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Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

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Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech 2019 Carroll College

Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The purpose of our experiment was to answer the question: Does exposure to aerosols expelled from an electronic cigarette affect the APN2 gene expression in Tetrahymena thermophila? It was hypothesized that the expression of APN2 would increase in Tetrahymena that were exposed to aerosol from a vape and that their growth rate would decrease. The mechanism and function of the APN2 gene is known as base excision repair. To test the hypothesis, Tetrahymena were randomly assigned to either a control group or a test group. A contraption was created to extract 12mL of aerosol from a Smok Baby Beast vape ...


Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete 2019 Carroll College

Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Phthalates, often referred to as plasticizers, are a group of chemicals used in hundreds of products including detergents, food packaging, and nail polish. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalates (DEHP) have recently been shown to disrupt endocrine chemical balances, thereby causing reproductive strain. For this project, we wanted to explore how DEHP influences conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila and to determine how DEHP exposure affects expression of the DCL-1 gene. The DCL-1 gene encodes the protein DCL-1 which is essential for transmitting genetic information during the process of conjugation in T. thermophila. We hypothesized that DEHP will act as a repressor of conjugation resulting ...


Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Composting processes reduce the weight and volume of biowaste and produce products that can be used in agriculture (e.g., as fertilizer). Despite the benefits of composting, there are also problems such as odors and the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. This research aimed to investigate the phenomenon of process gas (CO, CO2, NO, O2) evolution within a large-scale municipal composter. The effects of turning frequency and pile location (outdoor vs. indoors) on process gas and temperature spatial and temporal evolution were studied in six piles (37‒81 tons of initial weight) over a six-month period. The ...


Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Cr(VI) (hexavalent chromium) has recently been found in the drinking water of over 250 million Americans. It is a powerful oxidizing agent, and is known to cause cancer, although the specific mechanism has yet to be elucidated. There is no known preventative treatment for Cr(VI) exposure, and the US EPA is currently determining what concentration of Cr(VI) in drinking water can be safely tolerated. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Cr(VI) cytotoxicity can be prevented by various antioxidants. We tested this hypothesis by exposing human embryonic kidney and human intestinal epithelial cells to Cr ...


3 Cm Researchers Honored With Endowed Chairs, Children's Mercy Hospital 2019 Children's Mercy Kansas City

3 Cm Researchers Honored With Endowed Chairs, Children's Mercy Hospital

Our Story Continues

Susan Abdel-Rahman, PharmD received the Marion Merrell Dow/Missouri Chair in Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology. Shao Jiang, MD received the Frederick J. McCoy Endowed Chair in Plastic Surgery and Craniofacial Research. Cy Nadler, PhD received the Josh Barnds and Stella Carlson Endowed Professorship for Autism.


Uncertainties Treatment For Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Estimation Of The Consumption Of Illicit And Prescribed Neuropsychiatric Drugs In Two Urban Communities In Kentucky Using Ammonium Normalized Population And Monte Carlo Simulation, Rhinannon Huffines, Tara Croft, Manoj Pathak, Bikram Subedi 2019 Murray State University

Uncertainties Treatment For Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Estimation Of The Consumption Of Illicit And Prescribed Neuropsychiatric Drugs In Two Urban Communities In Kentucky Using Ammonium Normalized Population And Monte Carlo Simulation, Rhinannon Huffines, Tara Croft, Manoj Pathak, Bikram Subedi

Scholars Week

The conventional estimation of the prevalence of substance use in a community based on self-reported surveys typically underestimates the actual consumption. Drug’s residues in raw wastewater collected from the centralized wastewater treatment plants were utilized – Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) – to determine the consumption rate of illicit and prescribed neuropsychiatric residues in two urban communities in eastern Kentucky and two rural communities in western Kentucky. The ammonical nitrogen content in raw wastewater samples was used to minimize the uncertainty associated with the population dynamicity. Uncertainties associated with the several WBE parameters to back-calculate the consumption rate of drugs such as flow ...


Sunscreen Efficacy By Chemical Composition And Its Effect On Aquatic Life, Taylor Yates 2019 Rappahannock Community College

Sunscreen Efficacy By Chemical Composition And Its Effect On Aquatic Life, Taylor Yates

Student Writing

Sunscreen provides protection against skin cancer by reducing UV exposure to the skin. Active ingredients come in two basic forms, chemical and mineral; ongoing research indicates that some active ingredients in sunscreen are harmful to marine life. This study is an analysis of chemical and mineral SPF 30 sunscreens to determine which provides the highest efficacy for skin protection while also providing the lowest toxicity to aquatic organisms. Sunscreen efficacy was tested by exposing photoreactive chemical paper applied with chemical and mineral sunscreens to the sun. Results of the photo effect paper trial showed a wide variation in the efficacy ...


