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Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Botanical repellents and pesticides are now being rediscovered as new tools for integrated pest management in order to reduce the use of toxic chemicals in crop production. Canavalia gladiata and Dolichos lablab are two Fabaceae very well adapted to farmlands of El Salvador, effective as living barriers and mostly as cover crops, however, they are not yet very well disseminated. This document describes the potential for using the liquid extracts and the dry flour of raw seeds of those plants for economic benefit and practical convenience for pest management in Salvadorian agriculture under field conditions. Seed extracts were useful when ...


Gene Expression Programs During Shoot, Root, And Callus Development In Arabidopsis Tissue Culture, Ping Che, Sonia Lall, Dan Nettleton, Stephen H. Howell 2019 Iowa State University

Gene Expression Programs During Shoot, Root, And Callus Development In Arabidopsis Tissue Culture, Ping Che, Sonia Lall, Dan Nettleton, Stephen H. Howell

Dan Nettleton

Shoots can be regenerated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root explants in tissue culture through a two-step process requiring preincubation on an auxin-rich callus induction medium. Regenerating tissues can be directed along different developmental pathways leading to the formation of shoots, new roots, or callus by transferring to the appropriate organ induction medium. Using gene-profiling methods, we identified groups of genes that serve as molecular signatures of the different developmental processes, i.e. genes that were specifically up- or down-regulated on one developmental pathway, but not on others. One transcription factor gene that was up-regulated during early shoot development was RAP2 ...


Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Highly Dynamic Complementation Of Gene Expression In Maize Hybrids, Anja Paschold, Nick B. Larson, Caroline Marcon, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger 2019 University of Bonn

Nonsyntenic Genes Drive Highly Dynamic Complementation Of Gene Expression In Maize Hybrids, Anja Paschold, Nick B. Larson, Caroline Marcon, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Christa Lanz, Dan Nettleton, Hans-Peter Piepho, Patrick S. Schnable, Frank Hochholdinger

Dan Nettleton

Maize (Zea mays) displays an exceptional level of structural genomic diversity, which is likely unique among higher eukaryotes. In this study, we surveyed how the genetic divergence of two maize inbred lines affects the transcriptomic landscape in four different primary root tissues of their F1-hybrid progeny. An extreme instance of complementation was frequently observed: genes that were expressed in only one parent but in both reciprocal hybrids. This single-parent expression (SPE) pattern was detected for 2341 genes with up to 1287 SPE patterns per tissue. As a consequence, the number of active genes in hybrids exceeded that of their parents ...


Loss Of Rna–Dependent Rna Polymerase 2 (Rdr2) Function Causes Widespread And Unexpected Changes In The Expression Of Transposons, Genes, And 24-Nt Small Rnas, Yi Jia, Damon R. Lisch, Kazuhiro Ohtsu, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable 2019 Iowa State University

Loss Of Rna–Dependent Rna Polymerase 2 (Rdr2) Function Causes Widespread And Unexpected Changes In The Expression Of Transposons, Genes, And 24-Nt Small Rnas, Yi Jia, Damon R. Lisch, Kazuhiro Ohtsu, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Dan Nettleton

Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes and are typically transcriptionally silenced. RNA–dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) is a component of the RNA–directed DNA methylation (RdDM) silencing pathway. In maize, loss of mediator of paramutation1 (mop1) encoded RDR2 function results in reactivation of transcriptionally silenced Mu transposons and a substantial reduction in the accumulation of 24 nt short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that recruit RNA silencing components. An RNA–seq experiment conducted on shoot apical meristems (SAMs) revealed that, as expected based on a model in which RDR2 generates 24 nt siRNAs that suppress expression, most ...


