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Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

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Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers 2019 University of the Incarnate Word

Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers

Theses & Dissertations

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease rampant in developing countries. Widespread chemotherapy is reliant on a single drug, praziquantel, which increases the risk of resistance and creates an urgent need for the development of new alternatives for treatment. Fungal biotransformation is a well-documented tool in the pharmaceutical synthesis of new drugs. This study examined the efficacy of four fungal strains, Cunninghamella elegans (ATCC 9245 and ATCC 8688a), Umbelopsis ramanniana, (ATCC 9628) and Yarrowia lipolytica (ATCC 20225), in the biotransformation of praziquantel. Colonies were cultured, dosed with praziquantel, incubated for 5, 10 or 15 days to metabolize, after which the cultures ...


Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is the agricultural technique of growing plants without soil, using other growing media and added nutrients in a solvent. It is an attractive agricultural method over conventional agriculture because it is more water efficient, is less labor intensive, yields higher quality crops in less time, and is easier to control. According to the Digital Journal, “hydroponics crop value is anticipated to grow to USD 27.29 Billion by 2022 at an estimated CAGR of 6.39% from 2015 to 2020” (Sawant, 2016). Alongside this growing market acceptance for hydroponics, there is also a local demand that requires only a ...


Development Of Bar-Peptide Nanoparticles And Electrospun Fibers For The Prevention And Treatment Of Oral Biofilms., Mohamed Yehia Mahmoud 2019 University of Louisville

Development Of Bar-Peptide Nanoparticles And Electrospun Fibers For The Prevention And Treatment Of Oral Biofilms., Mohamed Yehia Mahmoud

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Periodontal diseases are globally prevalent inflammatory disorders that affect ~47% of U.S adults. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) has been identified as a “keystone” pathogen that disrupts host-microbe homeostasis and contributes to the initiation and progression of periodontitis. Pg associates with oral streptococci in supragingival plaque and this interaction represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Previously our group developed a peptide (designated BAR), that potently inhibits Pg/Streptococcus gordonii (Sg) adherence in vitro and Pg virulence in a murine model of periodontitis. While efficacious, BAR (SspB Adherence Region) provided transient inhibition and required higher concentrations of BAR to disrupt ...


Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt 2019 University of Louisville

Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) comprises 85% of lung cancer diagnoses and is plagued by drug resistance. Thus, elucidating the underlying mechanisms of NSCLC is paramount to expand future treatment options. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2), an intracellular enzyme with arylesterase and lactonase functions, has well-established anti-atherosclerotic activity. Recent studies show PON2 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and confers drug resistance, although these interactions have not been thoroughly examined in NSCLC. Thus, we sought to investigate the role of PON2 in cellular proliferation using PON2-knockout mice, primary mouse cells, and NSCLC cell lines. Using these approaches, we demonstrate that PON2 ...


Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent 2019 University of Louisville

Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the development of a novel lectin-Fc fusion protein and its antiviral and anti-cancer activity. The molecule, Avaren-Fc (AvFc), is a fusion of a variant of the actinomycete lectin actinohivin (Avaren) and the Fc region of human IgG1, and is selective for the terminal α1,2-mannose residues found at the ends of high-mannose-type glycans that can be found on the surface of certain heavily glycosylated viruses and cancer cells. Here, AvFc was found to be able to neutralize simian immunodeficiency virus as well as Hepatitis C virus with nanomolar IC50 values. Furthermore, AvFc recognizes a number of ...


Risk Assessment For Tce Contamination At The Plymouth Tube Sitegila River Indian Reservation, Az, Eric Canteenwala 2019 The University of San Francisco

Risk Assessment For Tce Contamination At The Plymouth Tube Sitegila River Indian Reservation, Az, Eric Canteenwala

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Trichloroethylene or TCE is a volatile organic compound and Group A known human carcinogen that has been widely used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications and is one of the most common types of environmental contaminants found at industrial sites. A human health risk assessment was conducted using indoor air, soil vapor and groundwater monitoring well sample data to assess whether historic contamination posed a current risk to workers occupying a factory at the former Plymouth Tube Site in Chandler, Arizona. Sample data was analyzed using US EPA guidance and basic risk assessment calculations to quantify the cancerous ...


Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech 2019 Carroll College

Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The purpose of our experiment was to answer the question: Does exposure to aerosols expelled from an electronic cigarette affect the APN2 gene expression in Tetrahymena thermophila? It was hypothesized that the expression of APN2 would increase in Tetrahymena that were exposed to aerosol from a vape and that their growth rate would decrease. The mechanism and function of the APN2 gene is known as base excision repair. To test the hypothesis, Tetrahymena were randomly assigned to either a control group or a test group. A contraption was created to extract 12mL of aerosol from a Smok Baby Beast vape ...


Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete 2019 Carroll College

Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Phthalates, often referred to as plasticizers, are a group of chemicals used in hundreds of products including detergents, food packaging, and nail polish. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalates (DEHP) have recently been shown to disrupt endocrine chemical balances, thereby causing reproductive strain. For this project, we wanted to explore how DEHP influences conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila and to determine how DEHP exposure affects expression of the DCL-1 gene. The DCL-1 gene encodes the protein DCL-1 which is essential for transmitting genetic information during the process of conjugation in T. thermophila. We hypothesized that DEHP will act as a repressor of conjugation resulting ...


Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Composting processes reduce the weight and volume of biowaste and produce products that can be used in agriculture (e.g., as fertilizer). Despite the benefits of composting, there are also problems such as odors and the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. This research aimed to investigate the phenomenon of process gas (CO, CO2, NO, O2) evolution within a large-scale municipal composter. The effects of turning frequency and pile location (outdoor vs. indoors) on process gas and temperature spatial and temporal evolution were studied in six piles (37‒81 tons of initial weight) over a six-month period. The ...


Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Cr(VI) (hexavalent chromium) has recently been found in the drinking water of over 250 million Americans. It is a powerful oxidizing agent, and is known to cause cancer, although the specific mechanism has yet to be elucidated. There is no known preventative treatment for Cr(VI) exposure, and the US EPA is currently determining what concentration of Cr(VI) in drinking water can be safely tolerated. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Cr(VI) cytotoxicity can be prevented by various antioxidants. We tested this hypothesis by exposing human embryonic kidney and human intestinal epithelial cells to Cr ...


3 Cm Researchers Honored With Endowed Chairs, Children's Mercy Hospital 2019 Children's Mercy Kansas City

3 Cm Researchers Honored With Endowed Chairs, Children's Mercy Hospital

Our Story Continues

Susan Abdel-Rahman, PharmD received the Marion Merrell Dow/Missouri Chair in Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology. Shao Jiang, MD received the Frederick J. McCoy Endowed Chair in Plastic Surgery and Craniofacial Research. Cy Nadler, PhD received the Josh Barnds and Stella Carlson Endowed Professorship for Autism.


Uncertainties Treatment For Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Estimation Of The Consumption Of Illicit And Prescribed Neuropsychiatric Drugs In Two Urban Communities In Kentucky Using Ammonium Normalized Population And Monte Carlo Simulation, Rhinannon Huffines, Tara Croft, Manoj Pathak, Bikram Subedi 2019 Murray State University

Uncertainties Treatment For Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Estimation Of The Consumption Of Illicit And Prescribed Neuropsychiatric Drugs In Two Urban Communities In Kentucky Using Ammonium Normalized Population And Monte Carlo Simulation, Rhinannon Huffines, Tara Croft, Manoj Pathak, Bikram Subedi

Scholars Week

The conventional estimation of the prevalence of substance use in a community based on self-reported surveys typically underestimates the actual consumption. Drug’s residues in raw wastewater collected from the centralized wastewater treatment plants were utilized – Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) – to determine the consumption rate of illicit and prescribed neuropsychiatric residues in two urban communities in eastern Kentucky and two rural communities in western Kentucky. The ammonical nitrogen content in raw wastewater samples was used to minimize the uncertainty associated with the population dynamicity. Uncertainties associated with the several WBE parameters to back-calculate the consumption rate of drugs such as flow ...


Sunscreen Efficacy By Chemical Composition And Its Effect On Aquatic Life, Taylor Yates 2019 Rappahannock Community College

Sunscreen Efficacy By Chemical Composition And Its Effect On Aquatic Life, Taylor Yates

Student Writing

Sunscreen provides protection against skin cancer by reducing UV exposure to the skin. Active ingredients come in two basic forms, chemical and mineral; ongoing research indicates that some active ingredients in sunscreen are harmful to marine life. This study is an analysis of chemical and mineral SPF 30 sunscreens to determine which provides the highest efficacy for skin protection while also providing the lowest toxicity to aquatic organisms. Sunscreen efficacy was tested by exposing photoreactive chemical paper applied with chemical and mineral sunscreens to the sun. Results of the photo effect paper trial showed a wide variation in the efficacy ...


Relative Importance Of Ions And Particles In Silver Nanoparticle Uptake And Accumulation In Keystone Estuarine Organisms; Prorocentrum Minimum And Crassostrea Virginica, Shelby Victoria Butz 2019 University of South Carolina

Relative Importance Of Ions And Particles In Silver Nanoparticle Uptake And Accumulation In Keystone Estuarine Organisms; Prorocentrum Minimum And Crassostrea Virginica, Shelby Victoria Butz

Theses and Dissertations

In marine systems, silver is regarded as being one of the most toxic and readily accumulated metals, and is known to be taken up and accumulate within marine invertebrates, fish, phytoplankton and seaweeds. Reported open ocean concentrations of silver range from 0.1 – 2 ng L-1 while silver concentrations in coastal waters are typically 5 to 10 times higher than open ocean values (0.1 - 50 ng L-1). The determination of silver in marine and coastal waters presents several challenges including low concentrations and matrix complexity of seawater, which creates interferences and other challenges for many instrumental techniques creating a ...