Impact Of Pharmacogenomics On Clinical Outcomes In Major Depressive Disorder In The Guided Trial: A Large, Patient- And Rater-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Study, John F. Greden, Anthony J. Rothschild 2019 University of Michigan-Ann Arbor

Impact Of Pharmacogenomics On Clinical Outcomes In Major Depressive Disorder In The Guided Trial: A Large, Patient- And Rater-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Study, John F. Greden, Anthony J. Rothschild

Open Access Articles

Current prescribing practices for major depressive disorder (MDD) produce limited treatment success. Although pharmacogenomics may improve outcomes by identifying genetically inappropriate medications, studies to date were limited in scope. Outpatients (N=1167) diagnosed with MDD and with a patient- or clinician-reported inadequate response to at least one antidepressant were enrolled in the Genomics Used to Improve DEpression Decisions (GUIDED) trial - a rater- and patient-blind randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to treatment as usual (TAU) or a pharmacogenomics-guided intervention arm in which clinicians had access to a pharmacogenomic test report to inform medication selections (guided-care). Medications were considered congruent ('use ...


Evaluation Of Semi-Continuous Pit Manure Recharge System Performance On Mitigation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From A Swine Finishing Barn, Jisoo Wi, Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn 2019 Chungnam National University

Evaluation Of Semi-Continuous Pit Manure Recharge System Performance On Mitigation Of Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions From A Swine Finishing Barn, Jisoo Wi, Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Heekwon Ahn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research, for the first time, we present the evaluation of a semi-continuous pit manure recharge system on the mitigation of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from a swine finisher barn. The pit recharge system is practiced on many swine farms in the Republic of Korea, primarily for improving air quality in the barn. It consists of an integrated waste management system where the fraction of stored manure is pumped out (10× of the daily production of manure, 3× a day); solids are separated and composted, while the aerobically treated liquid fraction is then returned to the ...


No More, Monsanto. A Comprehensive Review Of The Most Hated Agriculture/Biotechnology/Chemical/Confectionery/Pharmaceutical Company In America., Gabrielle Robbins 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

No More, Monsanto. A Comprehensive Review Of The Most Hated Agriculture/Biotechnology/Chemical/Confectionery/Pharmaceutical Company In America., Gabrielle Robbins

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Since 1901, Monsanto's roots have held strong to its grip as a conglomerate in chemical, agriculture, and biotechnology industries. This creative project will deconstruct, investigate and strategically interpret the brand's history, logo, social responsibility and so much more of the good, bad and the ugly.


Environmental Insights From A Utah Pilot Study On Well-Being, Casey Trout 2019 Utah State University

Environmental Insights From A Utah Pilot Study On Well-Being, Casey Trout

Research on Capitol Hill

This project focuses on the importance of the natural environment to the well-being of those surveyed during a 2018 pilot study. The pilot study marked the beginning of the Utah Well-being Project, a 5-year study to assess well-being across Utah communities.

The survey asked participants questions about their overall well-being and their well-being in relation to twelve commonly articulated “domains”, including those that are listed in Figures 1 and 2.


Institutions And The Sustainability Of Community Borehole Water Supplies In Chiredzi Rural District, Zimbabwe, Emelder Muchadzoka Tagutanazvo Ms, John Bowora Mr 2019 University of Zimbabawe

Institutions And The Sustainability Of Community Borehole Water Supplies In Chiredzi Rural District, Zimbabwe, Emelder Muchadzoka Tagutanazvo Ms, John Bowora Mr

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This paper looks at institutions and sustainability of community-owned borehole water suppliers in Chiredzi Rural District of Zimbabwe. It examines the findings in Wards 13, 14 and 15 of Sengwe Communal Lands. The total number of boreholes in the mentioned wards amounts to 58. The paper also investigates the involvement of local institutions in the management of community boreholes, the socio-economic characteristics of the users of the boreholes, the number of boreholes and their functionality, and suggests a measurement

of sustenance of the boreholes in the study area. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methodology. Data were collected from ...


Water And Women’S Participation The Case Of One Million Rural Cisterns Program In Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Islene Pinheiro Façanha 2019 Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia and CENSE-Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research

Water And Women’S Participation The Case Of One Million Rural Cisterns Program In Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Islene Pinheiro Façanha

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The participation of women is crucial in the domain of water management, given the vital role women play in the collection and maintenance of communal water supplies, and in regulating and controlling its use. Unfortunately, they are seldom considered in the development of water policies, and rarely are they members of bodies regulating water management. Current evidence suggests that the participation of women in rural water supply projects leads to improved outcomes for both women and the wider community. Using interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and field observation, this paper explores the participation of women in the One Million Rural Cisterns ...


How Important Is Gender In Transboundary Groundwater Governance?: A Question For The Ramotswa Aquifer In Southern Africa, Stephanie Hawkins, Nicole Lefore, Saniso Sakuringwa, Matshidiso Thathana 2019 University of Strathclyde

How Important Is Gender In Transboundary Groundwater Governance?: A Question For The Ramotswa Aquifer In Southern Africa, Stephanie Hawkins, Nicole Lefore, Saniso Sakuringwa, Matshidiso Thathana

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

In semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa, groundwater is a critical resource for rural livelihoods given the pressures on surface water and lack of piped delivery. Socially defined gen- der roles in water management often create disparities and inequalities regarding water access, use, and labour, making consideration of gender issues an important component of groundwater governance. Resources shared across borders raises the question about the relevance of and approach to gender in transboundary ground- water governance. This paper explores this question in light of the lack of gender responsive governance arrangements over transboundary groundwater resources. It uses qualitative methodologies to examine the need ...


