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A Mutation In Cav2.1 Linked To A Severe Neurodevelopmental Disorder Impairs Channel Gating, Sidharth Tyagi 2019 University of Colorado at Boulder

A Mutation In Cav2.1 Linked To A Severe Neurodevelopmental Disorder Impairs Channel Gating, Sidharth Tyagi

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Ca2+ flux via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is essential to the regulation of membrane excitability, neurotransmission, and a variety of intracellular signaling processes. CaV2.1 is the predominant Ca2+ channel present in the presynaptic terminals of both neuromuscular junctions and many central synapses. Point mutations in CaV2.1 can drastically alter channel gating and expression, and indeed have been linked to two paroxysmal disorders – Episodic Ataxia Type 2, and Familial Hemiplegic Migraine Type 1. With the novel whole-exome sequencing technique, mutations linked to a new class of more severe disorders have been found with phenotypes like Episodic Ataxia ...


Degeneration Of Rods And Cones In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Rachel Stern 2019 Touro College

Degeneration Of Rods And Cones In Retinitis Pigmentosa, Rachel Stern

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Retinitis Pigmentosa, most commonly characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, is a rare genetically inherited group of diseases affecting the retina of the eye. It is estimated that 1 in 4000 people in the USA are affected by some form of the disease. Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), is caused by a mutation or change in one or more of 55 genes. There are many causes to this disease as RP presents with many different symptoms and biological effects on the eye. These are then grouped together because they share a common result, deterioration of vision. Presently, there is ...


Energy Drinks: Cardiovascular Effects And The Specific Components Responsible, Malka B. Gelbfish 2019 Touro College

Energy Drinks: Cardiovascular Effects And The Specific Components Responsible, Malka B. Gelbfish

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Energy drink usage as a stimulant is on the rise among adolescents and young adults. While these drinks have positive energizing effects, they pose significant health concerns. This paper examines the adverse cardiovascular effects of energy drinks and the components that could possibly be responsible. Analysis was conducted by reviewing and comparing many studies available in this area of research. Studies of energy drinks in general and energy drinks versus drinks containing caffeine alone were analyzed. Additionally, this review investigated studies of the specific ingredients in energy drinks such as caffeine, taurine, guarana, and sugar. This review found that energy ...


The Effects Of Bisphenol F On Embryonic Cardiac Output In Zebrafish, Kyle Monnot 2019 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Bisphenol F On Embryonic Cardiac Output In Zebrafish, Kyle Monnot

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Bisphenol F (BPF) is an analog compound of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA). BPA utilization has decreased dramatically due to its detrimental effects as an endocrine disrupter. In place of BPA, BPF is growing to be a ubiquitous chemical in epoxy resin manufacturing. Recent research has begun to investigate the possible endocrinal effects of BPF as an analog of BPA. This study was performed to examine the potential effects of BPF exposure on cardiac parameters of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Embryos were exposed to 50 µg/L BPF for 48 hours, and cardiac parameters (stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac ...


Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra

Theses and Dissertations

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs that exert their characteristic effects through agonist activity at the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2A). In this study, I aimed to characterize the modulatory role of the metabotropic glutamate subtype 2 receptor (mGluR2) in the 5-HT2A-specific rodent model of hallucinogenic action, head-twitch response (HTR). Secondly, I aimed to explore if 5-HT2A agonist-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, an additional model of hallucinogenic action, could be produced in mice. Though 5-HT2A agonist-induced PPI deficits, which represent interruptions in normal sensorimotor gating, have been described in both ...


Suction Dredge Mining Impacts On Pacific Lamprey Populations And Habitat In Washington State: A Case Study Of The Entiat River, Jaime Liljegren 2019 Central Washington University

Suction Dredge Mining Impacts On Pacific Lamprey Populations And Habitat In Washington State: A Case Study Of The Entiat River, Jaime Liljegren

All Master's Theses

Suction dredge mining is a largely unregulated recreational activity in Washington State with potentially significant impacts to aquatic habitat. Although dredging has the potential to cause widespread ecological effects, only impacts to select species have been thoroughly assessed. Due to their reliance on freshwater habitat throughout multiple life stages, Pacific lamprey are significantly vulnerable to impacts from dredging practices. This thesis focuses on assessing the effects of dredging to lamprey habitat within state-owned aquatic lands of Washington. Pacific lamprey are anadromous, utilizing freshwater habitat throughout key life stages including spawning in substrate ranging from coarse gravel to fine sand, and ...


