Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,983 Full-Text Articles 5,877 Authors 677,081 Downloads 195 Institutions

All Articles in Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health

Faceted Search

2,983 full-text articles. Page 1 of 107.

Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte

Honors Program Projects

Hexavalent chromium, or Cr(VI), is a potent oxidizer and known carcinogen, that is found at varying levels in the water sources of more than 200 million Americans. However, the exact mechanism of carcinogenicity remains unknown, and though the government currently regulates total chromium levels, they have yet to determine a permissible exposure limit for Cr(VI). Moreover, there is currently no preventative treatment for Cr(VI). Because of Cr(VI)’s strong oxidative power, we hypothesized that it causes DNA mutation and cell death via oxidation and that antioxidants could prevent this from occurring. To test this, we first ...


Development And Validation Of A Lc-Ms/Ms Method For Detection And Quantification Of 18 Antidepressants In Whole Blood, Linda Kim 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Development And Validation Of A Lc-Ms/Ms Method For Detection And Quantification Of 18 Antidepressants In Whole Blood, Linda Kim

Student Theses

Antidepressants are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in America, with researchers reporting one in six Americans take some form of psychiatric drugs-mostly antidepressants (NBC News, 2016). Antidepressants are often present in combination with other drugs in suicides and drug-related deaths, so a sensitive and specific method to detect and quantify antidepressants is necessary. We developed a method for the detection and quantification of 18 different antidepressants in whole blood, with a range of 2.5-900 ng/mL and LOQ of 2.5 ng/mL. Three hundred uL of blood was used and the analytes were extracted using solid-phase ...


Health Disparities Among South Asians: Is Food Insecurity The Missing Link?, Valentina Chawdhury 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Health Disparities Among South Asians: Is Food Insecurity The Missing Link?, Valentina Chawdhury

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Objective: Food insecurity among South Asians in the US is a public health issue. Food insecure adults face a plethora of adverse outcomes and research shows that individuals with ancestral origins from South Asia have a higher susceptibility rate for cardiovascular disease after migrating to urban environments. As such, the goal of this study was to research possible barriers South Asians face when creating cultural dishes in the US.

Methods: This was a convergent parallel mixed-methods analysis to understand how South Asians feel about food insecurity. Pricing and availability of cultural food items were obtained from South Asian and Western ...


Integrating Online Instruction And Hands-On Laboratory Activities For Summer Learning For Students Of Color: A Design Case In Forensic Science, Douglas Elrick, Jiaqi Yu, Connie Hargrave 2019 Iowa State University

Integrating Online Instruction And Hands-On Laboratory Activities For Summer Learning For Students Of Color: A Design Case In Forensic Science, Douglas Elrick, Jiaqi Yu, Connie Hargrave

Constance P. Hargrave

The popularity of TV shows such as Crime Scene Investigation (CSI) has generated high school students’ interest in forensics. Yet, forensic science is not commonly accessible to students, and especially students of color who often attend under-resourced high schools. This article presents the design, development, and evaluation of an online forensics course created for high school students of color who were a part of an informal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational development program. Two essential elements guided the course design: the target learners (high school students of color) and integrating online instruction and hands-on laboratory activities involving real-world ...


Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond III 2019 Clark Atlanta University

Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development and advancement of prostate cancer is supported by a plethora of genetic and proteomic abnormalities, including events of post-translational modifications. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) enzyme regulates epigenetic events of histone modifications and protein post-translational modifications within protein signaling pathways. PRMT5 functions by catalyzing the symmetric dimethylation of terminal arginine residues on target protein substrates. Under abnormal conditions of overexpression and upregulation, PRMT5 methyltransferase activity constitutively drives the growth and proliferation of dysregulated cells. Overexpression or upregulation of PRMT5 correlates with disease progression as observed among numerous cancer types, including breast, colorectal, leukemia, lung, melanoma and prostate ...


Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara 2019 Southern Methodist University

Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of chemotherapy failure. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two well-studied drug transporters which are associated with MDR. These two transporters also act as a major functional unit of the blood brain barrier to protect the brain from xenobiotics and toxins. Lack of clinically approved P-gp and BCRP inhibitors renders chemotherapy treatments of many MDR cancers ineffective and obstructs drug uptake into the brain.

