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Unique Functionality Of 22 Nt Mirnas In Triggering Rdr6-Dependent Sirna Biogenesis From Target Transcripts In Arabidopsis, Josh T. Cuperus, Alberto Carbonell, Noah Fahlgren, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Russell T. Burke, Atsushi Takeda, Christopher M. Sullivan, Sunny D. Gilbert, Taiowa A. Montgomery, James C. Carrington 2010 Oregon State University

Unique Functionality Of 22 Nt Mirnas In Triggering Rdr6-Dependent Sirna Biogenesis From Target Transcripts In Arabidopsis, Josh T. Cuperus, Alberto Carbonell, Noah Fahlgren, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Russell T. Burke, Atsushi Takeda, Christopher M. Sullivan, Sunny D. Gilbert, Taiowa A. Montgomery, James C. Carrington

Papers in Plant Pathology

RNA interference pathways may involve amplification of secondary siRNAs by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. In plants, RDR6-dependent secondary siRNAs arise from transcripts targeted by some microRNA (miRNA). Here, Arabidopsis thaliana secondary siRNA from mRNA, and trans-acting siRNA, are shown to be triggered through initial targeting by 22 nt miRNA that associate with AGO1. In contrast to canonical 21 nt miRNA, 22 nt miRNA primarily arise from foldback precursors containing asymmetric bulges. Using artificial miRNA constructs, conversion of asymmetric foldbacks to symmetric foldbacks resulted in production of 21 nt forms of miR173, miR472 and miR828. Both 21 and 22 nt forms associated ...


The Spatial Influence Of Aboveground Diversity On Belowground Communities, T. Bliss, Thomas O. Powers, Chad Brassil 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Spatial Influence Of Aboveground Diversity On Belowground Communities, T. Bliss, Thomas O. Powers, Chad Brassil

Papers in Plant Pathology

Little is known about the effect of diversity surrounding a focal plant species on the belowground community under that species. At least two alternative hypotheses exist. First, studies involving a range of ecosystems and taxonomic groups have shown that changes in diversity in one group of species can promote diversity in other groups. Alternatively, many studies in soil ecology have shown that belowground communities are strongly determined by the dominant aboveground species. To better understand the role of aboveground diversity on belowground communities, we examined soil nematode communities directly under Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) in areas of high and low surrounding ...


Insect-Damaged Corn Stalks Decompose At Rates Similar To Bt-Protected, Non-Damaged Corn Stalks, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Deirdre A. Prischmann-Voldseth, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Insect-Damaged Corn Stalks Decompose At Rates Similar To Bt-Protected, Non-Damaged Corn Stalks, R. Michael Lehman, Shannon L. Osborne, Deirdre A. Prischmann-Voldseth, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

The relative decomposability of corn (Zea mays L.) residues from insect (Bt)-protected hybrids and conventional hybrids cultivated under insect pressure was investigated in two studies. Above-ground biomass, residue macromolecular composition, and stalk physical strength were also measured. In the first decomposition study, chopped residues (stalks and leaves) were used from a corn rootworm-protected (Cry3Bb1) hybrid and its non-Bt near isoline that were grown in replicated plots infested with corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.). In the second study, residue (intact stalk sections) was used from three European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner)-resistant (Cry1Ab) hybrids representing different seed manufacturer/maturity ...


Temporal And Spatial Assessment Of Evaporation, Transpiration, And Soil Moisture Redistribution, Brian M. Bird 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Temporal And Spatial Assessment Of Evaporation, Transpiration, And Soil Moisture Redistribution, Brian M. Bird

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

At a native stand of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) in North Las Vegas, a rainfall simulation study was conducted over a 12 month period from October 2005 to October 2006. Simulated rainfall occurred during the winter, spring, summer, and fall periods. Rainfall simulation systems were positioned on each of 12 plots, each containing a single creosote bush. Simulated rainfall events occurred at night with multiple short pulses designed to maximize infiltration while minimizing ponding. Yearly simulated rainfall amounts were set at 0, 15, 30 and 60 cm (replicated three times) and were approximately 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6 ...


Reestablishing Diversity In Our Hardwood Forests: A Transplant Study Of Five Spring-Flowering Herbs, Danielle Racke 2010 Western Kentucky University

Reestablishing Diversity In Our Hardwood Forests: A Transplant Study Of Five Spring-Flowering Herbs, Danielle Racke

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Herbaceous communities are critical to the functioning of forest ecosystems. They recycle nutrients, help prevent erosion, provide critical microhabitats and maintain biodiversity. In the eastern United States, most hardwood forests are growing on land once entirely cleared or used for some form of agriculture. Although some of these forests are nearly 150 years old, they still have depauperate native herbaceous communities when compared to remaining old-growth forests. This long-term depletion may result from dispersal limitation or environmental limitation.