Comparative Gene Expression Profiles Between Heterotic And Non-Heterotic Hybrids Of Tetraploid Medicago Sativa, Xuehui Li, Yanling Wei, Dan Nettleton, E. Charles Brummer 2019 University of Georgia

Comparative Gene Expression Profiles Between Heterotic And Non-Heterotic Hybrids Of Tetraploid Medicago Sativa, Xuehui Li, Yanling Wei, Dan Nettleton, E. Charles Brummer

Dan Nettleton

Background: Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis.

Results: We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa) genotypes and their three hybrids, two of which expressed heterosis for biomass yield and a third that did not, using Affymetrix M. truncatula GeneChip arrays. Alfalfa hybridized to approximately 47 ...


On The Composistion Of Cymodocea Nodosa Root Exudate Under Artificial Blue, Green And Natural Light Conditions, Armand Martin, Ben Manriquez, Christian Pompa, Aaron Saper, Kyle A. Grice, Jason Bystriansky 2019 DePaul University

On The Composistion Of Cymodocea Nodosa Root Exudate Under Artificial Blue, Green And Natural Light Conditions, Armand Martin, Ben Manriquez, Christian Pompa, Aaron Saper, Kyle A. Grice, Jason Bystriansky

DePaul Discoveries

Seagrasses are identified as a sentinel species: a good indicator of overall marine ecosystem health and function. At the rhizome, they are known to interact with marine bacteria by exchanging energy in the form of glucose and free amino acids secreted through root exudate in exchange for microbe-fixated nitrogen that can be utilized for plant growth. To analyze potential outcomes of possible future changes in light availability, an experiment was designed to collect and analyze the root exudate of Cymodocea nodosa under three light conditions (standard fluorescent light, blue LED, and green LED light). After 72 hours of treatment, the ...


Interchromosomal Transfer Of Immune Regulation During Infection Of Barley With The Powdery Mildew Pathogen, Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony V. E. Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P. Wise 2019 Iowa State University

Interchromosomal Transfer Of Immune Regulation During Infection Of Barley With The Powdery Mildew Pathogen, Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony V. E. Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P. Wise

Dan Nettleton

Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh. Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of ...


When An Invasive Plant Fails To Invade, Stephen L. Young 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

When An Invasive Plant Fails To Invade, Stephen L. Young

Stephen L. Young

In 2012, much of the US Midwest was gripped in one of the most severe droughts on record. While conducting experimental fieldwork at a site in Nebraska during June of that year, I noticed a single musk thistle (Carduus nutans; Figure 1) that appeared to be in the bolt or early flowering stage, which is typical for the species at that time. Here, however, two things were unusual: this plant was less than 1 meter tall (with adequate moisture and light, musk thistle typically grows to heights of 1–2.5 meters before flowering), and was only 3 months old ...


Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg 2019 Iowa State University

Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg

Dan Nettleton

The accuracy of machine learning tasks critically depends on high quality ground truth data. Therefore, in many cases, producing good ground truth data typically involves trained professionals; however, this can be costly in time, effort, and money. Here we explore the use of crowdsourcing to generate a large number of training data of good quality. We explore an image analysis task involving the segmentation of corn tassels from images taken in a field setting. We investigate the accuracy, speed and other quality metrics when this task is performed by students for academic credit, Amazon MTurk workers, and Master Amazon MTurk ...


Warm Stratification Increases Germination Of Dendromecon Rigida And Ehrendorferia Chrysantha, Cesar Garcia 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Warm Stratification Increases Germination Of Dendromecon Rigida And Ehrendorferia Chrysantha, Cesar Garcia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

We explored the seasonal factors that might play a role in triggering germination of Dendromecon rigidaand Ehrendorferia chrysantha.D. rigida and E. chrysantha have been found difficult to germinate using common greenhouse techniques, Keeley and Fotheringham successfully germinated both species after storing their seeds in the field over a year and treating them with smoke. Identifying the specific seasonally changing factors that stimulated germination could have implications for understanding germination requirements for these and other hard-to-germinate chaparral species.

