leaves In Wet And Dry Conditions, T. Candelore, N. Despenza, L. Garrison, L. Hinther 2010 Pepperdine University

Tensile Strength Of Malosma Laurina Leaves In Wet And Dry Conditions, T. Candelore, N. Despenza, L. Garrison, L. Hinther

Featured Research

Pepperdine University is one located in one of the most diverse places of the world. It is located in the Mediterranean which occupies less than 5% of the earth's landmass and is only found in five areas which includes California. On the campus there are several canyons. One of the canyons is called Winter Canyon. The canyon contained a plant called Malosma laurina which is located in a riparian environment and a chaparral environment. The plant grows in both areas however, our hypothesis was that the dry plants' leaves would demonstrate more plasticity. The soil humidity was also measured ...


Effect Of Petiole-­To-­Branchlet Angle On Tensile Stress And Tensile Strength In Heteromeles Arbutifolia, Matt W. Andrus, Anthony P. Lisankis, Valen C. Anderson 2010 Pepperdine University

Effect Of Petiole-­To-­Branchlet Angle On Tensile Stress And Tensile Strength In Heteromeles Arbutifolia, Matt W. Andrus, Anthony P. Lisankis, Valen C. Anderson

Featured Research

Heteromeles arbutifolia an important chaparral species of southern California, Is a food source for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). This predation has become more pronounced as the climate shifts to hotter, drier, and longer summers. Other species that the deer normally feed on cannot survive these harsh conditions, while Heteromeles arbutifolia is able to persevere (Letourneau, 2004). We decided that there must be mechanisms involved in the petiole of leafs to keep them from being pulled off by deer and strong winds. Our group hypothesized that as the angle between the petiole and branchlet increased, the tensile strength of the petiole ...


Fine Mapping Of The Soybean Aphid-Resistance Gene Rag2 In Soybean Pi 200538, Ki-Seung Kim, Curtis B. Hill, Glen L. Hartman, D. L. Hyten, Matthew E. Hudson, Brian W. Diers 2010 University of Illinois

Fine Mapping Of The Soybean Aphid-Resistance Gene Rag2 In Soybean Pi 200538, Ki-Seung Kim, Curtis B. Hill, Glen L. Hartman, D. L. Hyten, Matthew E. Hudson, Brian W. Diers

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The discovery of biotype diversity of soybean aphid (SA: Aphis glycines Matsumura) in North America emphasizes the necessity to identify new aphid-resistance genes. The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plant introduction (PI) 200538 is a promising source of SA resistance because it shows a high level of resistance to a SA biotype that can overcome the SA-resistance gene Rag1 from ‘Dowling’. The SA-resistance gene Rag2 was previously mapped from PI 200538 to a 10-cM marker interval on soybean chromosome 13 [formerly linkage group (LG) F]. The objective of this study was to fine map Rag2. This fine mapping was carried ...


The Wheat Bzip Factor, Taabf1, Mediates Aba-Induced Gene Expression In Bombarded Barley Aleurone Layers, Benjamin R. Keyser 2010 Colby College

The Wheat Bzip Factor, Taabf1, Mediates Aba-Induced Gene Expression In Bombarded Barley Aleurone Layers, Benjamin R. Keyser

Honors Theses

The plant hormone Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in maturation and germination in seeds, as well as mediating adaptive responses to abiotic environmental stresses. ABA induces the expression of many genes, including late-embryogenesis-abundant genes such as HVA1. To elucidate the ABA signaling pathway leading to HVA1 expression, we focus on the bZIP factor TaABF1. Analysis of the interplay between ABA and TaABF1 in the aleurone cells of imbibing cereal grains indicated that the two are not additive in their induction of the HVA1 promoter. A synthetic ABA analog, PBI-51, did not specifically inhibit the effect of exogenous ABA ...


The Role Of Taabf1 In Abscisic Acid-Mediated Suppression Of -Amylase Gene Expression In Cereal Grains, Lauren J. Harris 2010 Colby College

The Role Of Taabf1 In Abscisic Acid-Mediated Suppression Of -Amylase Gene Expression In Cereal Grains, Lauren J. Harris

Honors Theses

The phytohormones gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate important developments events in germinating seeds. Specifically, GA induces the expression of hyrolase genes, like the α-amylase gene Amy32b, which mobilizes starch reserves to be used by the embryo, and ABA suppresses this induction. Recent advancements identified ABA and GA receptors and key components in the signaling pathways, however, the mechanism of crosstalk between the hormones remains largely unknown. To further elucidate the mechanism of ABA suppression of GA-induced genes, we focused on the transcription factor TaABF1, a member of the ABA response element binding factor family. TaABF1 has been shown ...