I tested the hypothesis that dispersal was the primary factor contributing to the absence of five spring-flowering herbaceous species in four secondary ...


Elemol And Amyris Oil Repel The Ticks Ixodes Scapularis And Amblyomma Americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) In Laboratory Bioassays., J.F. Carroll, G. Paluch, Joel R. Coats, M. Kramer 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Elemol And Amyris Oil Repel The Ticks Ixodes Scapularis And Amblyomma Americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) In Laboratory Bioassays., J.F. Carroll, G. Paluch, Joel R. Coats, M. Kramer

Entomology Publications

The essential oil from Amyris balsamifera (Rutaceae) and elemol, a principal constituent of the essential oil of Osage orange, Maclura pomifera (Moraceae) were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick,Ixodes scapularis, and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Both bioassays took advantage of the tendency of these host-seeking ticks to climb slender vertical surfaces. In one bioassay, the central portion of a vertical strip of filter paper was treated with test solution and ticks placed or allowed to crawl onto the untreated lower portion. In the other ...


Alteration In Lignin Biosynthesis Restricts Growth Of Fusarium Spp. In Brown Midrib Sorghum, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, Scott E. Sattler 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Alteration In Lignin Biosynthesis Restricts Growth Of Fusarium Spp. In Brown Midrib Sorghum, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, Scott E. Sattler

Papers in Plant Pathology

To improve sorghum for bioenergy and forage uses, brown midrib (bmr)6 and -12 near-isogenic genotypes were developed in different sorghum backgrounds. The bmr6 and bmr12 grain had significantly reduced colonization by members of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex compared with the wild type, as detected on two semiselective media. Fusarium spp. were identified using sequence analysis of a portion of the translation elongation factor (TEF) 1-α gene. The pathogens Fusarium thapsinum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides, G. fujikuroi members, were commonly recovered. Other frequently isolated Fusarium spp. likely colonize sorghum asymptomatically. The χ2 analyses showed that the ratios of ...


Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Time Period: May 1 — June 30, 2010, Margaret N. Rees 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Time Period: May 1 — June 30, 2010, Margaret N. Rees

Fire Science

  • Article entitled “Competitive Hierarchy of Native Desert Plants with Red Brome (Bromus rubens): Towards Identifying Invasion-Reducing Species" was submitted to the Invasive Plant Science and Management journal.
  • Maintained nursery plots and added installment of nitrogen treatment.
  • Took measurements in nursery (competition) plots and harvested biomass.


Following Tetraploidy In Maize, A Short Deletion Mechanism Removed Genes Preferentially From One Of The Two Homeologs, Margaret R. Woodhouse, James C. Schnable, Brent S. Pedersen, Eric Lyons, Damon Lisch, Shabarinath Subramaniam, Michael Freeling 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Following Tetraploidy In Maize, A Short Deletion Mechanism Removed Genes Preferentially From One Of The Two Homeologs, Margaret R. Woodhouse, James C. Schnable, Brent S. Pedersen, Eric Lyons, Damon Lisch, Shabarinath Subramaniam, Michael Freeling

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Previous work in Arabidopsis showed that after an ancient tetraploidy event, genes were preferentially removed from one of the two homeologs, a process known as fractionation. The mechanism of fractionation is unknown. We sought to determine whether such preferential, or biased, fractionation exists in maize and, if so, whether a specific mechanism could be implicated in this process. We studied the process of fractionation using two recently sequenced grass species: sorghum and maize. The maize lineage has experienced a tetraploidy since its divergence from sorghum approximately 12 million years ago, and fragments of many knocked-out genes retain enough sequence similarity ...


Vittatidera Zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), A New Genus And Species Of Cyst Nematode Parasitic On Corn (Zea Mays), Ernest C. Bernard, Zafar A. Handoo, Thomas O. Powers, Patricia A. Donald, Robert D. Heinz 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Vittatidera Zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), A New Genus And Species Of Cyst Nematode Parasitic On Corn (Zea Mays), Ernest C. Bernard, Zafar A. Handoo, Thomas O. Powers, Patricia A. Donald, Robert D. Heinz

Papers in Plant Pathology

A new genus and species of cyst nematode, Vittatidera zeaphila, is described from Tennessee. The new genus is superficially similar to Cactodera but is distinguished from other cyst-forming taxa in having a persistent lateral field in females and cysts, persistent vulval lips covering a circumfenestrate vulva, and subventral gland nuclei of the female contained in a separate small lobe. Infective juveniles (J2) are distinguished from all previously described Cactodera spp. by the short stylet in the second-stage juvenile (14-17 mm); J2 of Cactodera spp. have stylets at least 18 mm long. The new species also is unusual in that the ...