Dendromecon rigidaand Ehrendorferia chrysanthaare part of the Papaveraceae family and both are found in the chaparral environment in Southern ...


Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro 2019 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Ethylene is a gaseous hormone that regulates plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the importance of ethylene in soybean resistance to Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), the causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), soybean cultivars Williams 82 (SDS-susceptible) and MN1606 (SDS-resistant) were treated 24 h before and 24h after Fv inoculation with either ethephon (ethylene inducer), cobalt chloride (ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor), or 1-MCP (ethylene perception inhibitor). Inoculated plants were grown for 21 days at 24°C in the greenhouse and then evaluated for SDS severity and expression of soybean defense genes. In both cultivars, plants treated with ethephon ...


Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal 2019 South Dakota State University

Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal

Madhav Nepal

In this teaching module, students will learn what Precision Agriculture is and how to apply drone into Precision Agriculture practices. To use data (images) taken by drone, students will learn the basic theory of Remote Sensing. Using images, students learn how to make NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps and how to apply drone (remote sensing technique) in agriculture.


Dna Barcoding Of Pratylenchus From Agroecosystems In The Northern Great Plains Of North America, Mehmet Ozbayrak 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dna Barcoding Of Pratylenchus From Agroecosystems In The Northern Great Plains Of North America, Mehmet Ozbayrak

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Pratylenchus species are among the most common plant parasitic nematodes in the Great Plains Region. The objectives of this study were to barcode Pratylenchus specimens for species identification in the Great Plains region using mitochondrial CO1 DNA barcode. In order to (1) determine species boundaries, (2) assess the host associations of barcoded Pratylenchus, (3) to determine the distribution patterns across the Great Plains Region and, (4) to evaluate the species status of P. scribneri and P. hexincisus by a multivariate morphological analysis of haplotype groups identified by DNA barcoding. Soil samples, primarily associated with eight major crops, were collected from ...


Use Of Annual Forage Mixtures In Crop/Livestock Production Systems In Nebraska, Nathan Paul Pflueger 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Use Of Annual Forage Mixtures In Crop/Livestock Production Systems In Nebraska, Nathan Paul Pflueger

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Success of integrating annual forages into crop and livestock systems throughout Nebraska may be variable depending on field location, field/forage crop management, and precipitation. There are many different warm- and cool-season annual forage species available for integrating crop and livestock systems at different times of the year. Mixtures of cereal species, such as oats (Avena sativa)) and spring peas (Pisum sativum)), are often used to optimize forage quantity and forage quality. Our two-year, three location study across Nebraska’s precipitation gradient suggested that forage quantity and quality may vary by location due to different precipitation amounts received during the ...


Understanding Neglect Of Plant Biology Education In Michigan Middle Schools, Kim Smith 2019 Northern Michigan University

Understanding Neglect Of Plant Biology Education In Michigan Middle Schools, Kim Smith

All NMU Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to identify historical trends of neglect in plant biology education, their continuation today in Michigan middle school classrooms, and to uncover reasons for this neglect. A content analysis of state and national science standards and an online survey of Michigan middle school life science teachers were conducted. Findings showed a trend of increasing references in national standards from animals or plants to general organisms, as well as a decrease in the overall number of specific references in the standards. The data also revealed that nearly half of the teachers surveyed spent less than ten ...


Effect Of Soil-Applied Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Inhibitor Herbicides On Soybean Seedling Disease, Nicholas J. Arneson 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Soil-Applied Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Inhibitor Herbicides On Soybean Seedling Disease, Nicholas J. Arneson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Seedling disease is one the most economically important diseases of soybean in the United States. It is commonly caused by Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp., and Phytophthora sojae, alone, or together as a disease complex. Fungicide seed treatments continue to provide the most consistent management of seedling diseases. Soil-applied protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitor herbicides are used preemergence in soybean production to manage several broadleaf weeds. Applications of PPO-inhibitors can result in phytotoxic injury to soybean when environmental conditions are not favorable for soybean growth. These environmental conditions can favor seedling disease development as well. In this thesis, two studies ...