Regulation Of Septum Formation By The Bud3–Rho4 Gtpase Module In Aspergillus Nidulans, Haoyu Si, Daniela Justa-Schuch, Stephan Seiler, Steven D. Harris 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Regulation Of Septum Formation By The Bud3–Rho4 Gtpase Module In Aspergillus Nidulans, Haoyu Si, Daniela Justa-Schuch, Stephan Seiler, Steven D. Harris

Papers in Plant Pathology

The ability of fungi to generate polarized cells with a variety of shapes likely reflects precise temporal and spatial control over the formation of polarity axes. The bud site selection system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents the best-understood example of such a morphogenetic regulatory system. However, the extent to which this system is conserved in the highly polarized filamentous fungi remains unknown. Here, we describe the functional characterization and localization of the Aspergillus nidulans homolog of the axial bud site marker Bud3. Our results show that AnBud3 is not required for polarized hyphal growth per se, but is involved in septum ...


Don't Judge A Book By Its Cover: The Curious Case Of Wild Ginger Pollination, W. John Hayden 2010 University of Richmond

Don't Judge A Book By Its Cover: The Curious Case Of Wild Ginger Pollination, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

What pollinates wild ginger? This seems like an easy question. The inconspicuous little flowers are held close to the forest floor, often completely hidden by a dense canopy of ginger leaves above. Flower color is rather drab, dominated by brown and maroon hues. Wind pollination seems completely unlikely and flowers pollinated by bees, butterflies, moths, or hummingbirds are always much more showy and accessible to these flying creatures. Flies, however, given their natural inclination to seek carrion as a food source for their babies (i.e. maggots), are often attracted to brown and maroon flowers. And because their actual quarry ...


2010 Wildflower Of The Year: Wild Ginger, Asarum Canadense, W. John Hayden 2010 University of Richmond

2010 Wildflower Of The Year: Wild Ginger, Asarum Canadense, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Wild ginger is a low herbaceous plant. The stem consists of a branched creeping rhizome at or just below the soil surface. Soft-hairy leaves arise in pairs annually from rhizome branches. Petioles can be up to 20 cm long, elevating the 7—25 mm wide kidney-shaped leaf blades above the forest floor. Small flowers appear in the spring shortly after the leaves have expanded. Typically, one must push the leaves aside in order to glimpse the jug-like flowers. A single flower stalk appears between the paired leaf bases, but it is short and barely lifts the flower above the soil ...


Molecular Studies Of 5-Azacytidine-Induced Early-Flowering Lines Of Flax, Megan A. House 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Molecular Studies Of 5-Azacytidine-Induced Early-Flowering Lines Of Flax, Megan A. House

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Several early-flowering flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) lines were derived from treatment of germinating seeds with 5-azacytidine in 1990. These lines are also shorter, have fewer leaves, and their DNA is hypomethylated, relative to their corresponding controls. The work presented in this thesis used early-flowering and control lines of the Royal (R) flax genotype, and the Large (L) flax genotroph. Firstly, levels of cytosine methylation were measured over a 24-hour period in the early-flowering line RE2 and its control (RC), using an HPLC method. Secondly, to determine the response of the flax lines to short-day conditions, control and early-flowering lines from ...


Translational Inhibition By Micrornas In Plants, Bin Yu, Hai Wang 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Translational Inhibition By Micrornas In Plants, Bin Yu, Hai Wang

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21–24 nucleotide riboregulators, which selectively repress gene expression through transcript cleavage and/or translational inhibition. It was thought that most plant miRNAs act through target transcript cleavage due to the high degree of complementarity between miRNAs and their targets. However, recent studies have suggested widespread translational inhibition by miRNAs in plants. The mechanisms underlining translational inhibition by plant miRNAs are largely unknown, but existing evidence has indicated that plants and animals share some mechanistic similarity of translational inhibition. Translational inhibition by miRNAs has been shown to regulate floral patterning, floral timing, and stress responses. This chapter ...