Using computational methods, we have identified new compounds that inhibit P-gp (Brewer et al., Mol. Pharmacol. 2014). Several of these ...


Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara 2019 Southern Methodist University

Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of chemotherapy failure. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two well-studied drug transporters which are associated with MDR. These two transporters also act as a major functional unit of the blood brain barrier to protect the brain from xenobiotics and toxins. Lack of clinically approved P-gp and BCRP inhibitors renders chemotherapy treatments of many MDR cancers ineffective and obstructs drug uptake into the brain.

Using computational methods, we have identified new compounds that inhibit P-gp (Brewer et al., Mol. Pharmacol. 2014). Several of these ...


Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

Purpose: To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of prednisone and prednisolone in tear fluid of dogs receiving oral prednisone at anti-inflammatory to immunosuppressive doses and to assess the impact of induced conjunctivitis on lacrimal drug levels.

Methods: Six healthy Beagle dogs were administered 4 courses of prednisone at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg given orally once a day for 5 days. At steady state, topical histamine was applied to induce mild (1 mg/mL) or severe (375 mg/mL) conjunctivitis in 1 eye of each dog and tear samples were collected from both eyes at ...


Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel

Joe Smith

Purpose: To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of prednisone and prednisolone in tear fluid of dogs receiving oral prednisone at anti-inflammatory to immunosuppressive doses and to assess the impact of induced conjunctivitis on lacrimal drug levels.

Methods: Six healthy Beagle dogs were administered 4 courses of prednisone at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg given orally once a day for 5 days. At steady state, topical histamine was applied to induce mild (1 mg/mL) or severe (375 mg/mL) conjunctivitis in 1 eye of each dog and tear samples were collected from both eyes at ...


Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel

Lionel Sebbag

Purpose: To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of prednisone and prednisolone in tear fluid of dogs receiving oral prednisone at anti-inflammatory to immunosuppressive doses and to assess the impact of induced conjunctivitis on lacrimal drug levels.

Methods: Six healthy Beagle dogs were administered 4 courses of prednisone at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg given orally once a day for 5 days. At steady state, topical histamine was applied to induce mild (1 mg/mL) or severe (375 mg/mL) conjunctivitis in 1 eye of each dog and tear samples were collected from both eyes at ...


Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel

Rachel A. Allbaugh

Purpose: To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of prednisone and prednisolone in tear fluid of dogs receiving oral prednisone at anti-inflammatory to immunosuppressive doses and to assess the impact of induced conjunctivitis on lacrimal drug levels.

Methods: Six healthy Beagle dogs were administered 4 courses of prednisone at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg given orally once a day for 5 days. At steady state, topical histamine was applied to induce mild (1 mg/mL) or severe (375 mg/mL) conjunctivitis in 1 eye of each dog and tear samples were collected from both eyes at ...


A Pharmacokinetic Model Of Lead Absorption And Calcium Competitive Dynamics, Anca R. Radulescu 2019 State University of New York at New Paltz

A Pharmacokinetic Model Of Lead Absorption And Calcium Competitive Dynamics, Anca R. Radulescu

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Tear Fluid Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Prednisone Administration In Dogs With And Without Conjunctivitis, Lionel Sebbag, Yuqi Yan, Joe S. Smith, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Larry W. Wulf, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Purpose: To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of prednisone and prednisolone in tear fluid of dogs receiving oral prednisone at anti-inflammatory to immunosuppressive doses and to assess the impact of induced conjunctivitis on lacrimal drug levels.

Methods: Six healthy Beagle dogs were administered 4 courses of prednisone at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg given orally once a day for 5 days. At steady state, topical histamine was applied to induce mild (1 mg/mL) or severe (375 mg/mL) conjunctivitis in 1 eye of each dog and tear samples were collected from both eyes at ...


Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers 2019 University of the Incarnate Word

Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers

Samuel Chivers

No abstract provided.


Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is the agricultural technique of growing plants without soil, using other growing media and added nutrients in a solvent. It is an attractive agricultural method over conventional agriculture because it is more water efficient, is less labor intensive, yields higher quality crops in less time, and is easier to control. According to the Digital Journal, “hydroponics crop value is anticipated to grow to USD 27.29 Billion by 2022 at an estimated CAGR of 6.39% from 2015 to 2020” (Sawant, 2016). Alongside this growing market acceptance for hydroponics, there is also a local demand that requires only a ...


Design Of Cotton Fabric-Based Binary And Ternary Composite Materials Containing Nanostructured Zno, Tio2, And Plasmonic Nanoparticles: Photocatalytic Applications, Latanya Downer 2019 Kennesaw State University

Design Of Cotton Fabric-Based Binary And Ternary Composite Materials Containing Nanostructured Zno, Tio2, And Plasmonic Nanoparticles: Photocatalytic Applications, Latanya Downer

Master of Science in Chemical Sciences Theses

Nanostructure metals and metal oxides can be used for surface functionalization and combined with different materials to increase functionality. Recently, surface functionality has been of interest due to its multi-component and its ability to generate new material properties. One of its main application is the creation of nanomaterials because of its novel physical properties which contribute towards stabilization, strength, and catalytic properties. Nanomaterials makes it possible to fabricate objects in the nanoscale size range which offers beneficial physical properties. The nanomaterial distinctiveness allows for the creation of materials with unique characteristics for different applications such as photocatalytic coatings. Semiconductor and ...


Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers 2019 University of the Incarnate Word

Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers

Theses & Dissertations

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease rampant in developing countries. Widespread chemotherapy is reliant on a single drug, praziquantel, which increases the risk of resistance and creates an urgent need for the development of new alternatives for treatment. Fungal biotransformation is a well-documented tool in the pharmaceutical synthesis of new drugs. This study examined the efficacy of four fungal strains, Cunninghamella elegans (ATCC 9245 and ATCC 8688a), Umbelopsis ramanniana, (ATCC 9628) and Yarrowia lipolytica (ATCC 20225), in the biotransformation of praziquantel. Colonies were cultured, dosed with praziquantel, incubated for 5, 10 or 15 days to metabolize, after which the cultures ...


Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Analysis Of The Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Process Gases Within Municipal Biowaste Compost, Sylwia Stegenta, Karolina Sobieraj, Grzegorz Pilarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Jacek A. Koziel

Composting processes reduce the weight and volume of biowaste and produce products that can be used in agriculture (e.g., as fertilizer). Despite the benefits of composting, there are also problems such as odors and the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. This research aimed to investigate the phenomenon of process gas (CO, CO2, NO, O2) evolution within a large-scale municipal composter. The effects of turning frequency and pile location (outdoor vs. indoors) on process gas and temperature spatial and temporal evolution were studied in six piles (37‒81 tons of initial weight) over a six-month period. The ...


Risk Assessment For Tce Contamination At The Plymouth Tube Sitegila River Indian Reservation, Az, Eric Canteenwala 2019 The University of San Francisco

Risk Assessment For Tce Contamination At The Plymouth Tube Sitegila River Indian Reservation, Az, Eric Canteenwala

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Trichloroethylene or TCE is a volatile organic compound and Group A known human carcinogen that has been widely used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications and is one of the most common types of environmental contaminants found at industrial sites. A human health risk assessment was conducted using indoor air, soil vapor and groundwater monitoring well sample data to assess whether historic contamination posed a current risk to workers occupying a factory at the former Plymouth Tube Site in Chandler, Arizona. Sample data was analyzed using US EPA guidance and basic risk assessment calculations to quantify the cancerous ...


Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech 2019 Carroll College

Studying The Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Exposure On Dna Mutation And Repair In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Tianna Sell, Katie Huisman, Matt F. Kvech

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The purpose of our experiment was to answer the question: Does exposure to aerosols expelled from an electronic cigarette affect the APN2 gene expression in Tetrahymena thermophila? It was hypothesized that the expression of APN2 would increase in Tetrahymena that were exposed to aerosol from a vape and that their growth rate would decrease. The mechanism and function of the APN2 gene is known as base excision repair. To test the hypothesis, Tetrahymena were randomly assigned to either a control group or a test group. A contraption was created to extract 12mL of aerosol from a Smok Baby Beast vape ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress