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More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. MacDougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens 2019 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. Macdougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens

Lori A. Biederman

Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically and geographically, spanning five orders of magnitude. Site‐level foliar sodium increased most strongly with site aridity and soil sodium; nutrient addition weakened the relationship ...


Epistatic Interactions Associated With Fatty Acid Concentrations Of Beef From Angus Sired Beef Cattle, Luke M. Kramer, M. A. Abdel Ghaffar, J. E. Koltes, E. R. Fritz-Waters, M. S. Mayes, A. D. Sewell, N. T. Weeks, D. J. Garrick, R. L. Fernando, L. Ma, J. M. Reecy 2019 Iowa State University

Epistatic Interactions Associated With Fatty Acid Concentrations Of Beef From Angus Sired Beef Cattle, Luke M. Kramer, M. A. Abdel Ghaffar, J. E. Koltes, E. R. Fritz-Waters, M. S. Mayes, A. D. Sewell, N. T. Weeks, D. J. Garrick, R. L. Fernando, L. Ma, J. M. Reecy

Nathan Weeks

Background: Consumers are becoming increasingly conscientious about the nutritional value of their food. Consumption of some fatty acids has been associated with human health traits such as blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate genetic variation in content of fatty acids present in meat. Previously publications reported regions of the cattle genome that are additively associated with variation in fatty acid content. This study evaluated epistatic interactions, which could account for additional genetic variation in fatty acid content.

Results: Epistatic interactions for 44 fatty acid traits in a population of Angus beef cattle were evaluated with ...


Pea Growth, Yield, And Quality In Different Crop Rotations And Cultural Practices, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett L. Allen, Jalal D. Jabro, William B. Stevens 2019 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Pea Growth, Yield, And Quality In Different Crop Rotations And Cultural Practices, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett L. Allen, Jalal D. Jabro, William B. Stevens

Andrew W. Lenssen

Dryland pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important pulse crop that can replace fallow or be added to existing crop rotations to sustain crop yields in arid and semiarid regions. Yet, we lack management practices to enhance yield and quality of dryland pea. This study evaluated the effect of crop rotation and cultural practices on dryland pea growth, yield, and quality from 2006 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA. Stacked rotations were durum (Triticum turgidum L.)–durum–canola (Brassica napus L.)–pea (DDCP) and durum–durum–flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)–pea (DDFP), and alternate-year rotations were durum–canola ...


Nutritional Composition Of Grain Legume Leaves And The Impact Of Leaf Removal On Yield, Rosemary Bulyaba, Andrew W. Lenssen 2019 Iowa State University

Nutritional Composition Of Grain Legume Leaves And The Impact Of Leaf Removal On Yield, Rosemary Bulyaba, Andrew W. Lenssen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Grain legumes can thrive in adverse environments, making them a climate-smart technology for hunger mitigation. Although several countries rely immensely on grain legumes to meet daily protein intake requirements per capita, the potentiality of leaf utilization for protein and other nutrients has not been widely considered; additionally, insufficient information is available on leaf removal effects on yield and leaf nutritional composition of grain legumes. A 2-yr experiment was conducted in central Iowa, USA, to determine the effects of leaf removal rates on nutritive value of removed leaf tissue and subsequent grain yield of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], lablab [Lablab ...


Organization Of A Community Garden Program Through Utah State University Food $Ense And Master Gardener Extension Programs For Low-Income Families In Logan, Utah, Jackie Hendrickson 2019 Utah State University

Organization Of A Community Garden Program Through Utah State University Food $Ense And Master Gardener Extension Programs For Low-Income Families In Logan, Utah, Jackie Hendrickson

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Nearly 12.3% of American households are food insecure. In Cache County, Utah, specifically, the rates of food insecurity are even higher (15%). Addressing the issue of food insecurity improves physical/mental health outcomes, childhood cognitive/physical development, family environments, and decreases healthcare costs. Evidence-based strategies to improve food security include increasing one’s access to fresh fruits and vegetables and improving self-efficacy. Community gardens are recognized as an initiative that improve participant’s levels of food security. In Utah, a number of community gardens exist, but none focus on food insecure individuals or include a curriculum of basic gardening ...


Increasing Low-Income Residents’ Access To Fresh Produce Through A Local Mobile Pantry, Laura Wasson 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Increasing Low-Income Residents’ Access To Fresh Produce Through A Local Mobile Pantry, Laura Wasson

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Seeds that Feed (STF) is a mobile food pantry located in Fayetteville, Arkansas. STF receives produce from local farmers to distribute to residents in low-income housing sites throughout Northwest Arkansas. According to Feeding America, food insecurity affected 14.3% Washington County, Arkansas’ population in 2016. The purpose of this study was to determine if STF’s model is an effective way to increase individuals’ access to fresh fruits and vegetables and increase their potential to meet the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Patterns (USDA-FP) for to fruit and vegetable consumption. Twenty-three participants from three sites completed the study ...


Effects Of Mid-Gestation Nutrient Restriction On Carcass Measurements And Meat Quality Of Resultant Offspring, Shelby M. Quarnberg 2019 Utah State University

Effects Of Mid-Gestation Nutrient Restriction On Carcass Measurements And Meat Quality Of Resultant Offspring, Shelby M. Quarnberg

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to investigate feedlot performance and meat quality of calves born to cows that underwent a nutrient restriction during the second trimester of gestation which may be occurring in the Intermountain West. Thirty-four angus influenced calves from the same sire were used for this study. The calves were born from cows that were separated into either a maintenance group, and kept on an irrigated pasture, or a restricted group, that was placed on an unirrigated pasture and allowed to lose one body condition score during the second trimester of pregnancy. This study begins with the ...


Effects Of An Educational Intervention On Nutrition And Healthy Eating Habits In Minority Group Parents And Children Living In Arkansas, Peri Clay 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of An Educational Intervention On Nutrition And Healthy Eating Habits In Minority Group Parents And Children Living In Arkansas, Peri Clay

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: The Hispanic population is the largest growing minority ethnic group in the United States today. Minority groups have an added struggle with obesity and have higher rates of obesity in this country than the caucasian counterparts. While minority group parents want more for their children they face many cultural and language barriers related to proper nutrition and hydration. This prevents these families from gaining adequate nutrition.

Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the impact of nutrition education on obesity rates through implementation of a year long educational intervention for minority group mothers and their children through and already established ...


The Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) On Brown Adipogenesis In Stem Cell Culture, Darynne Dahlem 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha) On Brown Adipogenesis In Stem Cell Culture, Darynne Dahlem

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are major maternal dietary supplements due to their positive benefits on neurological tissue growth during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Previous studies show that EPA and DHA inhibit muscle formation but promote adipogenesis. However, no research has addressed the question whether high intake of EPA and DHA affects brown fat development during gestation. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of EPA and DHA supplement on brown adipogenesis and potential pathways related to mitochondrial biosynthesis using fibroblasts as in vitro model. Using Oil-Red-O staining ...


Assessment Of Factors That Impact Hydration Status Of Professional And Collegiate Mascots, Caroline Atwell 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Assessment Of Factors That Impact Hydration Status Of Professional And Collegiate Mascots, Caroline Atwell

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mascots have unique physical demands and nutrition needs. They exert themselves tremendously on a variety of game days and at practices throughout the week. Hydration is as significant for mascots as it is for any other athlete, yet there is little to no known research available to help this population achieve a good hydration status. Studying similar populations such as cheerleaders, band members, football players, and firefighters provided a better understanding of mascot hydration. The purpose of this study was to examine the level of hydration knowledge in mascots performing at the collegiate and professional levels and determine the different ...


Food Acquisition Strategies Within Theresienstadt Ghetto: An Analysis Of Oral Testimonies, Jaime L. Marquis 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Food Acquisition Strategies Within Theresienstadt Ghetto: An Analysis Of Oral Testimonies, Jaime L. Marquis

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Selective Harvest Methods And Chemical Treatment Of Baled Corn Residue For Utilization In Growing Calf And Dry Cow Diets, Ashley C. Conway 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Selective Harvest Methods And Chemical Treatment Of Baled Corn Residue For Utilization In Growing Calf And Dry Cow Diets, Ashley C. Conway

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Three studies were conducted to evaluate baled corn residue using selective harvest method and anhydrous ammonia treatments to assess utility in growing calf and dry cow diets. Baled corn residue was harvested using conventional rake-and-bale (CONV) method, or harvested using the New Holland Cornrower in which either eight rows (8ROW), or two rows (2ROW) of corn stalks were chopped into the windrow with tailings. Bales were either not treated or ammoniated at 5.5% DM. When fed to wether lambs in a mixed ration (65% residue, 30% wet corn gluten feed) to determine digestibility, the 2ROW residue had greater apparent ...


Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Childhood obesity, especially in ethnic minority populations, is a growing problem with no signs of improvement over the past decade. The Latino population is one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Unfortunately, they have experienced substantial health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantages that contribute to the high rates of obesity in their youth. Decreasing obesity rates would not only have many health advantages, but also financial benefits as well. It would reduce the risk of co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease and depression. Healthy children are more likely to grow into healthy adults, ultimately lowering the cost ...


The Effect Of Grind Size And Brew Time Upon Antioxidant Potential, Sensory Profile, And Consumer Likability Of Cold Brew Coffee, Angela Morresi 2019 Montclair State University

The Effect Of Grind Size And Brew Time Upon Antioxidant Potential, Sensory Profile, And Consumer Likability Of Cold Brew Coffee, Angela Morresi

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Cold brew coffee has grown in popularity among the recent years. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of grind size and extraction time on the antioxidant potential, sensory profile, and consumer likability of cold brew coffee. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 138 adults participated in randomized sample consumer assessment of the likeability of 18 different cold brew coffee samples based on appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall. The samples were made with 2 different types of beans, 3 different grind sizes (0.65mm, 1.15mm, and 1.65mm), and 3 different brewing ...