Establishment Of Perennial Legumes With An Annual Warm-Season Grass As A Companion Crop, Martina N. La Vallie 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Establishment Of Perennial Legumes With An Annual Warm-Season Grass As A Companion Crop, Martina N. La Vallie

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The yields of perennial forage legumes are often hindered during the establishment year due to slow germination rates and weed competition. This study was conducted to determine if sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanese) is a compatible annual companion crop for increased forage production, weed suppression, and legume establishment. In 2016, sorghum-sudangrass was paired with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ‘Ranger’), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), Illinois bundleflower [Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacMill. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald], purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and roundhead lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata Michx.). We studied effects of a sorghum-sudangrass companion crop with a varying number of harvests (three vs. four harvests) collected per plot throughout the summer and compared yields to the yield of a weeded legume treatment, and a non-weeded legume treatment. In 2017, we studied effects of the application of four seeding rates for sorghum-sudangrass at 5 pure live seed per m2 (PLS/m2), 10 PLS/m2, 20 PLS/m2, and 40 PLS/m2 paired with only the alfalfa perennial legume and compared yields to the yield of an oat-alfalfa control treatment, a weeded alfalfa treatment, and a non-weeded alfalfa treatment. Total dry matter yields along with the yield of each legume, weeds, sorghum-sudangrass, and oats (second year only) were collected for each treatment. In both years, we found the addition of sorghum-sudangrass increased overall dry matter yield and significantly decreased weed abundance. The increase in total dry matter yield came at a cost to the legume yield; as treatments planted with sorghum-sudangrass or oats had lower legume/alfalfa yields than weeded legume/alfalfa treatments. These results suggest that sorghum-sudangrass is ...


Genome-Wide Association Studies In Maize And Sorghum, Preston Hurst 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Genome-Wide Association Studies In Maize And Sorghum, Preston Hurst

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Genome-wide association studies are used to identify genetic variants associated with a particular phenotype. GWAS has been used in a variety of taxa, from humans, to fish to plants . The present analysis is focused on two species important to the human species: maize and sorghum. A GWAS in maize was carried out on the modification of the Ga1-s allele. The Ga1 locus has long been studied as being involved in a unilateral crossing barrier . However, it has long been suspected that the locus is modified by background genetic factors . GWAS was used to observe candidates for this modification. A series ...


Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang 2019 SUNY Geneseo

Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

The ability of invasive plant species to rapidly overtake native flora has become a growing problem in the Northeast US and elsewhere. A variety of mechanisms contribute to this ability, such as different strategies of resource allocation to fruit and flowers in native compared to invasive species. Life history theory suggests that fruit and flower size should be inversely related, since the plant has a finite number of resources. We hypothesize that there is a ratio of fruit to flower size that allow invasive species to quickly outcompete native species—a larger flower would allow for better pollination, but a ...


Agrobacterial Diversity And Competitive Interactions Within An Infected Sunflower, Veronica Mateo 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Agrobacterial Diversity And Competitive Interactions Within An Infected Sunflower, Veronica Mateo

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Agrobacterial Diversity and Competitive Interactions Within an Infected Sunflower

Veronica E. Mateo, Kansas State University

Faculty Advisor/Mentor: Thomas Platt, Ph.D., tgplatt@ksu.edu

Co-Author(s): Emireth Monarrez, Seward County Community College; Priscila Guzman, Kansas State University; Ashlee Herken, Kansas State University; Teresa Shippy, Kansas State University

Bacterial communities are highly diverse with each being distinct in composition. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a common soilborne plant pathogen. Some A. tumefaciens strains can cause crown gall disease, in which infected plants develop a tumor. This bacterium disrupts the host plant by genetically transforming plant cells thereby manipulating the plant’s physiology ...


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