Botanical Report Of Tierra Redonda Mountain Blm Area Of Critical Environmental Concern, San Luis Obispo County, California (W120˚59’41”; N35˚45’59”)., Anthony Baniaga, Andrew Theo Fitanides 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Botanical Report Of Tierra Redonda Mountain Blm Area Of Critical Environmental Concern, San Luis Obispo County, California (W120˚59’41”; N35˚45’59”)., Anthony Baniaga, Andrew Theo Fitanides

Biological Sciences

The purpose of this document is to report the results of a botanical survey of a portion of the Tierra Redonda Mountain Area of Critical Environmental Concern. The survey was conducted for the Bureau of Land Management, and executed between October 2009 and June 2010. Tierra Redonda Mountain is the type locality for the Tierra Redonda formation, and has weathered to form steep slopes of exposed chaparral and protected woodlands. Four general community types were found; foothill woodland, chaparral, southern coastal scrub and dune scrub. Alliances determined by The Manual of California Vegetation (2nd ed.) were: Quercus douglasii Woodland, Quercus ...


Origin Of The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 And Gene Silencing By An E(Z) Homolog In The Unicellular Alga Chlamydomonas, Scott Shaver, J. Armando Casas-Mollano, Ronald L. Cerny, Heriberto D. Cerutti 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Origin Of The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 And Gene Silencing By An E(Z) Homolog In The Unicellular Alga Chlamydomonas, Scott Shaver, J. Armando Casas-Mollano, Ronald L. Cerny, Heriberto D. Cerutti

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Polycomb group proteins play an essential role in the maintenance of cell identity and the regulation of development in both animals and plants. The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is involved in the establishment of transcriptionally silent chromatin states, in part through its ability to methylate lysine 27 of histone H3 by the Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] subunit. The absence of PRC2 in unicellular model fungi and its function in the repression of genes vital for the development of higher eukaryotes led to the proposal that this complex may have evolved together with the emergence of multicellularity. However, we ...


Characteristics Of Nectar Production And Standing Crop In Campsis Radicans (Bignoniaceae)., Andrea Alexis Edge 2010 East Tennessee State University

Characteristics Of Nectar Production And Standing Crop In Campsis Radicans (Bignoniaceae)., Andrea Alexis Edge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We examined several aspects of nectar production in Campsis radicans to better understand how standing crop is affected and how production affects pollinator visitation. In all experiments, nectar and concentration of flowers were measured and total sugar was calculated. Flowers do not produce additional nectar unless nectar is removed, and it is not resorbed. Volume of standing crop and total sugar fluctuates throughout the day, whereas concentration remains constant. Age and time of day significantly affect regeneration of nectar and sugar. The number of removals did not significantly affect the amount of nectar or sugar regenerated; however, concentration declined significantly ...


Assessing The Biological Condition Of Maine Streams And Rivers Using Benthic Algal Communities, Thomas John Danielson 2010 The University of Maine

Assessing The Biological Condition Of Maine Streams And Rivers Using Benthic Algal Communities, Thomas John Danielson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to test and develop algal methods of evaluating the condition of Maine streams and rivers. The primary objective was to develop a statistical model to predict attainment of Maine's aquatic life criteria for water quality classes A, B, and C. I collected 298 samples of algae on rocks from 193 locations across the state. The major pattern in species composition related to conversion of forests to urban, residential, and agricultural land uses. I calculated preferred environmental conditions of 236 algal taxa for 1) concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved ions in the water ...


Early Vessel Evolution And The Diversification Of Wood Function: Insights From The Malagasy Canellales, Patrick Joseph Hudson 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Early Vessel Evolution And The Diversification Of Wood Function: Insights From The Malagasy Canellales, Patrick Joseph Hudson

Masters Theses

Xylem vessels have long been proposed as a key innovation for the ecological diversification of angiosperms by providing a breakthrough in hydraulic efficiency to support high rates of photosynthesis and growth. However, recent studies demonstrated that angiosperm woods with structurally ‘primitive’ vessels did not have greater whole stem hydraulic capacities as compared to vesselless angiosperms. As an alternative to the hydraulic superiority hypothesis, the heteroxylly hypothesis proposes that subtle hydraulic efficiencies of primitive vessels over tracheids enabled new directions of functional specialization in the wood. However, the functional properties of early heteroxyllous wood remain unknown. We selected the two species ...


