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Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. McCarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil 2019 Iowa State University

Viscoelastic Properties Of Shock Wave Exposed Brain Tissue Subjected To Unconfined Compression Experiments, Annastacia K. Mccarty, Ling Zhang, Sarah Hansen, William J. Jackson, Sarah A. Bentil

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) affect millions of people each year. While research has been dedicated to determining the mechanical properties of the uninjured brain, there has been a lack of investigation on the mechanical properties of the brain after experiencing a primary blast-induced TBI. In this paper, whole porcine brains were exposed to a shock wave to simulate blast-induced TBI. First, ten (10) brains were subjected to unconfined compression experiments immediately following shock wave exposure. In addition, 22 brains exposed to a shock wave were placed in saline solution and refrigerated between 30 minutes and 6.0 hours before undergoing ...


A Multi-Approach Investigation To Evaluate Compounds That Mitigate Neuroinflammation., Gabriella Hernandez-Tyler 2019 Georgia Gwinnett College

A Multi-Approach Investigation To Evaluate Compounds That Mitigate Neuroinflammation., Gabriella Hernandez-Tyler

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which affects the basal ganglia and the activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain. This interruption of dopamine appears to provide an explanation as to the loss of motor function by those who have Parkinson’s disease (PD). 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a prodrug to MPP+, a known neurotoxin which induces Parkinsonian symptoms to those exposed to it. The goal of this study was to: 1) to investigate the potential for nicotine and velvet bean extract to protect against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and 2) to establish a zebrafish (Danio rerio ...


Meox2 Haploinsufficiency Increases Neuronal Cell Loss In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Ileana Soto Reyes, Weronika A. Grabowska, Kristen D. Onos, Leah C. Graham, Harriet M. Jackson, Stephen N. Simeone, Gareth R. Howell 2019 Rowan University

Meox2 Haploinsufficiency Increases Neuronal Cell Loss In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Ileana Soto Reyes, Weronika A. Grabowska, Kristen D. Onos, Leah C. Graham, Harriet M. Jackson, Stephen N. Simeone, Gareth R. Howell

Ileana Soto Reyes

Evidence suggests that multiple genetic and environmental factors conspire together to increase susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid cascade hypothesis states that deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is central to AD; however, evidence in humans and animals suggests that Aβ buildup alone is not sufficient to cause neuronal cell loss and cognitive decline. Mouse models that express high levels of mutant forms of amyloid precursor protein and/or cleaving enzymes deposit amyloid but do not show neuron loss. Therefore, a double-hit hypothesis for AD has been proposed whereby vascular dysfunction precedes and promotes Aβ toxicity. In support ...


Deficiency Of Complement Component 5 Ameliorates Glaucoma In Dba/2j Mice, Gareth R. Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes, Margaret Ryan, Leah C. Graham, Richard S. Smith, Simon W.M. John 2019 Rowan University

Deficiency Of Complement Component 5 Ameliorates Glaucoma In Dba/2j Mice, Gareth R. Howell, Ileana Soto Reyes, Margaret Ryan, Leah C. Graham, Richard S. Smith, Simon W.M. John

Ileana Soto Reyes

Background Glaucoma is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in blindness. Studies in animal models have shown that activation of inflammatory processes occurs early in the disease. In particular, the complement cascade is activated very early in DBA/2J mice, a widely used mouse model of glaucoma. A comprehensive analysis of the role of the complement cascade in DBA/2J glaucoma has not been possible because DBA/2J mice are naturally deficient in complement component 5 (C5, also known as hemolytic complement, Hc), a key mediator of the downstream processes of the ...


Chronic Consumption Of A Western Diet Induces Robust Glial Activation In Aging Mice And In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Leah C. Graham, Jeffrey M. Harder, Ileana Soto Reyes, Wilhelmine N. de Vries, Simon W. M. John, Gareth R. Howell 2019 Rowan University

Chronic Consumption Of A Western Diet Induces Robust Glial Activation In Aging Mice And In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Leah C. Graham, Jeffrey M. Harder, Ileana Soto Reyes, Wilhelmine N. De Vries, Simon W. M. John, Gareth R. Howell

Ileana Soto Reyes

Studies have assessed individual components of a western diet, but no study has assessed the long-term, cumulative effects of a western diet on aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, we have formulated the first western-style diet that mimics the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of western diets. This diet was fed to aging C57BL/6J (B6) mice to identify phenotypes that may increase susceptibility to AD, and to APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of AD, to determine the effects of the diet in AD. Astrocytosis and microglia/monocyte activation were dramatically increased in response to diet ...