M22 Hormesis In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Models, Alexa Mejorada 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

M22 Hormesis In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Models, Alexa Mejorada

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cryoprotectant toxicity (CT), or the injury due to cryoprotectant (CPA) exposure, remains the most limiting barrier to performing successful organ cryopreservation. An intervention alleviating the stress induced by CT in mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) models may translate well into tissue and organ models of cryopreservation. Such discoveries could enable large-scale organ banking and, potentially, end the transplantable-organ shortage. In this study, I sought to see if CT could be combated through a hormetic approach. Hormesis will be defined as the negation of the detrimental effects of a high, lethal dosage of a stressor via a prior nonlethal dosage of ...


Examination Of The Role Of Neuroimmune Signaling In Drug Addiction, Catherine Levy 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Examination Of The Role Of Neuroimmune Signaling In Drug Addiction, Catherine Levy

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cocaine and oxycodone addictions are chronic, relapsing disorders characterized by maladaptive patterns of drug seeking that create significant impairment for the user. While the homeostatic functions of neuroimmune cells such as microglia and astrocytes have been well characterized, little work has examined the structural and functional alterations of these neuroglial cells following repeated drug intake. The first experiment of this study used male and female Sprague-Dawley rats to examine sex differences in microglial cells following repeated cocaine intake. The second experiment used a rodent model of oxycodone self-administration to test the ability of ibudilast, a non-selective anti-inflammatory drug, to reduce ...


Herbicide Toxicity To Non-Target Aquatic Organisms Does Not Increase In Mixtures With Surfactants, Courtney L. Telfort 2019 Georgia Southern University

Herbicide Toxicity To Non-Target Aquatic Organisms Does Not Increase In Mixtures With Surfactants, Courtney L. Telfort

University Honors Program Theses

Agricultural herbicides enter aquatic environments after rain events where they affect microscopic aquatic plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton) that form the base of aquatic food webs. Atrazine, an herbicide with low solubility in water, is often mixed with surfactants such as alkyl polyglucoside (APG) to improve effectiveness. Although APG has low-toxicity, a potential drawback to increased atrazine solubility is greater adverse effects on aquatic organisms. I hypothesized that atrazine and APG decrease phytoplankton abundance more than atrazine alone. Specifically, I predicted phytoplankton abundance should 1) decrease with increasing concentrations of the mixture compared to the same atrazine concentrations individually, and ...


Ultrafine Black Carbon: A Cumulative Assessment On The Physiology Of Lung - Derived Cells, M Esther Salinas 2019 University of Texas at El Paso

Ultrafine Black Carbon: A Cumulative Assessment On The Physiology Of Lung - Derived Cells, M Esther Salinas

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Combustion-derived nanomaterials are noxious ultrafine (<100 nm) aerosolized by-products generated by human activity. They pose threats to pulmonary health due to their small size, allowing them to penetrate deep into the alveolar regions causing detrimental responses downstream. Indeed, an examination between nanocarbon particle exposure and poor pulmonary health via cellular behavior was needed. I hypothesized that low-dose and long-term administrations of carbonaceous nanoparticles contribute to respiratory conditions by irritating lung-derived cells. Responses to ultrafine black carbon (UBC), a key component of airborne pollutants, by human lung A549 and murine lung LA4 epithelial cells, human peripheral-blood monocytes THP1, and murine macrophages RAW264.7 were investigated. These lines were chosen because epithelial cells and mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages) are the first to come in contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and contribute to stress and inflammation of pulmonary tissues. The cells were first plated on day zero and fed fresh UBC suspended in culture media on days one, four, and seven. The exposure regimen included three different low-level concentrations of UBC. On day ten, all cells were prepared for subsequent assays. Effects on cellular viability revealed that UBC was modestly cytotoxic while ATPase and esterase activity (termed enzyme vitality for the purpose of this study) were significantly diminished in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, beta-galactosidase proportionally increased with UBC concentration compared to untreated cells, indicating that cellular senescence was promoted across all cell types. Multiple markers of oxidative stress were subsequently measured, showing non-uniform trends and displaying moderate accumulation of oxidative damage, contingent upon cell line and UBC treatment. However, a significant induction of inner mitochondrial membrane depolarization of human UBC-treated cells was observed; an aberrant cell-cycle progression was found across all cells. The implemented regimen of UBC exposure elicited an imbalance of free (reduced) glutathione, altered mitochondrial potential, and abnormal cell-cycle activity. This method demonstrated that modifications across both species induced changes to cellular fitness overall. The data supported that compounding nanosized black carbon exposure could negatively affect overall pulmonary cell health by distinctively modifying intracellular activity. Additionally, we further surmised that sustained exposure to nanocarbon could impair innate immunity. Therefore, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and cytokine levels upon continuous administrations to 3.0 μg/mL UBC after brief challenges to microbial proxies were assessed; on day 9, the cells were succumbed to three different microbial insults (LPS, Poly I:C, and Zymosan). On day 10, measurements demonstrated a moderate accumulation of oxidative stress, conditional to each cell type. Thus, UBC plus microbe approach triggered pro-oxidant levels and cytokine production across different cell types and diminished phagocytic response by murine macrophages. Based on the results, ultrafine-PM exposure may impair inflammatory function in response to pathogenic infections. In summation, our findings indicated that additive nanosized UBC in combination with microbe-like challenges may compromise cellular behavior, suggesting potential ways by which inhalation of ultrafine-PM may contribute to or exacerbate poor pulmonary health.