Effects Of Trinexapac-Ethyl And Winter Overseeding On The Morphological Characteristics And Traffic Tolerance Of Bermudagrass Cultivars, William D. Haselbauer 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Effects Of Trinexapac-Ethyl And Winter Overseeding On The Morphological Characteristics And Traffic Tolerance Of Bermudagrass Cultivars, William D. Haselbauer

Masters Theses

Common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and hybrid bermudagrass [C. dactylon (L.) Pers. X C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] are some of the most common turfgrasses used on athletic fields. Subsequently, the traffic tolerance of commercially available cultivars and the effects of trinexapac-ethyl (TE) on bermudagrass athletic fields with or without perennial ryegrass are often limited. A two year study at the University of Tennessee was conducted under simulated athletic field traffic to evaluate the performance of bermudagrass cultivars as affected by TE and overseeding. Bermudagrass cultivars evaluated were Tifway, Riviera, Patriot, and Celebration. TE treatments consisted of an untreated control, TE ...


Comparative Ecophysiology Of American Chestnut Under Different Planting Treatments On Reclaimed Mine Sites, Christopher Ryan Miller 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Comparative Ecophysiology Of American Chestnut Under Different Planting Treatments On Reclaimed Mine Sites, Christopher Ryan Miller

Masters Theses

American chestnut was once an abundant species that dominated the Eastern U.S. deciduous forests. Although this species is currently functionally extinct due to the chestnut blight, researchers are working on blight-resistant hybrids in hopes of restoring the species. As one potential vector for chestnut reintroduction and dispersal, the reclamation of mine sites are being considered. Recent research has found that reforestation efforts on these reclaimed mine sites provide productive tree growth while also complying with mine-reclamation laws. Understanding how American chestnut performs physiologically on mine sites will aid in the restoration of this species and reclamation of mine sites ...


Optimizing The Physical And Nutritional Environment Of Unleached Root-Zones, Curtis B. Adams 2010 Utah State University

Optimizing The Physical And Nutritional Environment Of Unleached Root-Zones, Curtis B. Adams

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Unleached root-zones represent an environmental ideal by eliminating wasteful leaching of nutrients and water. NASA grows plants in space in unleached root-zones, incorporating polymer-coated fertilizer (PCF) into a ceramic media (Turface or Profile). However, lack of growth productivity in space has led to the need for research to improve the nutritional and physical environment of the root-zone, which is the objective of this research. PCF types are diverse in release characteristics and the effects of temperature and substrate water content have not been well characterized. In spite of widespread use, studies on chemical properties and applied studies to verify soil ...


Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Time Period: January 1 — April 30, 2010, Margaret N. Rees 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Time Period: January 1 — April 30, 2010, Margaret N. Rees

Fire Science

  • Article entitled “Competitive Hierarchy of Native Desert Plants with Red Brome (Bromus rubens): Towards Identifying Invasion-Reducing Species" was submitted to the Invasive Plant Science and Management journal
  • Maintained nursery plots and added installment of nitrogen treatment.
  • Took measurements in nursery (competition) plots and harvested biomass.


The Loss Of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk And Geographic Areas Of Global Concern, Beth A. Polidoro, Kent E. Carpenter, Lorna Collins, Norman C. Duke, Aaron M. Ellison, Joanna C. Ellison, Elizabeth J. Farnsworth, Edwino S. Fernando, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Nico E. Koedam, Suzanne R. Livingstone, Toyohiko Miyagi, Gregg E. Moore, Vien Ngoc Nam, Jin Eong Ong, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Serverino G. Salmo, Jonnell C. Sanciango, Sukristijono Sukardjo, Yamin Wang, Jean Wan Hong Yong 2010 Old Dominion University

The Loss Of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk And Geographic Areas Of Global Concern, Beth A. Polidoro, Kent E. Carpenter, Lorna Collins, Norman C. Duke, Aaron M. Ellison, Joanna C. Ellison, Elizabeth J. Farnsworth, Edwino S. Fernando, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Nico E. Koedam, Suzanne R. Livingstone, Toyohiko Miyagi, Gregg E. Moore, Vien Ngoc Nam, Jin Eong Ong, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Serverino G. Salmo, Jonnell C. Sanciango, Sukristijono Sukardjo, Yamin Wang, Jean Wan Hong Yong

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of ...


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