Dba/2j Mice Are Susceptible To Diabetic Nephropathy And Diabetic Exacerbation Of Iop Elevation, Ileana Soto Reyes, Gareth R. Howell, Cai W. John, Joseph L. Kief, Richard T. Libby, Simon W.M. John 2019 Rowan University

Dba/2j Mice Are Susceptible To Diabetic Nephropathy And Diabetic Exacerbation Of Iop Elevation, Ileana Soto Reyes, Gareth R. Howell, Cai W. John, Joseph L. Kief, Richard T. Libby, Simon W.M. John

Ileana Soto Reyes

Some pathological manifestations of diabetes in the eye include retinopathy, cataracts and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in non-proliferative stages of diabetic retinopathy and small increases in IOP in diabetic patients has raised the possibility that diabetes affects the development and progression of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. The Ins2Akita mutation is known to cause diabetes and retinopathy on a C57BL/6J (B6) background by as early as 3 months of age. Here, the impact of the Akita mutation on glaucoma was assessed using DBA/2J (D2) mice, a widely used mouse model of ocular hypertension ...


Apoe Stabilization By Exercise Prevents Aging Neurovascular Dysfunction And Complement Induction, Ileana Soto Reyes, Leah C. Graham, Hannah J. Richter, Stephen N. Simeone, Jake E. Radell, Weronika Grabowska, W. Keith Funkhouser, Megan C. Howell, Gareth R. Howell 2019 Rowan University

Apoe Stabilization By Exercise Prevents Aging Neurovascular Dysfunction And Complement Induction, Ileana Soto Reyes, Leah C. Graham, Hannah J. Richter, Stephen N. Simeone, Jake E. Radell, Weronika Grabowska, W. Keith Funkhouser, Megan C. Howell, Gareth R. Howell

Ileana Soto Reyes

Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, but little is known about the processes that lead to age-related decline of brain structures and function. Here we use RNA-seq in combination with high resolution histological analyses to show that aging leads to a significant deterioration of neurovascular structures including basement membrane reduction, pericyte loss, and astrocyte dysfunction. Neurovascular decline was sufficient to cause vascular leakage and correlated strongly with an increase in neuroinflammation including up-regulation of complement component C1QA in microglia/monocytes. Importantly, long-term aerobic exercise from midlife to old age prevented this age-related ...


Network Structure And Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Deena R. Schmidt 2019 University of Nevada, Reno

Network Structure And Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Deena R. Schmidt

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Analog Implementation Of The Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neuron, Zachary D. Mobille, George H. Rutherford, Jordan Brandt-Trainer, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa 2019 Illinois State University

Analog Implementation Of The Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neuron, Zachary D. Mobille, George H. Rutherford, Jordan Brandt-Trainer, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank 2019 University of Pennsylvania

The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In the last two decades, formalized social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in schools have proliferated in response to a staggering increase in mental, social, and emotional challenges for youth. SEL programs differ in their theoretical foundations, though there are commonalities among them. Self-regulation (SR) surfaces as an important pillar. Researchers have relied mostly on self-reporting and teacher questionnaires to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve SR and other aspects of youth well-being, without explicitly considering the physiological effects of these interventions on the biomarkers of youth. By addressing this gap, program researchers, developers, and educators can reach their stated ...


Micrornas Are Necessary For Bmp-7-Induced Dendritic Growth In Cultured Rat Sympathetic Neurons, Vidya Chandrasekaran 2019 Saint Mary's College of California

Micrornas Are Necessary For Bmp-7-Induced Dendritic Growth In Cultured Rat Sympathetic Neurons, Vidya Chandrasekaran

Vidya Chandrasekaran

Neuronal connectivity is dependent on size and shape of the dendritic arbor. However, mechanisms controlling dendritic arborization, especially in the peripheral nervous system, are not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important initiators of dendritic growth in peripheral neurons. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that post-transcriptional regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is necessary for BMP-7-induced dendritic growth in these neurons. To examine the role of miRNAs in BMP-7-induced dendritic growth, microarray analyses was used to profile miRNA expression in cultured sympathetic neurons from the superior cervical ganglia of embryonic day 21 rat ...


Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown 2019 University of Liverpool

Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Recent empirical studies have reported evidence that many aquatic species, including fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, have the capacity for nociception and pain, and that their welfare should be taken into consideration. Some sceptics, rejecting the precautionary principle, have denied that any study demonstrates pain or other aspects of sentience in fish. This target article discusses some of the scientific shortcomings of these critiques through a detailed analysis of a study exploring nociception and analgesia in larval zebrafish.


Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown 2019 University of Liverpool

Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The majority of commentaries are supportive of our position on the scepticism that muddies the waters surrounding fish pain and sentience. There is substantial empirical evidence for pain in fish. Animals’ experience of pain cannot be compared to artificial intelligence (AI) because AI can only mimic responses to nociceptive input on the basis of human observations and programming. Accepting that fish are sentient would not be detrimental to the industries reliant on fish. A more proactive discussion between scientists and stakeholders is needed to improve fish welfare for the benefit of all.


Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach 2019 University of Liverpool

Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Key (2016) affirms that we do not know how the fish brain processes pain but denies — because fish lack a human-like cortex — that fish can feel pain. He affirms that birds, like fish, have a singly-laminated cortex and that the structure of the bird brain is quite different from that of the human brain, yet he does not deny that birds can feel pain. In this commentary we describe how Key cites studies that substantiate mammalian pain but discounts the same kind of data as evidence of fish pain. We suggest that Key's interpretations are illogical, do not reflect ...


Mutations In The Sptlc1 Gene Are A Cause Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis That May Be Amenable To Serine Supplementation, Janel O. Johnson, Ruth Chia, Robert H. Brown Jr., John E. Landers 2019 National Institutes of Health

Mutations In The Sptlc1 Gene Are A Cause Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis That May Be Amenable To Serine Supplementation, Janel O. Johnson, Ruth Chia, Robert H. Brown Jr., John E. Landers

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

SPTLC1 encodes a critical subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, the enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, and mutations in this gene are known to cause hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A. Using exome sequencing, we identified a de novo variant in SPTLC1 resulting in a p.Ala20Ser amino acid change in an individual diagnosed with juvenile-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and confirmed its pathogenicity by showing elevated plasma levels of neurotoxic deoxymethyl-sphinganine. A second case of juvenile-onset ALS arising again from a p.Ala20Ser mutation was later identified, confirming the association of SPTLC1 with this ...


Neural Jnk3 Regulates Blood Flow Recovery After Hindlimb Ischemia In Mice Via An Egr1/Creb1 Axis, Shashi Kant, Siobhan M. Craige, Kai Chen, Michaella M. Reif, Heather Learnard, Mark Kelly, Amada D. Caliz, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Kasmir Ramo, Owen M. Peters, Marc R. Freeman, Roger J. Davis, John F. Keaney Jr. 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Neural Jnk3 Regulates Blood Flow Recovery After Hindlimb Ischemia In Mice Via An Egr1/Creb1 Axis, Shashi Kant, Siobhan M. Craige, Kai Chen, Michaella M. Reif, Heather Learnard, Mark Kelly, Amada D. Caliz, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Kasmir Ramo, Owen M. Peters, Marc R. Freeman, Roger J. Davis, John F. Keaney Jr.

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Diseases related to impaired blood flow such as peripheral artery disease (PAD) impact nearly 10 million people in the United States alone, yet patients with clinical manifestations of PAD (e.g., claudication and limb ischemia) have limited treatment options. In ischemic tissues, stress kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), are activated. Here, we show that inhibition of the JNK3 (Mapk10) in the neural compartment strikingly potentiates blood flow recovery from mouse hindlimb ischemia. JNK3 deficiency leads to upregulation of growth factors such as Vegfa, Pdgfb, Pgf, Hbegf and Tgfb3 in ischemic muscle by activation of the transcription factors Egr1 ...


Raising Consciousness About Chicken Consciousness, Bernard Rollin 2019 Selected Works

Raising Consciousness About Chicken Consciousness, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

The topics explored by Marino are definitive, and should work well to lay to rest forever the widespread belief that chickens have no personality, are unintelligent, or in any other way lack a mental life.


Far More To Sheep Than Meets The Casual Eye, Bernard Rollin 2019 Colorado State University

Far More To Sheep Than Meets The Casual Eye, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Marino & Merskin’s survey of the cognitive and social capacities of sheep is an eye-opener about the individuality and emotionality of this most maligned of all farm animals. My own eyes had already been opened by an adopted orphaned lamb, so much more like a dog as a companion animal than the mindless robot I had been conditioned to expect. I am morally certain that Marino & Merskin’s survey will have a similar effect on readers open to changing their minds.


Raising The Moral Consciousness Of Science, Bernard Rollin 2019 Selected Works

Raising The Moral Consciousness Of Science, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Precaution on behalf of sentient animals should not be tempered by the questionable principle of the amorality of science.


Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin 2019 Selected Works

Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Both Descartes the rationalist and Hume the empiricist, polar opposites philosophically, denied the unity and continuity of animal mind. Kant pointed out that the presence of retrievable memories entails unity of consciousness. Rowlands now argues that animals too have unity of consciousness.


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