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Biofilm Ash Free Dry Mass And Chlorophyll A, Kevin W. Custer, Sean D. Mahoney, Mitchell J. Kukla, Corey Kuminecz, Joseph Murphy, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. McEwan 2019 University of Dayton

Biofilm Ash Free Dry Mass And Chlorophyll A, Kevin W. Custer, Sean D. Mahoney, Mitchell J. Kukla, Corey Kuminecz, Joseph Murphy, Julia I. Chapman, Ryan W. Mcewan

Ryan McEwan

No abstract provided.


Assessing Anthocyanin Biosynthesis In Solanaceae As A Model Pathway For Secondary Metabolism, Zou Li, Trisha Vickrey, Moira G. McNally, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Jeffrey P. Mower 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln & Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Assessing Anthocyanin Biosynthesis In Solanaceae As A Model Pathway For Secondary Metabolism, Zou Li, Trisha Vickrey, Moira G. Mcnally, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Jeffrey P. Mower

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Solanaceae have played an important role in elucidating how flower color is specified by the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (FBP), which produces anthocyanins and other secondary metabolites. With well-established reverse genetics tools and rich genomic resources, Solanaceae provide a robust framework to examine the diversification of this well-studied pathway over short evolutionary timescales and to evaluate the predictability of genetic perturbation on pathway flux. Genomes of eight Solanaceae species, nine related asterids, and four rosids were mined to evaluate variation in copy number of the suite of FBP enzymes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Comparison of annotation sources indicated that the NCBI ...


Growing On A Scar: Genetic Variation Of Achillea Millefolium Near Meeker, Colorado, Ace Spitzer 2019 University of Northern Colorado

Growing On A Scar: Genetic Variation Of Achillea Millefolium Near Meeker, Colorado, Ace Spitzer

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Mining operations deposit high concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and vanadium into the topsoil of an ecosystem. These toxic metals can affect plant health and behavior, causing local extinction and shifts in ecosystem dynamics. However, genetic analyses of some plants growing on toxic soil conditions indicate higher genetic diversity than would be expected in that environment. Determining the effects of soil pollution on plants is important to determine a species’ utility in conservation and restoration. This investigation compared the genetic diversity of western yarrow (Achillea millefolium, Asteraceae), growing near a mine with vanadium and arsenic contamination ...


Network‐Based Feature Selection Reveals Substructures Of Gene Modules Responding To Salt Stress In Rice, Qian Du, Malachy Campbell, Huihui Yu, Kan Liu, Harkamal Walia, Qi Zhang, Chi Zhang 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Network‐Based Feature Selection Reveals Substructures Of Gene Modules Responding To Salt Stress In Rice, Qian Du, Malachy Campbell, Huihui Yu, Kan Liu, Harkamal Walia, Qi Zhang, Chi Zhang

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Rice, an important food resource, is highly sensitive to salt stress, which is directly related to food security. Although many studies have identified physiological mechanisms that confer tolerance to the osmotic effects of salinity, the link between rice genotype and salt tolerance is not very clear yet. Association of gene co‐expression network and rice phenotypic data under stress has penitential to identify stress‐responsive genes, but there is no standard method to associate stress phenotype with gene co‐expression network. A novel method for integration of gene co‐expression network and stress phenotype data was developed to conduct a ...


Identifying Brachypodium Distachyon Proteins Interacting With Histone Deacetylase Bdhd1, Alberto Giovanni Torrez 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Identifying Brachypodium Distachyon Proteins Interacting With Histone Deacetylase Bdhd1, Alberto Giovanni Torrez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current evidence has revealed the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms, including histone deacetylases (HDACs), in plant stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, HDA19, belonging to the RPD3/HDA1 class, interacts with transcription factors to form repressor complexes. HDAC research mainly exists for dicotyledons, whereas research on monocotyledons is limited. Brachypodium distachyon is used as a model plant to investigate questions unique to monocot crops. BdHD1 is the closest homologous gene to HDA19 in B. distachyon. This study investigated potential protein-protein interactions between BdHD1 and each of BdMYB22, BdWRKY24, and BdHOS15. Protein interactions were investigated using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation ...


Gene Expression Programs During Shoot, Root, And Callus Development In Arabidopsis Tissue Culture, Ping Che, Sonia Lall, Dan Nettleton, Stephen H. Howell 2019 Iowa State University

Gene Expression Programs During Shoot, Root, And Callus Development In Arabidopsis Tissue Culture, Ping Che, Sonia Lall, Dan Nettleton, Stephen H. Howell

Dan Nettleton

Shoots can be regenerated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root explants in tissue culture through a two-step process requiring preincubation on an auxin-rich callus induction medium. Regenerating tissues can be directed along different developmental pathways leading to the formation of shoots, new roots, or callus by transferring to the appropriate organ induction medium. Using gene-profiling methods, we identified groups of genes that serve as molecular signatures of the different developmental processes, i.e. genes that were specifically up- or down-regulated on one developmental pathway, but not on others. One transcription factor gene that was up-regulated during early shoot development was RAP2 ...


Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Highly Dynamic Complementation Of Gene Expression In Maize Hybrids, Anja Paschold, Nick B. Larson, Caroline Marcon, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger 2019 University of Bonn

Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Highly Dynamic Complementation Of Gene Expression In Maize Hybrids, Anja Paschold, Nick B. Larson, Caroline Marcon, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger

Dan Nettleton

Maize (Zea mays) displays an exceptional level of structural genomic diversity, which is likely unique among higher eukaryotes. In this study, we surveyed how the genetic divergence of two maize inbred lines affects the transcriptomic landscape in four different primary root tissues of their F1-hybrid progeny. An extreme instance of complementation was frequently observed: genes that were expressed in only one parent but in both reciprocal hybrids. This single-parent expression (SPE) pattern was detected for 2341 genes with up to 1287 SPE patterns per tissue. As a consequence, the number of active genes in hybrids exceeded that of their parents ...


Loss Of Rna–Dependent Rna Polymerase 2 (Rdr2) Function Causes Widespread And Unexpected Changes In The Expression Of Transposons, Genes, And 24-Nt Small Rnas, Yi Jia, Damon R. Lisch, Kazuhiro Ohtsu, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable 2019 Iowa State University

Loss Of Rna–Dependent Rna Polymerase 2 (Rdr2) Function Causes Widespread And Unexpected Changes In The Expression Of Transposons, Genes, And 24-Nt Small Rnas, Yi Jia, Damon R. Lisch, Kazuhiro Ohtsu, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Dan Nettleton

Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes and are typically transcriptionally silenced. RNA–dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) is a component of the RNA–directed DNA methylation (RdDM) silencing pathway. In maize, loss of mediator of paramutation1 (mop1) encoded RDR2 function results in reactivation of transcriptionally silenced Mu transposons and a substantial reduction in the accumulation of 24 nt short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that recruit RNA silencing components. An RNA–seq experiment conducted on shoot apical meristems (SAMs) revealed that, as expected based on a model in which RDR2 generates 24 nt siRNAs that suppress expression, most ...


Comparative Gene Expression Profiles Between Heterotic And Non-Heterotic Hybrids Of Tetraploid Medicago Sativa, Xuehui Li, Yanling Wei, Dan Nettleton, E. Charles Brummer 2019 University of Georgia

Comparative Gene Expression Profiles Between Heterotic And Non-Heterotic Hybrids Of Tetraploid Medicago Sativa, Xuehui Li, Yanling Wei, Dan Nettleton, E. Charles Brummer

Dan Nettleton

Background: Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis.

Results: We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa) genotypes and their three hybrids, two of which expressed heterosis for biomass yield and a third that did not, using Affymetrix M. truncatula GeneChip arrays. Alfalfa hybridized to approximately 47 ...


Estimating Live Fuel Moisture Using Smap L-Band Radiometer Soil Moisture For Southern California, Usa, Shenyue Jia, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Menas Kafatos 2019 Chapman University

Estimating Live Fuel Moisture Using Smap L-Band Radiometer Soil Moisture For Southern California, Usa, Shenyue Jia, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Live fuel moisture (LFM) is a field-measured indicator of vegetation water content and a crucial observation of vegetation flammability. This study presents a new multi-variant regression model to estimate LFM in the Mediterranean ecosystem of Southern California, USA, using the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-band radiometer soil moisture (SMAP SM) from April 2015 to December 2018 over 12 chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) LFM sites. The two-month lag between SMAP SM and LFM was utilized either as steps to synchronize the SMAP SM to the LFM series or as the leading time window to calculate the accumulative SMAP SM. Cumulative growing ...


Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Agriculture and associated agricultural activities are major contributors to the Arkansas economy. Agriculture is defined as the sum of agricultural production and processing activities, unless otherwise specified, and includes crop and animal production and processing, agricultural support industries, forestry and forest products, and textile goods. Agriculture contributes to the economy through direct agricultural production and value-added processing, and also leads to economic activity in other parts of the economy. This report is the eleventh in a series of reports examining agriculture’s economic contribution to the Arkansas economy. The total economic contribution of agriculture (direct, indirect, and induced effects) on ...


Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo 2019 Randolph-Macon College

Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo

Virginia Journal of Science

The recent focus on the importance of native plants and their pollinators has highlighted the critical role of local species in their natural environment. As urban encroachment, climate change, and invasive species continues to threaten native habitats, it is increasingly important to promote the use of local green spaces as refugia for native plants and their pollinators. The aim of this project, therefore, was to identify and assess the visitation frequency of insect pollinators associated with an urban setting within the Piedmont region of Virginia, and compare their association with native versus closely-related but non-native summer-flowering plants. Several modes of ...


