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Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Botanical repellents and pesticides are now being rediscovered as new tools for integrated pest management in order to reduce the use of toxic chemicals in crop production. Canavalia gladiata and Dolichos lablab are two Fabaceae very well adapted to farmlands of El Salvador, effective as living barriers and mostly as cover crops, however, they are not yet very well disseminated. This document describes the potential for using the liquid extracts and the dry flour of raw seeds of those plants for economic benefit and practical convenience for pest management in Salvadorian agriculture under field conditions. Seed extracts were useful when ...


Identifying Consumer Perceptions Of Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey Dunteman 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Identifying Consumer Perceptions Of Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey Dunteman

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Blackberries are grown worldwide for commercial fresh markets, but there is limited information on consumer perceptions of this fruit. In this study, physiochemical and consumer sensory attributes of three Arkansas-grown fresh-market blackberry genotypes were evaluated and consumer perceptions of fresh-market blackberries were also investigated though an online survey. Two cultivars (Natchez and Ouachita) and one advanced selection (A-2418) were evaluated for compositional and nutraceutical analysis and consumer sensory analysis. Natchez had the highest berry weight, length, drupelets and pyrenes/berry, and pyrene weight/berry. Ouachita had the highest soluble solids content (11.9%), pH (3.18) and soluble solids/titratable ...


Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote 2019 Utah State University

Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research presents three case studies of low temperature anomalies that occurred during the winter–spring seasons and their influence on extreme events and crop production. We investigate causes and effects of each climate event and developed prediction methods for crops based on the climate diagnostic information. The first study diagnosed the driven environmental-factors, including climate pattern, climate change, soils moisture, and sea level height, associated with the 2011 great flood in Thailand and resulting total crop loss. The second study investigated climate circulation and indices that contributed to wet-and-cold (WC) events leading to significant crop damage in Taiwan. We ...


Warm Stratification Increases Germination Of Dendromecon Rigida And Ehrendorferia Chrysantha, Cesar Garcia 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Warm Stratification Increases Germination Of Dendromecon Rigida And Ehrendorferia Chrysantha, Cesar Garcia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

We explored the seasonal factors that might play a role in triggering germination of Dendromecon rigidaand Ehrendorferia chrysantha.D. rigida and E. chrysantha have been found difficult to germinate using common greenhouse techniques, Keeley and Fotheringham successfully germinated both species after storing their seeds in the field over a year and treating them with smoke. Identifying the specific seasonally changing factors that stimulated germination could have implications for understanding germination requirements for these and other hard-to-germinate chaparral species.

Dendromecon rigidaand Ehrendorferia chrysanthaare part of the Papaveraceae family and both are found in the chaparral environment in Southern ...


More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. MacDougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens 2019 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. Macdougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens

Lori A. Biederman

Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically and geographically, spanning five orders of magnitude. Site‐level foliar sodium increased most strongly with site aridity and soil sodium; nutrient addition weakened the relationship ...


Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal 2019 South Dakota State University

Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal

Madhav Nepal

In this teaching module, students will learn what Precision Agriculture is and how to apply drone into Precision Agriculture practices. To use data (images) taken by drone, students will learn the basic theory of Remote Sensing. Using images, students learn how to make NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps and how to apply drone (remote sensing technique) in agriculture.


Stand Location Variance As An Indicator Of Disturbance Regime In A Monotypic Tsuga Canadensis Forest, Cole J. Doolittle 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Stand Location Variance As An Indicator Of Disturbance Regime In A Monotypic Tsuga Canadensis Forest, Cole J. Doolittle

Honors Program Projects

Disturbance regimes, which are critical components of forest ecosystems, influence forest morphology, biodiversity, and regeneration. The heterogeneity of disturbance regimes are not well understood on small scales. In this study I analyzed tree cores from five sites within a Tsuga canadensis (Eastern hemlock) forest in northern Wisconsin to investigate disturbance regimes through mean growth release criteria. This study investigated the following questions: 1) Are disturbance regimes in T. canadensis stand level or site specific? 2) If disturbances are site specific, is site location an indicator of disturbance regime? 3) Do site characteristics such as density and tree diameter at breast ...