Medication Adherence For Foster Children From The Perspective Of Foster Care Providers, Odette Boyd 2019 Walden University

Medication Adherence For Foster Children From The Perspective Of Foster Care Providers, Odette Boyd

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In 2015, over 427,000 children were in foster care and the largest population were in California's system. Of those children, more than 9,400 were prescribed psychotropic medications. Increases of psychotropic medication use have led to investigations and findings of medication oversights in foster care. Medication oversights included medication nonadherence, which was linked to an increase of problematic behaviors in foster children. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the issues of medication adherence for foster care providers who care for foster children of mild to chronic health concerns who were prescribed medications and experienced multiple ...


Residual Next-Day Effects Of Alprazolam On Psychomotor Performance And Simulated Driving In Healthy Normal Volunteers, Marion A. Coe 2019 University of Kentucky

Residual Next-Day Effects Of Alprazolam On Psychomotor Performance And Simulated Driving In Healthy Normal Volunteers, Marion A. Coe

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

The prevalence of drugged driving has increased in the United States, and some prescription medications (e.g., zolpidem) cause impairment after the predicted duration of therapeutic action has elapsed. The aim of this study is to determine if bedtime administration of alprazolam similarly impacts driving performance the following day.

Volunteers were 14 healthy adults (6 males) who completed a double-blind, double-dummy within-subjects design study examining the effects of alprazolam (0.5, 1, & 2mg), zolpidem (10mg), and placebo administered at bedtime on driving performance the following day. The positive control condition was alprazolam (1mg) administered on the test morning. Driving simulator ...


Ta Systems: The Key To New Antibacterial Strategies?, Nathan A. Baker 2019 Parkland College

Ta Systems: The Key To New Antibacterial Strategies?, Nathan A. Baker

Natural Sciences Poster Sessions

This slide presentation for the Natural Sciences Poster Session at Parkland College summarizes a study investigating the use of toxin-antitoxin systems as a treatment for antibiotic resistant e-coli.


Do Humans Possess The Capability To Regenerate?, Chasha Wuensch 2019 Touro College

Do Humans Possess The Capability To Regenerate?, Chasha Wuensch

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Urodele amphibians, including newts and salamanders, are amongst the most commonly studied research models for regeneration. The ability to regenerate, however, is not limited to amphibians, and the regenerative process has been observed in mammals as well. This paper discusses methods by which amphibians and mammals regenerate to lend insights into human regenerative mechanisms and regenerative potential. A focus is placed on the urodele and murine digit tip models, both of which share critical regenerative stages including wound healing, histolysis, and blastema formation. Formation of the blastema proved to be a crucial process necessary for regeneration, and is responsible for ...


The Effects Of Aging On Skeletal Muscle Atp Production, Chaya Abboudi 2019 Touro College

The Effects Of Aging On Skeletal Muscle Atp Production, Chaya Abboudi

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

The study of the aging process and its prevention is an incredibly popular field; the natural course of the human body is to age and theories abound on how to avoid it. Age affects every system and pathway of the body and alters many of the bodily functions. This paper, using articles from Touro’s library database examines the different areas in which aging negatively affects ATP production. The multifaceted process associated with the production of ATP in the human body was analyzed. Several features such as the mitochondria, physical activity, and hormones are linked to ATP production and the ...