Turnover Of Mature Mirnas And Sirnas In Plants And Algae, Heriberto Cerutti, Fadia Ibrahim 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Turnover Of Mature Mirnas And Sirnas In Plants And Algae, Heriberto Cerutti, Fadia Ibrahim

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

rnicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and defense responses against transposons and viruses in eukaryotes. These small RNAs generally trigger the silencing of cognate sequences through a variety of mechanisms, including RNA degradation, translational inhibition, and transcriptional repression. In the past few years, the synthesis and the mode of action of miRNAs and siRNAs have attracted great attention. However, relatively little is known about mechanisms of quality control during small RNA biogenesis as well as those that regulate mature small RNA stability. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhahditis elegans have implicated 3 ...


Heterosis In Sweet Sorghum And Selection Of A New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid For Use In Syrup Production In Appalachia, T. W. Pfeiffer, M. J. Bitzer, J. J. Toy, Jeffrey F. Pedersen 2010 University of Kentucky

Heterosis In Sweet Sorghum And Selection Of A New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid For Use In Syrup Production In Appalachia, T. W. Pfeiffer, M. J. Bitzer, J. J. Toy, Jeffrey F. Pedersen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum × sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorghum hybrids for research and industry. Male sterility may also affect allocation of photosynthate to plant parts, creating the potential to increase sugar content in stems by eliminating seed as a sink. The objectives of this study were to compare performance of A3 cytoplasmic male-sterile lines and A3 cytoplasmic male-sterile hybrids to fertile B3 counterparts ...


Insights Into The World Of Pea Nodulation Using The Low Nodulator R50, Scott Clemow 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Insights Into The World Of Pea Nodulation Using The Low Nodulator R50, Scott Clemow

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Cytokinin oxidase (CKX) is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of cytokinin, a class of adenine-based plant hormones that stimulate cell division, among other physiological processes. The pea mutant R50 is characterized by having a pale leaf phenotype, dwarf stature, few lateral roots, low nodule formation, and elevated levels of endogenous cytokinins in its shoots, roots and nodules. When compared to that of the wild-type Sparkle, total CKX activity is low but the transcript levels of PsCKX1 are significantly higher. In this study, I investigated the expression of PsCKX1 throughout the development of a nodule and the localization of PsCKX1 ...


Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert J. Kerriss III, Wuyi Wang, Brad M. Binder, G. Eric Schaller 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert J. Kerriss Iii, Wuyi Wang, Brad M. Binder, G. Eric Schaller

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived in Arabidopsis thaliana by a five-member receptor family composed of ETR1, ERS1, ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4. Methodology/Principal Findings

Gel-filtration analysis of ethylene receptors solubilized from Arabidopsis membranes demonstrates that the receptors exist as components of high-molecular-mass protein complexes. The ERS1 protein complex exhibits an ethylene-induced change in size consistent with ligand-mediated nucleation of protein-protein interactions. Deletion analysis supports the participation of multiple domains from ETR1 in formation of the protein complex, and also demonstrates that targeting to and retention of ETR1 at the endoplasmic reticulum only requires the first 147 amino acids ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Snail Grazing Facilitates Growth Of A Bloom-Forming Alga, Michele Guidone, Carol S. Thornber, Emily Field 2010 Sacred Heart University

Snail Grazing Facilitates Growth Of A Bloom-Forming Alga, Michele Guidone, Carol S. Thornber, Emily Field

Biology Faculty Publications

Herbivory often has a negative effect on plants. However, there is a growing number of examples, primarily in terrestrial ecosystems, where herbivory causes an increase in plant size, growth rate, and/or reproductive output. In marine ecosystems, the positive effects of herbivores on macroalgae are not as well studied, although limited evidence exists for herbivore-induced increases in macroalgal growth rates via 2 mechanisms: nutrient addition via grazer defecation, and epiphyte removal. In this study, we examined the effects of grazing by the mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta on Ulva lactuca, the dominant bloom-forming macroalga in many New England estuaries. We found ...


Fine Mapping Of The Scn Resistance Locus Rhg1-B From Pi 88788, Myungsik Kim, David L. Hyten, Andrew F. Bent, Brian W. Diers 2010 University of Illinois

Fine Mapping Of The Scn Resistance Locus Rhg1-B From Pi 88788, Myungsik Kim, David L. Hyten, Andrew F. Bent, Brian W. Diers

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is the most economically damaging soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] pest in the USA and genetic resistance is a key component for its control. Although SCN resistance is quantitative, the rhg1 locus on chromosome 18 (formerly known as Linkage Group G) confers a high level of resistance. The objective of this study was to fi ne-map the rhg1-b allele that is derived from plant introduction (PI) 88788. F2 and F3 plants and F3:4 lines from crosses between SCN resistant and susceptible genotypes were tested with genetic markers to identify ...


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