High Spatial Resolution Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals The Genetically Programmed, Developmental Modification Of The Distribution Of Thylakoid Membrane Lipids Among Individual Cells Of Maize Leaf, Maria Emilia Duenas, Adam T. Klein, Liza E. Alexander, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young Jin Lee 2019 Iowa State University

High Spatial Resolution Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals The Genetically Programmed, Developmental Modification Of The Distribution Of Thylakoid Membrane Lipids Among Individual Cells Of Maize Leaf, Maria Emilia Duenas, Adam T. Klein, Liza E. Alexander, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young Jin Lee

Basil Nikolau

Metabolism in plants is compartmentalized among different tissues, cells and subcellular organelles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) has recently advanced to allow for the visualization of metabolites at single cell resolution. Here we applied 5 and 10 m high-spatial resolution MALDI-MSI to the asymmetric Kranz anatomy of maize leaves to study the differential localization of two major anionic lipids in thylakoid membranes, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG). The quantification and localization of SQDG and PG molecular species, among mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells, are compared across the leaf developmental gradient from four maize ...


Reverse-Genetic Analysis Of The Two Biotin-Containing Subunit Genes Of The Heteromeric Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase In Arabidopsis Indicates A Unidirectional Functional Redundancy, Xu Li, Hilal Ilarslan, Libuse Brachova, Hui-Rong Qian, Ling Li, Ping Che, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Basil J. Nikolau 2019 Iowa State University

Reverse-Genetic Analysis Of The Two Biotin-Containing Subunit Genes Of The Heteromeric Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase In Arabidopsis Indicates A Unidirectional Functional Redundancy, Xu Li, Hilal Ilarslan, Libuse Brachova, Hui-Rong Qian, Ling Li, Ping Che, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Basil J. Nikolau

Basil Nikolau

The heteromeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase catalyzes the first and committed reaction of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids. This enzyme is composed of four subunits: biotin carboxyl-carrier protein (BCCP), biotin carboxylase, α-carboxyltransferase, and β-carboxyltransferase. With the exception of BCCP, single-copy genes encode these subunits in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Reverse-genetic approaches were used to individually investigate the physiological significance of the two paralogous BCCP-coding genes, CAC1A (At5g16390, codes for BCCP1) and CAC1B (At5g15530, codes for BCCP2). Transfer DNA insertional alleles that completely eliminate the accumulation of BCCP2 have no perceptible effect on plant growth, development, and fatty acid accumulation. In ...


Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith 2019 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith

Basil Nikolau

Background: Reverse genetic strategies, such as virus-induced gene silencing, are powerful techniques to study gene function. Currently, there are few tools to study the spatial dependence of the consequences of gene silencing at the cellular level.

Results: We report the use of multimodal Raman and mass spectrometry imaging to study the cellular-level biochemical changes that occur from silencing the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene using a Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) vector in maize leaves. The multimodal imaging method allows the localized carotenoid distribution to be measured and reveals differences lost in the spatial average when analyzing a carotenoid extraction of the ...


Structure Of The Cac1 Gene And In Situ Characterization Of Its Expression (The Arabidopsis Thaliana Gene Coding For The Biotin-Containing Subunit Of The Plastidic Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase), Jinshan Ke, Joong-Kook Choi, Marianne Smith, Harry T. Horner, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve Syrkin Wurtele 2019 Iowa State University

Structure Of The Cac1 Gene And In Situ Characterization Of Its Expression (The Arabidopsis Thaliana Gene Coding For The Biotin-Containing Subunit Of The Plastidic Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase), Jinshan Ke, Joong-Kook Choi, Marianne Smith, Harry T. Horner, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve Syrkin Wurtele

Basil Nikolau

The CAC1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana that codes for the biotin carboxyl-carrier subunit of the heteromeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase was isolated and sequenced. CAC1 is a single-copy gene interrupted by six introns. Subcellular immunogold labeling indicates that the biotin carboxyl-carrier subunit is localized in the stroma of the plastids and chloroplasts. The CAC1 mRNA accumulates throughout developing embryos and ovules of siliques at a time of rapid growth and oil accumulation (7 d after flowering), but is present at much lower levels in wall cells and central septal cells of the silique. Immunolocalization studies show that the pattern of accumulation ...