A Site Characterization And Assessment Of The Bushy Park Reservoir, A Charleston-Area Drinking Water Source, And Its Surrounding Watersheds In Response To Community Concerns, Bradley Joseph Chandler 2019 University of South Carolina

A Site Characterization And Assessment Of The Bushy Park Reservoir, A Charleston-Area Drinking Water Source, And Its Surrounding Watersheds In Response To Community Concerns, Bradley Joseph Chandler

Theses and Dissertations

Access to clean, safe drinking water is considered a basic human right (WHO 2004). It is vital to maintain adequate monitoring of source waters as well as to investigate claims of degraded source waters. In June of 2017, inaccurate reporting led many community members in Mt. Pleasant, SC to believe that their drinking water might be tainted, leading to elevated cases of brain cancer in children. Though steps were taken to test and ensure the drinking water was safe, fear over the health of the city’s drinking water still persists. This is largely due to the involvement of famed ...


Impact Of Pharmacogenomics On Clinical Outcomes In Major Depressive Disorder In The Guided Trial: A Large, Patient- And Rater-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Study, John F. Greden, Anthony J. Rothschild 2019 University of Michigan-Ann Arbor

Impact Of Pharmacogenomics On Clinical Outcomes In Major Depressive Disorder In The Guided Trial: A Large, Patient- And Rater-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Study, John F. Greden, Anthony J. Rothschild

Open Access Articles

Current prescribing practices for major depressive disorder (MDD) produce limited treatment success. Although pharmacogenomics may improve outcomes by identifying genetically inappropriate medications, studies to date were limited in scope. Outpatients (N=1167) diagnosed with MDD and with a patient- or clinician-reported inadequate response to at least one antidepressant were enrolled in the Genomics Used to Improve DEpression Decisions (GUIDED) trial - a rater- and patient-blind randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to treatment as usual (TAU) or a pharmacogenomics-guided intervention arm in which clinicians had access to a pharmacogenomic test report to inform medication selections (guided-care). Medications were considered congruent ('use ...


Nutrient Limitation Of Phytoplankton In Lake Wateree, South Carolina: Implications For Future Water Quality Management, Kara M. Clyburn 2019 University of South Carolina

Nutrient Limitation Of Phytoplankton In Lake Wateree, South Carolina: Implications For Future Water Quality Management, Kara M. Clyburn

Theses and Dissertations

Cultural eutrophication is a primary contributor to phytoplankton production in freshwater lakes from excess anthropogenic nutrient inputs, and resulting impacts on water quality, aquatic ecosystems, human and animal health are increasing worldwide. Understanding the factors that limit phytoplankton growth is an important strategy for identifying and managing nutrient sources and successfully controlling the over- enrichment of nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P) in freshwater lakes. The Redfield molecular ratio of carbon (C), N and P maintains that the C:N:P molar ratio is 106:16:1 when nutrients are not limiting, and the ecosystem is balanced. A N:P ...


Evaluation Of Semi-Continuous Pit Manure Recharge System Performance On Mitigation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From A Swine Finishing Barn, Jisoo Wi, Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn 2019 Chungnam National University

Evaluation Of Semi-Continuous Pit Manure Recharge System Performance On Mitigation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From A Swine Finishing Barn, Jisoo Wi, Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research, for the first time, we present the evaluation of a semi-continuous pit manure recharge system on the mitigation of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from a swine finisher barn. The pit recharge system is practiced on many swine farms in the Republic of Korea, primarily for improving air quality in the barn. It consists of an integrated waste management system where the fraction of stored manure is pumped out (10× of the daily production of manure, 3× a day); solids are separated and composted, while the aerobically treated liquid fraction is then returned to the ...


No More, Monsanto. A Comprehensive Review Of The Most Hated Agriculture/Biotechnology/Chemical/Confectionery/Pharmaceutical Company In America., Gabrielle Robbins 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

No More, Monsanto. A Comprehensive Review Of The Most Hated Agriculture/Biotechnology/Chemical/Confectionery/Pharmaceutical Company In America., Gabrielle Robbins

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Since 1901, Monsanto's roots have held strong to its grip as a conglomerate in chemical, agriculture, and biotechnology industries. This creative project will deconstruct, investigate and strategically interpret the brand's history, logo, social responsibility and so much more of the good, bad and the ugly.


Environmental Insights From A Utah Pilot Study On Well-Being, Casey Trout 2019 Utah State University

Environmental Insights From A Utah Pilot Study On Well-Being, Casey Trout

Research on Capitol Hill

This project focuses on the importance of the natural environment to the well-being of those surveyed during a 2018 pilot study. The pilot study marked the beginning of the Utah Well-being Project, a 5-year study to assess well-being across Utah communities.

The survey asked participants questions about their overall well-being and their well-being in relation to twelve commonly articulated “domains”, including those that are listed in Figures 1 and 2.


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