Qualitative And Quantitative Analysis Of Therapeutic Solutions Using Raman And Infrared Spectroscopy, Alaa A. Makki, Franck Bonnier, Renaud Respaud, Fatma Chtara, Ali Tfayli, Clovis Tauber, Dominique Bertrand, Hugh J. Byrne, Elhadi Mohammed, Igor Chourpa 2019 Université Francois-Rabelais de Tours

Qualitative And Quantitative Analysis Of Therapeutic Solutions Using Raman And Infrared Spectroscopy, Alaa A. Makki, Franck Bonnier, Renaud Respaud, Fatma Chtara, Ali Tfayli, Clovis Tauber, Dominique Bertrand, Hugh J. Byrne, Elhadi Mohammed, Igor Chourpa

Articles

Anticancer drugs are prescribed and administrated to an increasing number of patients on a daily basis. As a consequence, a number of concerns have been raised about the patient health and safety in the case that the drugs administered are not at the required concentration or even worse not the correct ones. Quality control of therapeutic solutions has therefore been extensively implemented in hospital environments, in order to avoid any failure in the intense workflow faced by administering pharmacists. In the present study, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for the analysis of 3 commercially available therapeutic solutions ...


The Measles Vaccine, Ben Albrecht 2019 Parkland College

The Measles Vaccine, Ben Albrecht

A with Honors Projects

This honors project reviews the development of the measles vaccine, and the controversial and debunked research that led to a decrease in vaccinations and an increase in the illness.


A California Without Rodenticides: Challenges For Commensal Rodent Management In The Future, Niamh Quinn, Sylvia Kenmuir, Laura Krueger 2019 University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources

A California Without Rodenticides: Challenges For Commensal Rodent Management In The Future, Niamh Quinn, Sylvia Kenmuir, Laura Krueger

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Rodenticides are an essential tool in the integrated pest management of infestations of commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, and Mus musculus). With the introduction of Assembly Bill 1788, the California Ecosystems Protection Act of 2019, California is potentially facing a future with new restrictions on the use of anticoagulant rodenticides to manage commensal rodents in urban areas. Assembly Bill 1788 has been proposed specifically to protect predators from anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning and seeks to restrict the application of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) for use in many urban and non-urban areas of California, USA. Exclusion and cultural practices, such as ...


Prevention Of Crystalline Silica-Induced Inflammation By The Anti-Malarial Hydroxychloroquine, Rachel Dawn Burmeister 2019 University of Montana

Prevention Of Crystalline Silica-Induced Inflammation By The Anti-Malarial Hydroxychloroquine, Rachel Dawn Burmeister

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Exposure to inhaled crystalline silica (cSiO2) is common in occupations where there is cutting, milling, or grinding of cSiO2 containing material. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration estimates that over 2 million workers may be exposed to inhaled cSiO2 in the United States. Inhalation of cSiO2 causes acute and chronic inflammation and may lead pulmonary diseases such as silicosis, as well as an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases.Unfortunately, treatment of cSiO2-induced lung diseases is limited and primarily focused on supportive care.

Inflammation caused by cSiO2 begins when, cSiO2 particles are phagocytized by alveolar macrophages. Interaction between the particle ...


Two-Dimensional Correlation Analysis Of Raman Microspectroscopy Of Subcellular Interactions Of Drugs In Vitro, Hugh J. Byrne, Franck Bonnier, Zeineb Farhane 2019 Technological University Dublin

Two-Dimensional Correlation Analysis Of Raman Microspectroscopy Of Subcellular Interactions Of Drugs In Vitro, Hugh J. Byrne, Franck Bonnier, Zeineb Farhane

Articles

Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis is explored to data mine the time evolution of the characteristic Raman microspectroscopic signatures of the subcellular responses of the nucleoli of human lung cancer cells to the uptake of doxorubicin. A simulated dataset of experimental control spectra, perturbed with systematically time-dependent spectral changes, constituted by a short-term response which represents the initial binding of the drug in the nucleolus, followed by a longer term response of the organelle metabolism, is used to validate the analysis protocol. Applying 2D correlation analysis, the in phase, synchronous correlation coefficients are seen to contain contributions of both response profiles ...


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