Interview With Philadelphia Water Expert Tiffany Ledesma, Mahvish Ilyas 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Interview With Philadelphia Water Expert Tiffany Ledesma, Mahvish Ilyas

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Tiffany Ledesma leads the Public Engagement Team for the Public Affairs Division at the Philadelphia Water Department, where she has spent 15 years as a contract employee, currently employed by CDM Smith. Tiffany’s background is in water resources and her expertise is in public affairs, partnership development, capacity- building and strategic communications. Tiffany is especially passionate about work in urban communities. The Public Engagement Team helps facilitate the implementation of infrastructure investments in the City of Philadelphia, including Green City, Clean Waters, through creative community outreach, public participation and program development. Tiffany holds a bachelor of arts from Villanova ...


Comparison Of Students ́Acceptance Of Conventional And Ecological Sanitation In Rural Schools, Claudia Wendland 2019 Women Engage for a Common Future

Comparison Of Students ́Acceptance Of Conventional And Ecological Sanitation In Rural Schools, Claudia Wendland

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

In rural areas of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) without reliable piped water supply, the conventional school sanitation system – the pit latrine – is leading to hygienic and environmental problems. Urine diverting dry toilets (UDDT) have been demonstrated to be an alternative, ecological sanitation solution for rural schools of the EECCA region. This study compares the acceptance, perception and absenteeism of students at schools served by the two different sanitation systems (ecosan versus pit latrine), comprising 18 schools in six countries of the region. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was applied: absenteeism data from ...


Cinderella And The Missing Slipper: Gender Dynamics In Water Management In The Coastal Region Of Bangladesh, Khalid Md. Bahauddin, Hamidul Huq 2019 Institute of Development Studies and Sustainability (IDSS), United International University (UIU), Bangladesh

Cinderella And The Missing Slipper: Gender Dynamics In Water Management In The Coastal Region Of Bangladesh, Khalid Md. Bahauddin, Hamidul Huq

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The water world is socially constructed, reflecting continuous gender inequalities and discrimination by those who hold dominant perspectives on water. This qualitative study was conducted in coastal areas of Bangladesh i.e. Bajua and Laodob union of Dacope upazilla of Khulna district. This study explored the gendered roles, responsibilities, and inequalities of access to and control over water management in the household, irrigation and agriculture. Results of this study lightened the importance of taking into account the complexity of power and negotiation in local water structures within women’s social realities. This study observed that there are considerable gender imbalance ...


Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Stress Coping Style And Genetic States Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Alexander Goodman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Neurotransmitter systems are important in regulating the stress response. If a behavioral response is disproportional to a stressor it is characterized as anxiety-like behavior. Many anxiolytic compounds, such as ethanol, increase stressor engagement, but how these compounds interact with an organism on a neurogenetic level is less understood. In this study, I assessed the impact of chronic ethanol treatment on behavior and gene expression of GABAAreceptors subunits on two strains of zebrafish. Each strain was selectively bred to display the proactive or reactive stress coping style where proactive individuals will actively engage a stressor more than reactive individuals ...


Thioredoxin Modulates Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (Pad4)-Catalyzed Citrullination, Mitesh Nagar, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Thioredoxin Modulates Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (Pad4)-Catalyzed Citrullination, Mitesh Nagar, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson

Open Access Articles

Protein citrullination is a post-translational modification catalyzed by the protein arginine deiminases (PADs). This modification plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of numerous autoimmune disorders including RA. Recently, there has been a growing interest in investigating physiological regulators of PAD activity to understand the primary cause of the associated disorders. Apart from calcium, it is well-documented that a reducing environment activates the PADs. Although the concentration of thioredoxin (hTRX), an oxidoreductase that maintains the cellular reducing environment, is elevated in RA patients, its contribution toward RA progression or PAD activity has not been explored. Herein, we demonstrate that hTRX ...


Analyzing Drug Release Kinetics From Water-Soluble Polymers, Sean M. Kelly, Arun K. Upadhyay, Akash Mitra, Balaji Narasimhan 2019 Iowa State University

Analyzing Drug Release Kinetics From Water-Soluble Polymers, Sean M. Kelly, Arun K. Upadhyay, Akash Mitra, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The ability to develop predictive mathematical models of therapeutic release from pharmaceutical formulations has enormous potential to enhance our understanding of such systems and improve the controlled release of the payload. The current work describes the development and testing of a one-dimensional model of drug transport from amorphous, swelling/dissolving polymers. Model parameters such as the diffusivities of water and drug, the initial loading of the drug, the polymer dissolution rate, drug-polymer interactions, and the tablet thickness were varied, demonstrating the ability to tune the release to be controlled by either drug diffusion or polymer chain disentanglement. In addition, predictions ...


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