Haploid Differentiation In Maize Kernels Based On Fluorescence Imaging, Brett W. Boote, Daniel J. Freppon, Gerald N. De La Fuente, Thomas Lubberstedt, Basil J. Nikolau, Emily A. Smith 2019 Iowa State University

Haploid Differentiation In Maize Kernels Based On Fluorescence Imaging, Brett W. Boote, Daniel J. Freppon, Gerald N. De La Fuente, Thomas Lubberstedt, Basil J. Nikolau, Emily A. Smith

Basil Nikolau

A new fluorescence-based method for inbred haploid differentiation in maize kernels was developed by utilizing the R1-nj color marker in combination with fluorescence micro-spectroscopy and imaging. Seven inbred lines with varying R1-nj expression were used in this study. The fluorescence response of the diploid kernels at the embryonic dye spot was shown to simultaneously exhibit lower intensity and occur at a higher wavelength than the fluorescence of the dye-lacking haploid embryos. Intensity and area thresholds were applied to fluorescence images to sort the haploids from mixed sample populations, and sorting efficiencies of greater than 80% were achieved in all seven ...


A Robust And Efficient Method For The Extraction Of Plant Extracellular Surface Lipids As Applied To The Analysis Of Silks And Seedling Leaves Of Maize, Derek M. Loneman, Layton Peddicord, Amani Al-Rashid, Basil J. Nikolau, Nick Lauter, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson 2019 Iowa State University

A Robust And Efficient Method For The Extraction Of Plant Extracellular Surface Lipids As Applied To The Analysis Of Silks And Seedling Leaves Of Maize, Derek M. Loneman, Layton Peddicord, Amani Al-Rashid, Basil J. Nikolau, Nick Lauter, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson

Basil Nikolau

Aerial plant organs possess a diverse array of extracellular surface lipids, including both non-polar and amphipathic constituents that collectively provide a primary line of defense against environmental stressors. Extracellular surface lipids on the stigmatic silks of maize are composed primarily of saturated and unsaturated linear hydrocarbons, as well as fatty acids, and aldehydes. To efficiently extract lipids of differing polarities from maize silks, five solvent systems (hexanes; hexanes:diethyl ether (95:5); hexanes:diethyl ether (90:10); chloroform:hexanes (1:1) and chloroform) were tested by immersing fresh silks in solvent for different extraction times. Surface lipid recovery and the ...


High-Throughput Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting For Lipid Hyperaccumulating Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutants, Bo Xie, Dan Stessman, Jason H. Hart, Haili Dong, Yingjun Wang, David A. Wright, Basil J. Nikolau, Martin H. Spalding, Larry J. Halverson 2019 Iowa State University

High-Throughput Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting For Lipid Hyperaccumulating Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutants, Bo Xie, Dan Stessman, Jason H. Hart, Haili Dong, Yingjun Wang, David A. Wright, Basil J. Nikolau, Martin H. Spalding, Larry J. Halverson

Basil Nikolau

The genetically tractable microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has many advantages as a model for renewable bioproducts and/or biofuels production. However, one limitation of C. reinhardtii is its relatively low-lipid content compared with some other algal species. To overcome this limitation, we combined ethane methyl sulfonate mutagenesis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of cells stained with the lipophilic stain Nile Red to isolate lipid hyperaccumulating mutants of C. reinhardtii. By manipulating the FACS gates, we sorted mutagenized cells with extremely high Nile Red fluorescence signals that were rarely detected in nonmutagenized populations. This strategy successfully isolated several putative lipid hyperaccumulating mutants ...


Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee 2019 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee

Basil Nikolau

Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids. Crude dissection of the seed followed by GC-MS analysis of polar metabolites also ...


The 3-Hydroxyacyl-Acp Dehydratase Component Of The Plant Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthase System, Xin Guan, Yozo Okazaki, Andrew Lithio, Ling Li, Xuefeng Zhao, Huanan Jin, Dan Nettleton, Kazuki Saito, Basil J. Nikolau 2019 Iowa State University

The 3-Hydroxyacyl-Acp Dehydratase Component Of The Plant Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthase System, Xin Guan, Yozo Okazaki, Andrew Lithio, Ling Li, Xuefeng Zhao, Huanan Jin, Dan Nettleton, Kazuki Saito, Basil J. Nikolau

Basil Nikolau

We report the characterization of the Arabidopsis 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) dehydratase (mtHD) component of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthase (mtFAS) system, encoded by AT5G60335. The mitochondrial localization and catalytic capability of mtHD were demonstrated with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenesis experiment, and by in vivo complementation and in vitro enzymatic assays. RNAi knockdown lines with reduced mtHD expression exhibit traits typically associated with mtFAS mutants, namely a miniaturized morphological appearance, reduced lipoylation of lipoylated proteins, and altered metabolomes consistent with the reduced catalytic activity of lipoylated enzymes. These alterations are reversed when mthd-rnai mutant plants are grown in ...


Summary Of Foliar Fungicide Applications On Corn In Iowa In 2018, Alison E. Robertson 2019 Iowa State University

Summary Of Foliar Fungicide Applications On Corn In Iowa In 2018, Alison E. Robertson

Alison Robertson

In 2018, we tested various foliar fungicides on corn at six locations in Iowa: ISU Northwest Research and Demonstration Farm (NWRF), Sutherland; Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm (NERF), Nashua; Northern Research and Demonstration Farm (NRF), Kanawha; Southwest Research and Demonstration Farm (SWRF), Lewis; Southeast Research and Demonstration Farm (SERF), Crawfordsville; and the Ag engineering and Agronomy Farm near Boone.


Mycotoxins And Deterioration In The 2018 Corn Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson 2019 Iowa State University

Mycotoxins And Deterioration In The 2018 Corn Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson

Alison Robertson

Above normal rains in September have slowed field crop dry-down. Coupled with early season drought in South Central and Southeast Iowa and above-average rainfall in the Northwest, there is high risk of reduced grain quality. Corn and soybeans remaining in the field are currently exposed to excessive moisture that encourages the growth of ear molds. Moldy kernels are counted in total damage, thereby affecting the overall grade of the corn. Additionally, if the fungus is capable of producing mycotoxins, affected grain may be subject to marketing restrictions.


Crop Quality Hurt By Rains, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson 2019 Iowa State University

Crop Quality Hurt By Rains, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson

Alison Robertson

This year continues the chain of years with unusual harvest conditions driven by rapid weather changes in the latter part of the growing season. In mid August, crops were significantly ahead of schedule in terms of maturity. Heat and moisture in May and June accelerated the pace of development, to the point that signs of maturity were evident by the 15th of August. Rains followed by above average temperatures began over Labor Day weekend, and have been repeated nearly every weekend to date. The forecast for the weekend of October 7 is more of the same – very heavy rains ...


Tracking Tar Spot In Corn 2018, Alison E. Robertson, Edward Zaworski, Ethan Stoetzer 2019 Iowa State University

Tracking Tar Spot In Corn 2018, Alison E. Robertson, Edward Zaworski, Ethan Stoetzer

Alison Robertson

Cases of tar spot in corn have been reported over recent weeks in 12 Iowa counties. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach plant pathologists have been able to confirm the presence of tar spot in four counties via the Iowa State University Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic. Agronomists and collaborators have confirmed the remaining cases throughout the state. The current counties with confirmed tar spot presence include: Jones, Jackson, Johnson, Muscatine, Fayette, Clayton, Black Hawk, Buchanan, Delaware, Dubuque, Clinton, Scott, Grundy and Chickasaw counties.


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