Influence Of Change In Ph On Whey Expulsion From Cheddar Cheese Curds Made From Recombined Concentrated Milk, Kanak Bulbul 2019 Utah State University

Influence Of Change In Ph On Whey Expulsion From Cheddar Cheese Curds Made From Recombined Concentrated Milk, Kanak Bulbul

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Western Dairy Center at Utah State University funded this project to investigate cheese research using concentrated milks. Concentrated milk was provided by the South Dakota State University and starter culture for this study was prepared and donated by Vivolac Cultures Corporation, Greenfield, Indiana.

The project initiated as a continuation of a previous study on effects of protein concentration, coagulum cut size and set temperature on curd moisture loss kinetics while stirring during cheesemaking. It was aimed at determining the extent to which pH drop prior to draining and final cheese moisture when using microfiltered concentrated milk.

We performed twelve ...


Exploring The Structure-Activity Relationship Of Various Seh Inhibitors In Promoting Brown Adipogenesis, Sue Lim Choi 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Exploring The Structure-Activity Relationship Of Various Seh Inhibitors In Promoting Brown Adipogenesis, Sue Lim Choi

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Background: Brown adipose tissue has emerged as a novel target for obesity prevention and treatment due to its responsibility for heat production. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme that degrades epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs) (lipid signaling molecules) into inactive diols. Potent sEH inhibitors (sEHIs) are beneficial for many chronic diseases as they stabilize endogenous EpFAs by blocking the degradation. Our preliminary results have shown that trans-4- [4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), a potent sEH inhibitor, dose-dependently promotes brown adipogenesis.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the structure and activity relationship of various sEHIs with ...


Food Insecurity Awareness, Acknowledgment, And Actions On A University Campus, Heather Adams 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Food Insecurity Awareness, Acknowledgment, And Actions On A University Campus, Heather Adams

Undergraduate Research Conference

The purpose of this pilot study was to understand student awareness of food insecurities. Subjects for the study were students enrolled in a Foundations in Human Sciences course at a university located in East Texas (n=55). Students were asked to complete an online survey concerning knowledge of food insecurities, impacts of budgeting on food buying, previous personal food insecurity, skipped or had less nutritious meals due to the cost, and the food pantry on campus.


Nutrient And Food Group Intakes Of Low-Income Pregnant Women By Race/Ethnicity, Alla M. Hill, Danielle L. Nunnery PhD, RDN, LDN, Alice Ammerman DrPH, Jigna M. Dharod PhD 2019 The University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Nutrient And Food Group Intakes Of Low-Income Pregnant Women By Race/Ethnicity, Alla M. Hill, Danielle L. Nunnery Phd, Rdn, Ldn, Alice Ammerman Drph, Jigna M. Dharod Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

In an exploratory study, a convenience sample of 148 pregnant women was recruited from a WIC clinic in the southeast region of the U.S. to: 1) Examine and compare daily nutrient and food group intakes of WIC pregnant women to national guidelines, and; 2) Determine racial/ethnic differences in nutrient and food group intakes among WIC pregnant women. Women were selected for the study if they were: ≥ 18 y, in 2nd trimester of pregnancy, and if they spoke English or Spanish as a first language. Upon recruitment, participants were interviewed to collect information on their socio-demographics, including race ...


Perceptions Of Heart-Healthy Behaviors Among African American Adults: A Mixed Methods Study, Cheryl Der Ananian, Donna M. Winham, Sharon V. Thompson, Megan E. Tisue 2019 Arizona State University

Perceptions Of Heart-Healthy Behaviors Among African American Adults: A Mixed Methods Study, Cheryl Der Ananian, Donna M. Winham, Sharon V. Thompson, Megan E. Tisue

Donna Winham

African Americans have a disproportionately higher risk of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, and hypertension than other ethnic or racial groups. Data regarding CVD-related perceptions and beliefs among African Americans are limited, particularly in the Southwest US. Assessment of current views regarding health and health behaviors is needed to tailor interventions to meet the unique needs of specific populations. We sought to examine knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of African Americans living in Arizona toward CVD and etiological factors associated with health behaviors and chronic disease development to inform state health agency program development. Transcripts from ...


Compensation For Adding Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (Ssbs) To The Diet In Healthy College-Aged Participants, Gina Reyes 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Compensation For Adding Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (Ssbs) To The Diet In Healthy College-Aged Participants, Gina Reyes

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Compensation for Adding Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSBs) to the Diet in Healthy College-aged Participants

Gina Reyes, Olivet Martinez, Trevor Steele, Sara Rosenkranz

Department of Food, Nutrition, Dietetics & Health

College of Human Ecology

Background:Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and other obesity-related diseases. Research evidence has been inconsistent with regard to the effects of increased SSB consumption on metabolic risk factors, potentially due to compensatory dietary-intake behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to determine whether participants compensated for the addition of two servings of SSBs per day ...


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