On The Composistion Of Cymodocea Nodosa Root Exudate Under Artificial Blue, Green And Natural Light Conditions, Armand Martin, Ben Manriquez, Christian Pompa, Aaron Saper, Kyle A. Grice, Jason Bystriansky 2019 DePaul University

On The Composistion Of Cymodocea Nodosa Root Exudate Under Artificial Blue, Green And Natural Light Conditions, Armand Martin, Ben Manriquez, Christian Pompa, Aaron Saper, Kyle A. Grice, Jason Bystriansky

DePaul Discoveries

Seagrasses are identified as a sentinel species: a good indicator of overall marine ecosystem health and function. At the rhizome, they are known to interact with marine bacteria by exchanging energy in the form of glucose and free amino acids secreted through root exudate in exchange for microbe-fixated nitrogen that can be utilized for plant growth. To analyze potential outcomes of possible future changes in light availability, an experiment was designed to collect and analyze the root exudate of Cymodocea nodosa under three light conditions (standard fluorescent light, blue LED, and green LED light). After 72 hours of treatment, the ...


Interchromosomal Transfer Of Immune Regulation During Infection Of Barley With The Powdery Mildew Pathogen, Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony V. E. Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P. Wise 2019 Iowa State University

Interchromosomal Transfer Of Immune Regulation During Infection Of Barley With The Powdery Mildew Pathogen, Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony V. E. Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P. Wise

Dan Nettleton

Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh. Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of ...


Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg 2019 Iowa State University

Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg

Dan Nettleton

The accuracy of machine learning tasks critically depends on high quality ground truth data. Therefore, in many cases, producing good ground truth data typically involves trained professionals; however, this can be costly in time, effort, and money. Here we explore the use of crowdsourcing to generate a large number of training data of good quality. We explore an image analysis task involving the segmentation of corn tassels from images taken in a field setting. We investigate the accuracy, speed and other quality metrics when this task is performed by students for academic credit, Amazon MTurk workers, and Master Amazon MTurk ...


Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price III, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta 2019 University of Kentucky Research and Education Center

Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta

Papers in Plant Pathology

Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays L.) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return on fungicide investment (ROI) across multiple locations.


Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro 2019 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro

Gustavo Macintosh

Ethylene is a gaseous hormone that regulates plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the importance of ethylene in soybean resistance to Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), the causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), soybean cultivars Williams 82 (SDS-susceptible) and MN1606 (SDS-resistant) were treated 24 h before and 24h after Fv inoculation with either ethephon (ethylene inducer), cobalt chloride (ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor), or 1-MCP (ethylene perception inhibitor). Inoculated plants were grown for 21 days at 24°C in the greenhouse and then evaluated for SDS severity and expression of soybean defense genes. In both cultivars, plants treated with ethephon ...


Warm Stratification Increases Germination Of Dendromecon Rigida And Ehrendorferia Chrysantha, Cesar Garcia 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Warm Stratification Increases Germination Of Dendromecon Rigida And Ehrendorferia Chrysantha, Cesar Garcia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

We explored the seasonal factors that might play a role in triggering germination of Dendromecon rigidaand Ehrendorferia chrysantha.D. rigida and E. chrysantha have been found difficult to germinate using common greenhouse techniques, Keeley and Fotheringham successfully germinated both species after storing their seeds in the field over a year and treating them with smoke. Identifying the specific seasonally changing factors that stimulated germination could have implications for understanding germination requirements for these and other hard-to-germinate chaparral species.

Dendromecon rigidaand Ehrendorferia chrysanthaare part of the Papaveraceae family and both are found in the chaparral environment in Southern ...


Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro 2019 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Ethylene is a gaseous hormone that regulates plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the importance of ethylene in soybean resistance to Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), the causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), soybean cultivars Williams 82 (SDS-susceptible) and MN1606 (SDS-resistant) were treated 24 h before and 24h after Fv inoculation with either ethephon (ethylene inducer), cobalt chloride (ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor), or 1-MCP (ethylene perception inhibitor). Inoculated plants were grown for 21 days at 24°C in the greenhouse and then evaluated for SDS severity and expression of soybean defense genes. In both cultivars, plants treated with ethephon ...


Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Sorghum is a tall grass used for many commercial products such as fodder and syrup. The 10 to 15 feet stalk of the plant has lower lignin than wood and provides a fiber length of 2.31 mm in the outer covering and 1.38 mm for the leaf. Sorghum fiber makes a high quality, strong paper suitable for printing, packaging and paperboard.


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